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The Musculoskeletal Effects Of Diabetes Mellitus

The musculoskeletal effects of diabetes mellitus

The musculoskeletal effects of diabetes mellitus

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Abstract
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a multi-system disease characterized by persistent hyperglycemia that has both acute and chronic biochemical and anatomical sequelae, with Type-2 DM representing the most common form of the disease. Neuromusculoskeletal sequelae of DM are common and the practicing chiropractor should be alert to these conditions, as some are manageable in a chiropractic office, while others are life and/or limb threatening. This paper reviews the effects of DM on the musculoskeletal system so as assist the chiropractor in making appropriate clinical decisions regarding therapy, understanding contraindications to therapy, referring patients to medical physicians when appropriate and understanding the impact that DM may have on the prognosis for their patients suffering from the myriad musculoskeletal conditions associated with this disease.
Keywords: diabetes, musculoskeletal, chiropractic
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Introduction
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a multi-system disease characterized by persistent hyperglycemia that has both acute and chronic biochemical and anatomical sequelae. It is thought to affect almost 17 million Americans, only 11 million of whom have been diagnosed according to the American Diabetes Association.
In type 1 diabetes, a lack of insulin results in poor carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism. Insulin is functionally absent, typically due to immune-mediated destruction of the beta cells of the pancreas, though other etiologies of beta cell destruction have also been implicated, including drugs, chemicals, viruses, mitochondrial gene defects Continue reading

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New Type of Insulin-Producing Cell Discovered

New Type of Insulin-Producing Cell Discovered

Possible new route to regenerating function lost in diabetes
In people with type I diabetes, insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas die and are not replaced. Without these cells, the body loses the ability to control blood glucose. Researchers at the University of California, Davis have now discovered a possible new route to regenerating beta cells, giving insight into the basic mechanisms behind healthy metabolism and diabetes. Eventually, such research could lead to better treatment or cures for diabetes.
“We’ve seen phenomenal advances in the management of diabetes, but we cannot cure it,” said Mark Huising, assistant professor of neurobiology, physiology and behavior in the UC Davis College of Biological Sciences. “If you want to cure the disease, you have to understand how it works in the normal situation.”
Huising is senior author on a paper on the work published April 4 in the journal Cell Metabolism.
Working with both laboratory mice and human tissue, Huising is studying how the cells in the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas work together to regulate blood glucose. In both mice and people, the islets contain beta cells, which detect glucose and secrete insulin, and other cell types including alpha cells that produce glucagon, a hormone that raises blood sugar. The opposite effects of insulin and glucagon enable the body to regulate blood sugars and store nutrients.
Type I diabetes is a disease with two parts. Firstly, the beta cells are killed by the body’s own immune system, and then they fail to regenerate (or those that do are killed). An eff Continue reading

Diabetes breakthrough increases insulin producing cells

Diabetes breakthrough increases insulin producing cells

A potential cure for Type 1 diabetes looms on the horizon in San Antonio, and the novel approach would also allow Type 2 diabetics to stop insulin shots.
The discovery, made at UT Health San Antonio, increases the types of pancreatic cells that secrete insulin.
UT Health San Antonio researchers have a goal to reach human clinical trials in three years, but to do so they must first test the strategy in large-animal studies, which will cost an estimated $5 million.
Those studies will precede application to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for Investigational New Drug (IND) approval, Bruno Doiron, Ph.D., a co-inventor, said.
The scientists received a U.S. patent in January, and UT Health San Antonio is spinning out a company to begin commercialization.
The strategy has cured diabetes in mice.
“It worked perfectly,” Dr. Doiron, assistant professor of medicine at UT Health, said. “We cured mice for one year without any side effects. But it’s a mouse model, so caution is needed. We want to bring this to large animals that are closer to humans in physiology of the endocrine system.”
Ralph DeFronzo, M.D., professor of medicine and chief of the Division of Diabetes at UT Health, is co-inventor on the patent. He described the therapy:
“The pancreas has many other cell types besides beta cells, and our approach is to alter these cells so that they start to secrete insulin, but only in response to glucose [sugar],” he said. “This is basically just like beta cells.”
Insulin, which lowers blood sugar, is only made by beta cells. In Type 1 diabetes, beta cells are d Continue reading

Researchers Detail Link Between Stress and Diabetes

Researchers Detail Link Between Stress and Diabetes

Summary: Researchers report they have established a link between emotional stress and diabetes.
Source: Rice University.
Connection established between anxiety control, inflammation and Type 2 diabetes.
A Rice University study has found a link between emotional stress and diabetes, with roots in the brain’s ability to control anxiety.
That control lies with the brain’s executive functions, processes that handle attention, inhibition, working memory and cognitive flexibility and are also involved in reasoning, problem-solving and planning.
The study published in Psychoneuroendocrinology establishes a metabolic chain reaction that starts with low inhibition, aka attention control, which leaves a person vulnerable to tempting or distracting information, objects, thoughts or activities. Previous studies have shown that such vulnerability can lead to more frequent anxiety, and anxiety is known to activate a metabolic pathway responsible for the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, signaling proteins that include interleukin-6 (IL-6).
Rice University researchers have established a metabolic connection between the brain’s executive function responsible for inhibition and type 2 diabetes. NeuroscienceNews.com image is credited to Andrea Lugo/Rice University.
Along with cognitive tests that measured attention control, the Rice study measured levels of both blood glucose and IL-6 in more than 800 adults. IL-6 is a protein the body produces to stimulate immune response and healing. It is a biomarker of acute and chronic stress that also has been associated with a greater li Continue reading

Gut bacteria compound may help to prevent type 2 diabetes

Gut bacteria compound may help to prevent type 2 diabetes

New research from Finland suggests that higher blood levels of indolepropionic acid - a product of gut bacteria that is increased by a fiber-rich diet - may help to protect against type 2 diabetes.
Writing about the discovery in the journal Scientific Reports, the team - led by researchers from the University of Eastern Finland in Kuopio - suggests that it increases our understanding of the important part played by gut bacteria in the relationship between diet, metabolism, and health.
Diabetes is a disease in which the blood contains too much sugar, or glucose - a vital source of energy for the body's cells.
If uncontrolled, high blood sugar can lead to blindness, kidney failure, heart disease, stroke, and amputation of lower limbs.
Levels of blood sugar are regulated by the hormone insulin, which is made in the pancreas.
The type of diabetes that develops depends on whether the high blood glucose results from lack of insulin (type 1 diabetes) or the body's inability to use insulin (type 2 diabetes).
Type 2 diabetes is by far the most common form of diabetes around the world and largely develops from being overweight and not exercising.
Molecular factors in type 2 diabetes less well-understood
Once a disease occurring only in adults, the number of children with type 2 diabetes is now on the rise.
Adults with diabetes have a two- to threefold higher risk of heart attacks and strokes.
Type 2 diabetes patients can be treated with oral medication, but they may also need insulin.
More than a fifth of healthcare spending in the U.S. is for people diagnosed with diabetes.
The glob Continue reading

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