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Type 1 & Type 2 Diabetes: Causes, Signs, Symptoms & Prevention

Type 1 & Type 2 Diabetes: Causes, Signs, Symptoms & Prevention

Type 1 & Type 2 Diabetes: Causes, Signs, Symptoms & Prevention

Diabetes is a disease in which your blood glucose or blood sugar levels are so high that your body can't use it. Normally, the pancreas release insulin to help your body store and use sugar and fat from the food we eat. Diabetes occurs when the pancreas produce no insulin or very little insulin, or when the body does not respond appropriately to insulin. Diabetes is a metabolism disorder that cannot be cured as it is a life-long condition. It is entirely dependent on the way our body uses digested food for growth and energy. It is a long-term condition in which along with blood sugar levels, blood pressure and cholesterol levels should be monitored regularly, as those with diabetes are at a higher risk of developing cardiovascular problems.
Three types of Diabetes: Type 1 and Type 2
Type 1: This is a situation where the pancreas does not produce any insulin.
Type 2: The most common type, now found both in adults and children, this is the kind where the pancreas does not produce enough insulin for the body. Type 2 Diabetes can be controlled with a healthy and active lifestyle - by managing your weight, eating nutritious food and exercising regularly.
Some common symptoms of diabetes are hunger pangs, fatigue, frequent urination, weight gain and itchy skin. If diabetes is not managed, it can lead to eye complications like glaucoma and cataracts, hypertension, gum diseases, erectile dysfunction in males, infections and also wounds that take longer to heal.
While these are the most common causes, there are two main factors that lead to diabetes. One is when pancreas produces in Continue reading

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Diabetes Testing: Type 2 Diabetes

Diabetes Testing: Type 2 Diabetes

The who, what, where, and why of diabetes testing
Everyone knows that Type 2 diabetes is a serious, long-term health condition that impairs bodily function, threatens quality of life, and can lead to other complications. And almost everyone knows that its incidence and prevalence are on the rise globally.
So why aren’t people routinely being tested for diabetes?
According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), through 2014, 21 million people had been diagnosed with diabetes in the U.S. alone. And the American Diabetes Association (ADA) reports 1.4 million Americans are diagnosed each year. These numbers are expected to increase, because
• More of the population is aging;
• More people are eating unhealthy diets; and
• Physical inactivity is on the rise.
The World Health Organization (WHO) has called diabetes a hidden global pandemic because, although it isn’t infectious or communicable, the number of people diagnosed with the condition is growing annually. It can lead to blindness, limb amputation, cardiovascular disease, and stroke. It overburdens health-care systems and reduces quality of life for patients and their families.
Given the increasing diagnoses, and the growing awareness of Type 2, it is imperative everyone knows the risk factors and the who, what, where, and why of getting tested for diabetes. By learning how you can help friends and loved ones determine their risk of diabetes, you could save a life.
Who is at risk?
Common risk factors for developing Type 2 diabetes include
• Being over age 40;
• Having obesity or excess weight;
• Having a Continue reading

Do I Have Diabetes?

Do I Have Diabetes?

More than 29 million people in the U.S. have diabetes, and about 8 million of them don’t know they have it. So now is as good a time as any to find out if you (or a loved one) might have Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes.
First, a couple of definitions:
• Type 1 (T1) diabetes: The body’s immune system attacks the insulin-making beta cells in the pancreas, and, as a result, the body stops making insulin. Those with Type 1 diabetes must take insulin to survive. Type 1 affects both children and adults, and accounts for between 5% and 10% of those who have diabetes.
• Type 2 (T2) diabetes: The body doesn’t use insulin efficiently (a condition called insulin resistance) and/or doesn’t make enough insulin to keep blood sugar (glucose) levels in a safe range. Type 2 diabetes can be managed with lifestyle changes, but many people need to take medication, including insulin. Type 2 accounts for 90% to 95% of diabetes cases.
Risk factors
Type 1 diabetes risk factors include:
• Family history: Having a parent or sibling with Type 1.
• Age: Anyone at any age can get Type 1, but there’s a strong prevalence in children ages 4–7 and ages 10–14.
• Race/ethnicity: Caucasians are at higher risk than African-Americans and Hispanics.
• Viral infection: Viruses including Epstein-Barr, mumps, and Coxsackie may increase the risk for Type 1.
• Geography: People living in northern climates have a higher risk for getting Type 1.
• Autoimmune conditions: Other autoimmune conditions, such as thyroid disease, celiac disease, and pernicious anemia, are associated with an increased r Continue reading

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Review of Current Trends

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Review of Current Trends

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Introduction
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is probably one of the oldest diseases known to man. It was first reported in Egyptian manuscript about 3000 years ago.1 In 1936, the distinction between type 1 and type 2 DM was clearly made.2 Type 2 DM was first described as a component of metabolic syndrome in 1988.3 Type 2 DM (formerly known as non-insulin dependent DM) is the most common form of DM characterized by hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and relative insulin deficiency.4 Type 2 DM results from interaction between genetic, environmental and behavioral risk factors.5,6
People living with type 2 DM are more vulnerable to various forms of both short- and long-term complications, which often lead to their premature death. This tendency of increased morbidity and mortality is seen in patients with type 2 DM because of the commonness of this type of DM, its insidious onset and late recognition, especially in resource-poor developing countries like Africa.7
Epidemiology
It is estimated that 366 million people had DM in 2011; by 2030 this would have risen to 552 million.8 The number of people with type 2 DM is increasing in every country with 80% of people with DM living in low- and middle-income countries. DM caused 4.6 million deaths in 2011.8 It is estimated that 439 million people would have type 2 DM by the year 2030.9 The incidence of type 2 DM varies substantially from one geographical region to the other as a result of environmental and lifestyle risk factors.10
Literature search has shown that there are few data available on the prevalence of type 2 DM in Africa as Continue reading

Signs and Symptoms – Type 1 Diabetes

Signs and Symptoms – Type 1 Diabetes

Up to 5 Irish children and teenagers are diagnosed each week with Type 1 diabetes.
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition affecting 1 in 500 children with onset over days or weeks. The condition tends to occur in childhood or early adult life and will require daily insulin therapy. It is caused by the body’s own immune system destroying the insulin-making cells (beta-cells) of the pancreas.
Diagnosis
A simple finger prick test by a GP can lead to early diagnosis and avoid the risk of developing DKA.
Early diagnosis is vital to ensure that Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) does not develop. DKA is a potentially life threatening condition that requires urgent medical attention.
In 2014, 1 in 6 children diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes were admitted to hospital with DKA, as a result of late diagnosis.
Signs and Symptoms
Knowing the symptoms of Type 1 diabetes is vital. Up to five children and teenagers are diagnosed each week with Type 1 diabetes in Ireland with 10% having a late diagnosis resulting in critical illness.
The four main symptoms of Type 1 diabetes are easy to remember:
Thirst: Excess drinking, unable to quench thirst.
Toilet: Frequent urination, particularly at night.
Tiredness: Lack of energy, sleeping more than usual.
Weight loss: Rapid weight loss over a short period.
If these symptoms present themselves, immediate attention is needed. A simple blood glucose (finger prick) test by your GP can check for Type 1 diabetes.
Less common symptoms:
Lack of concentration
Vomiting and abdominal pain
Constipation
Bedwetting
Mood swings
Frequent infections
Itchy skin infect Continue reading

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