The musculoskeletal effects of diabetes mellitus
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a multi-system disease characterized by persistent hyperglycemia that has both acute and chronic biochemical and anatomical sequelae, with Type-2 DM representing the most common form of the disease. Neuromusculoskeletal sequelae of DM are common and the practicing chiropractor should be alert to these conditions, as some are manageable in a chiropractic office, while others are life and/or limb threatening. This paper reviews the effects of DM on the musculoskeletal system so as assist the chiropractor in making appropriate clinical decisions regarding therapy, understanding contraindications to therapy, referring patients to medical physicians when appropriate and understanding the impact that DM may have on the prognosis for their patients suffering from the myriad musculoskeletal conditions associated with this disease.
Keywords: diabetes, musculoskeletal, chiropractic
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a multi-system disease characterized by persistent hyperglycemia that has both acute and chronic biochemical and anatomical sequelae. It is thought to affect almost 17 million Americans, only 11 million of whom have been diagnosed according to the American Diabetes Association.
In type 1 diabetes, a lack of insulin results in poor carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism. Insulin is functionally absent, typically due to immune-mediated destruction of the beta cells of the pancreas, though other etiologies of beta cell destruction have also been implicated, including drugs, chemicals, viruses, mitochondrial gene defects Continue reading