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What Causes Type 1 Diabetes? Lessons From Animal Models

What causes type 1 diabetes? Lessons from animal models

What causes type 1 diabetes? Lessons from animal models


What causes type 1 diabetes? Lessons from animal models
From Bartholin Instituttet, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen and Department of Veterinary Disease Biology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark
Karsten Buschard, MD, Bartholin Instituttet, Rigshospitalet, Blegdamsvej 9, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark. e-mail: [email protected]
Re-use of this article is permitted in accordance with the Terms and Conditions set out at http://wileyonlinelibrary.com/onlineopen#OnlineOpen_Terms
Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer
Re-use of this article is permitted in accordance with the Creative Commons Deed, Attribution 2.5, which does not permit commercial exploitation.
To study type 1 diabetes (T1D), excellent animal models exist, both spontaneously diabetic and virus-induced. Based on knowledge from these, this review focuses on the environmental factors leading to T1D, concentrated into four areas which are: (1) The thymus-dependent immune system: T1D is a T cell driven disease and the beta cells are destroyed in an inflammatory insulitis process. Autoimmunity is breakdown of self-tolerance and the balance between regulator T cells and aggressive effector T cells is disturbed. Inhibition of the T cells (by e.g. anti-CD3 antibody or cyclosporine) will stop the T1D process, even if initiated by virus. Theoretically, the risk from immunotherapy elicits a higher frequency of malignancy. (2) The activity of the beta cells: Resting beta cells display less antigenicity and are less sensitive to immune destruction. Beta-cell Continue reading

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Diabetes Free By Dr. David Pearson Review

Diabetes Free By Dr. David Pearson Review


Diabetes Free By Dr. David Pearson Review
About 27 million people in U.S. suffer from diabetes and this disease is observed in people from all age groups. There are several reasons behind this disease spreading so fast and one of those is obesity. Extra pounds on your body particularly in the Middle increase the chances of diabetes to occur. During this disease, your body becomes incapable of handling glucose in your blood.
Since this fatal disease is known to have no cure and people have been using prescription drugs to control diabetes. Dr. David Pearson who himself was a victim of this disease discovered an incredible cure for reversing the signs of diabetes. He created a program which he named Diabetes Free in which he mentions how certain changes can be made in your lifestyle and eating habits to reverse the signs of diabetes in just two weeks. Let us have a look in this article that what is Diabetes Free program about and how does it work.
Type-I and Type-II diabetes can be seen in men and women of all age groups. The symptoms of diabetes include fatigue, frequent urination, hunger pangs in excess, excessive thirst, numbness, joint pain, inflammation, blurry vision and etc. Type-I and Type-II diabetes have slightly different symptoms as in Type-I diabetes no matter how much your food intake is, you will still face excessive weight loss. Type-II diabetes has even more serious health conditions.
Diabetes Free claims to treat Type-I and Type-II diabetes using special shakes in just two weeks. This program highlights the
roots causes of diabetes and suggests shakes Continue reading

Effects of resveratrol on glucose control and insulin sensitivity in subjects with type 2 diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis

Effects of resveratrol on glucose control and insulin sensitivity in subjects with type 2 diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis


Effects of resveratrol on glucose control and insulin sensitivity in subjects with type 2 diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis
Department of Endocrinology, Affiliated ZhongDa Hospital, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing, 210009 China
Xiangyun Zhu, Email: [email protected]_yxuhz .
Received 2017 Jun 28; Accepted 2017 Sep 18.
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/ ) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
Although the regular consumption of resveratrol has been known to improve glucose homeostasis and reverse insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), the reported results are inconsistent. Thus, we aimed to assess the effects of resveratrol on glycemic control and insulin sensitivity among patients with T2DM. We searched for relevant articles published until June 2017 on PubMed-Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science. Randomized controlled trials in T2DM patients administered with resveratrol as intervention were included. After study selection, quality assessment and d Continue reading

Practical Approach to Using Trend Arrows on the Dexcom G5 CGM System for the Management of Adults With Diabetes | Journal of the Endocrine Society | Oxford Academic

Practical Approach to Using Trend Arrows on the Dexcom G5 CGM System for the Management of Adults With Diabetes | Journal of the Endocrine Society | Oxford Academic


As the accuracy of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) devices has improved and the benefits are better understood, their use has greatly increased. For patients with diabetes, CGM does more than provide additional data points; it uses trend arrow data to give context to current glucose values. With this level of insight, real-time CGM (rtCGM) has been demonstrated to improve glycemic control without increasing hypoglycemia in patients with type 1 diabetes [ 13 ] as well as in insulin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes [ 4 , 5 ].
In December 2016, the US Food and Drug Administration approved the Dexcom G5 Mobile CGM system (Dexcom G5, Dexcom, Inc., San Diego, CA) for nonadjunctive insulin dosing. Aside from the required twice daily calibrations, patients using the Dexcom G5 can now dose insulin without confirmatory fingerstick glucose monitoring in most situations, further improving usability. However, there is sparse guidance for how individuals should act on the trend arrow data.
Notably, there are four previously published methods for using trend arrow data to adjust insulin doses [ 69 ]. However, each method has various limitations in its complexity, utility, and applicability. Our approach focuses on the Dexcom G5 systemthe first Food and Drug Administration-approved system for nonadjunctive insulin dosing and the system that we have the most clinical experience using in this manner to date.
Our goal is to offer a safe, practical approach for using CGM trend arrow data to adjust insulin dosing. We based this approach on previous algorithms [ 6 , 10 , 11 ], our Continue reading

How Does Coffee Affect Blood Sugar and Diabetes?

How Does Coffee Affect Blood Sugar and Diabetes?


How Does Coffee Affect Blood Sugar and Diabetes?
03 Jan, 2018 By Peter Maultsby 0 Comments
Type 2 diabetes is a massive health problem worldwide.
About 29 million people, or 9% of all US adults, had type 2 diabetes in the year 2012.
Interestingly, long-term studies have linked coffee drinking with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes.
Yet, oddly enough, many short-term studies have shown that coffee and caffeine can raise blood sugar and insulin levels.
Why this happens is not fully known, but there are several theories.
This article examines the short-term and long-term effects of coffee on blood sugar and diabetes.
Coffee Drinkers Have a Lower Risk of Type 2 Diabetes
The health benefits of drinking coffee are well-documented.
In observational studies, coffee is linked to reduced blood sugar and insulin levels, which are major risk factors for type 2 diabetes.
Furthermore, consuming regular or decaf coffee on a regular basis is linked to a 2350% lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
Studies have also shown that each daily cup of coffee you consume may reduce this risk by 48%.
Additionally, people who drink 46 cups of coffee each day have a lower risk of type 2 diabetes than people who drink less than 2 cups each day.
BOTTOM LINE:Regular coffee drinking has been linked to a 2350% lower risk of type 2 diabetes. Each daily cup is linked to a 4-8% lower risk.
Coffee and Caffeine May Raise Blood Sugar
A major paradox exists between the long-term and short-term effects of coffee.
Short-term studies have linked caffeine and coffee consumption with increased bl Continue reading

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