Transmission Of Diabetes Prion-Like Aggregates Triggers Disease Symptoms

Transmission of Diabetes Prion-Like Aggregates Triggers Disease Symptoms

Transmission of Diabetes Prion-Like Aggregates Triggers Disease Symptoms

Protein misfolding disorders (PMDs) such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), are characterized by the accumulation of misfolded protein aggregates in tissues including the brain. A few rare PMDs, such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, or mad cow disease), and Creutzfeldt-Jacob Disease (CJD), can even be transmitted between humans or from animals to humans. In these cases, exposure to the causative misfolded protein aggregates, known as prions, triggers the transformation of normal proteins into the abnormal form. Effectively, prions "seed" the development of misfolded protein aggregation in the brain of the recipient, and this leads to the accumulation of toxic substances that destroy neurons.
Protein aggregation isn’t limited to the widely recognized PMDs, however. About 90% of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) develop pancreatic islet deposits of the peptide hormone islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP). These misfolded protein aggregates start accumulating many years before the clinical diagnosis of T2D, explain Abhisek Mukherjee, Ph.D., and Claudio Soto, Ph.D., who head a research team at McGovern Medical School at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston that studies the molecular basis of PMDs, including AD, PD, and prion diseases.
Previous post mortem and animal studies have suggested that islet IAPP aggregation is linked with key T2D features, including the loss of beta cell mass, but the how these IAPP deposits cause disease development or progression isn’t yet understood. One Continue reading

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Whole Body Vibration Could Be As Effective As Exercise in Treating Type 2 Diabetes

Whole Body Vibration Could Be As Effective As Exercise in Treating Type 2 Diabetes

A new study on mice suggests that whole body vibration—in which a person lies or stands on a vibrating platform to mimic the effects of exercise—might be just as beneficial in promoting weight loss, and in preventing and treating type 2 diabetes, as lacing up your running shoes and hitting the open road.
“Our study is the first to show that whole-body vibration may be just as effective as exercise at combatting some of the negative consequences of obesity and diabetes,” says Meghan E. McGee-Lawrence, Ph.D., of Augusta University, who is a lead author of the study published in the journal Endocrinology. “The results are surprising and encouraging.”
The results came from a study on two types of mice and three intervention groups, with six to 10 mice in each group, McGee-Lawrence says. One type of mice was normal and another was obese, with type 2 diabetes. Those two types were split into groups with one running daily on a treadmill for 45 minutes and another undergoing whole body vibration, or WBV. (a third group was a control group that were sedentary, and did not undergo WBV or the treadmill.)
After 12 weeks researchers discovered that mice who underwent WBV and those who spent time on the treadmill enjoyed similar metabolic benefits.
“Both groups had increased insulin sensitivity and the obese mice who did WBV gained less weight than obese mice who did nothing,” McGee-Lawrence says. “Another benefit was that those mice who underwent WBV, and exercised on the treadmill, also showed increased markers for bone formation and improved muscle size.”
While thi Continue reading

Baptist camp helps kids fight diabetes

Baptist camp helps kids fight diabetes

Camp Day2Day is a free camp for youth diagnosed with diabetes or prediabetes sponsored by Baptist Memorial Health Care and the American Diabetes Association. Jim Weber/The Commercial Appeal
Like any kid at summer camp, Russell Johnson enjoys the usual offerings of swimming, badminton and touch football, but what will stick with the 12-year-old most from the event he's attending this week is a lesson about how to shop at the supermarket.
"Don't get junk," says the Germantown Middle School student.
Russell was among 32 kids registered for Camp Day2Day, an event for youngsters diagnosed with diabetes or prediabetes, along with those considered at-risk for the disease because of family history and other factors. It's put on free of charge at The Kroc Center Memphis by Baptist Memorial Health Care and the American Diabetes Association.
The camp's attendance is up 45 percent from the 22 on hand last year, a reflection, perhaps, of the growing awareness of the perils of diabetes and its grip on the Memphis area.
The city lies within a "diabetes belt" -- a region covering 644 counties in 15 states -- identified by the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. It's an area where at least 11 percent of the adult population has been diagnosed with diabetes, an incurable disease characterized by an excess of glucose in the blood, which can lead to nerve damage, blindness, kidney disease, heart trouble and death.
In Shelby County, more than 82,000 residents had been diagnosed with diabetes in 2013, the most recent year for which figures are available, and some 250 people die f Continue reading

DNA methylation links genetics, fetal environment, and an unhealthy lifestyle to the development of type 2 diabetes

DNA methylation links genetics, fetal environment, and an unhealthy lifestyle to the development of type 2 diabetes

DNA methylation links genetics, fetal environment, and an unhealthy lifestyle to the development of type 2 diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is a complex trait with both environmental and hereditary factors contributing to the overall pathogenesis. One link between genes, environment, and disease is epigenetics influencing gene transcription and, consequently, organ function. Genome-wide studies have shown altered DNA methylation in tissues important for glucose homeostasis including pancreas, liver, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue from subjects with type 2 diabetes compared with nondiabetic controls. Factors predisposing for type 2 diabetes including an adverse intrauterine environment, increasing age, overweight, physical inactivity, a family history of the disease, and an unhealthy diet have all shown to affect the DNA methylation pattern in target tissues for insulin resistance in humans. Epigenetics including DNA methylation may therefore improve our understanding of the type 2 diabetes pathogenesis, contribute to development of novel treatments, and be a useful tool to identify individuals at risk for developing the disease.
EpigeneticsDNA methylationType 2 diabetesInsulin resistanceAgingObesityIntrauterine environmentGenetics
Type 2 diabetes is one of the most common chronic metabolic diseases in developed countries [ 1 ]. This form of diabetes is a consequence of the target tissues becoming resistant to the effects of insulin and the failure of pancreatic -cells to produce enough insulin. It is shown that type 2 diabetes develops with age, physical inactivity, and o Continue reading

Ramadan Fasting and Type 2 Diabetes

Ramadan Fasting and Type 2 Diabetes

Home / Conditions / Type 2 Diabetes / Ramadan Fasting and Type 2 Diabetes
Fasting found to lead to deterioration of glycemic control in people with type 2 diabetes.
Ramadan is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar and takes place once a year. Muslims all over the world observe this month as a month of fasting to commemorate the first revelation of the Quran to the prophet Muhammad. Fasting requires abstinence from any food, drink, and smoking from sunrise to sunset. Although patients with type 2 diabetes are exempt from fasting during Ramadan, most individuals still fast. People with type 2 diabetes who do fast increase their risk of developing hypo- and hyperglycemic episodes. This raises concerns as to whether fasting during Ramadan is safe for individuals with diabetes. This article observes studies determining whether fasting during Ramadan affects glycemic control in people with type 2.
During the holy month of Ramadan, individuals consume traditional foods that are high in carbohydrates, fats, and protein. Past studies have shown that foods consumed during Ramadan pose a risk of hyperglycemia among people with diabetes. Moreover, reports of low energy levels during Ramadan were observed among those fasting who have diabetes. In addition, repetitive dietary and sleep changes during Ramadan may induce changes in hormones, which regulate energy metabolism. In healthy adults, intermittent fasting caused an increase in insulin-mediated glucose uptake. Furthermore, studies have suggested that although Ramadan fasting does not affect glycemic control in people with di Continue reading

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