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The Pathophysiology Of Hyperglycemia In Older Adults: Clinical Considerations

The Pathophysiology of Hyperglycemia in Older Adults: Clinical Considerations

The Pathophysiology of Hyperglycemia in Older Adults: Clinical Considerations

Nearly a quarter of older adults in the U.S. have type 2 diabetes, and this population is continuing to increase with the aging of the population. Older adults are at high risk for the development of type 2 diabetes due to the combined effects of genetic, lifestyle, and aging influences. The usual defects contributing to type 2 diabetes are further complicated by the natural physiological changes associated with aging as well as the comorbidities and functional impairments that are often present in older people. This paper reviews the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes among older adults and the implications for hyperglycemia management in this population.
Diabetes is one of the leading chronic medical conditions among older adults, with high risk for vascular comorbidities such as coronary artery disease, physical and cognitive function impairment, and mortality. Despite decades of effort to prevent diabetes, diabetes remains an epidemic condition with particularly high morbidity affecting older adults. In fact, nearly 11 million people in the U.S. aged 65 years or older (more than 26% of adults aged 65 years or older) meet current American Diabetes Association criteria for diabetes (diagnosed and undiagnosed), accounting for more than 37% of the adult population with diabetes (1). At the same time, adults 65 years or older are developing diabetes at a rate nearly three-times higher than younger adults: 11.5 per 1,000 people compared with 3.6 per 1,000 people among adults aged 20–44 years old (1). However, increasing research in diabetes and aging has improved our unders Continue reading

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Type 3 Diabetes: A Starving Mind

Type 3 Diabetes: A Starving Mind

Doctors have long recognized two types of diabetes: One that you’re born with (Type 1), and another that develops later in life (Type 2).
But a growing body of research points to a new form: Type 3, often referred to as “diabetes of the brain.”
Types 1 and 2 are known for deteriorating the body. Without treatment, the disease damages blood vessels, nerves, and organs. It can also lead to blindness and even loss of limbs.
The idea behind Type 3 is that this same pattern of degeneration also invades the mind.
Over the last decade, researchers have noticed a connection between diabetes and dementia, suggesting that in many cases, the diseases may have the same root.
In their new book, “The Alzheimer’s Solution,” Drs. Dean and Ayesha Sherzai note that a breakdown in the body’s ability to regulate sugar is the common denominator.
Glucose, a simple sugar, is the body’s primary energy source. Diabetes occurs when glucose can’t enter the cells where it’s needed. Instead, sugar concentrates in the blood, and the cells starve.
Since the brain relies on glucose for energy, it may also suffer a similar fate when the body’s sugar-regulating system malfunctions.
“Glucose dysregulation at any level, over a protracted period of time, is one of the most common contributors to Alzheimer’s disease,” Sherzai said in an email.
Blood Sugar and the Brain
So far, most of the insight into the Type 3 concept comes from research on the links between Alzheimer’s and diabetes. But diabetes may also connect to other kinds of neurodegenerative diseases, says Dr. Michele Tagl Continue reading

This is what it's like to raise a child with type 1 diabetes

This is what it's like to raise a child with type 1 diabetes

Just like any little girl, Maeve Hollinger loves to jump on the trampoline, play flag football and go swimming. But unlike most other kids her age, the 7 year old recently celebrated an anniversary of a different kind: It's been about five years since she was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes.
"I went to her crib and she didn't move," Maeve's mom, Megan Hollinger, remembered about the night their lives changed. "And I shook the crib and she didn't move. She was dying before our eyes."
They rushed Maeve to the hospital, where doctors told her parents that Maeve's blood sugar was so high the meters couldn't read it.
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After confirming she had type 1 diabetes, Maeve's doctor was very matter of fact. "He was basically like, 'Get on board,'" Maeve's dad Paul told TODAY. They've been on board ever since, through the thousands of finger pricks, doctor's appointments and the highs and lows that go along with the disease.
Type 1 diabetes is often referred to as "juvenile" diabetes because it usually develops in kids and teens. It's an autoimmune diseases that occurs when a person's pancreas stops producing insulin, which controls the body's blood sugar levels and is needed to produce energy. There is no cure for type 1 diabetes, and nothing you can do to prevent it.
To manage the disease, Brave Maeve (a nickname her three brothers coined for her) wears a continuous glucose monitor (CGM) that checks her blood sugar levels every five minutes. The CGM is usually attached to her upper arm with adhesive and a copper filament that sits just under the skin. She also uses a tubeless p Continue reading

10 Diabetes Symptoms in Men Every Man Should Be Aware Of

10 Diabetes Symptoms in Men Every Man Should Be Aware Of

Tatiana Ayazo /Rd.com
You notice dark patches on your skin
Your skin is a window into the health of your insides—check out all the conditions your skin can reveal. Diabetes is no exception. The back of your neck, groin, or underarms may look “dirty,” but the dark, velvety patches in these areas are actually a symptom of insulin resistance. It’s called acanthosis nigricans (AN). “The hormones involved in insulin resistance are also thought to contribute to the skin condition,” says Margaret Eckert-Norton, RN, PhD, CDE, chair of the Endocrine Society‘s Advocacy and Public Outreach Core Committee and associate professor at St. Joseph’s College in New York City. “It’s something that tends to happen gradually over the years,” she adds. Treatment for AN involves addressing the underlying cause—in this case, regaining control over blood sugar levels. If you have diabetes and you’re looking to reverse, check out this step-by-step plan.
The tip of your penis is red and swollen
There are many warning signs that you could be developing type 2 diabetes, including erectile dysfunction. When you have uncontrolled blood sugar, however, you’re at risk for a condition called balanitis. (Blood sugar in your urine provides an ideal environment for bacteria and yeast to grow.) Symptoms include swelling of the foreskin and tip of the penis, and it may be painful or you could experience a discharge. See your doctor, who will instruct you on the best way to keep the area clean and may recommend treatment with an anti-fungal or antibiotic cream (depending on the source Continue reading

About type 1 diabetes

About type 1 diabetes

About type 1 diabetes
Type 1 diabetes isn’t caused by poor diet or an unhealthy lifestyle. In fact, it isn’t caused by anything that you did or didn’t do, and there was nothing you could have done to prevent it.
What is type 1 diabetes?
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition. For reasons we don’t yet fully understand, your immune system – which is meant to protect you from viruses and bacteria – attacks and destroys the insulin-producing cells in your pancreas, called beta cells.
Insulin is crucial to life. When you eat, insulin moves the energy from your food, called glucose, from your blood into the cells of your body. When the beta cells in your pancreas fail to produce insulin, glucose levels in your blood start to rise and your body can’t function properly. Over time this high level of glucose in the blood may damage nerves and blood vessels and the organs they supply.
This condition affects 400,000 people in the UK, with over 29,000 of them children. Incidence is increasing by about four per cent each year and particularly in children under five, with a five per cent increase each year in this age group over the last 20 years.
What causes type 1 diabetes?
More than 50 genes have been identified that can increase a person’s risk of developing type 1 diabetes, but genes are only part of the cause. Scientists are also currently investigating what environmental factors play a role.
What is known is that:
Destruction of insulin-producing beta cells is due to damage inflicted by your immune system
Something triggered your immune system to attack your bet Continue reading

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