Relationship Between Risk Factors, Age, And Mortality In Type 1 Diabetes Patients

Relationship Between Risk Factors, Age, and Mortality in Type 1 Diabetes Patients

Relationship Between Risk Factors, Age, and Mortality in Type 1 Diabetes Patients

Management of non-glycemic cardiovascular disease risk factors may have increasing benefits in an aging type 1 diabetes patient population with long-term hyperglycemia.
The duration of diabetes and how well it is controlled are important factors for preventing type 1 diabetes complications and mortality. Evidence-based therapy and improvement in technology has led to a significantly higher life expectancy among T1D patients. As these patients live longer, risk for cardiovascular disease complications has increased. CVD is the major cause of death in patients with type 1 diabetes and accounts for approximately half of all deaths while the other half is as a result of non-CVD and other causes. Risk factors that lead to insulin resistance, such as high triglyceride, high LDL-cholesterol, low HDL cholesterol, high waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and albuminuria are strong indicators of CVD in type 1 diabetes patients.
In the EURODIAB Prospective Cohort Study, 2,787 type 1 diabetes patients were studied over a 7-year period. Mortality causes were categorized as CVD, non-CVD and unknown. The analyses were adjusted for age and the length of time since diabetes was diagnosed and the most important risk factors were determined using a simultaneous and stepwise approach. Non-CVD causes had a higher annual mortality rate at 1.9 per 1,000 person-years [1.4–2.6], while mortality rate due to CVD causes was 1.4 per 1,000 person-years [1.01–2.08], and 1.7 [1.3–2.4] per 1,000 person-years for unknown causes. The results of the study showed that for younger diabetes age, non-CVD risk factors Continue reading

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Risk Factors for Diabetes

Risk Factors for Diabetes

A “risk factor” is defined as anything that increases your risk—your chances—of developing a particular disorder such as diabetes. It can be important to remember that risk factors are not necessarily causal, but they are correlated. In other words, the incidence of Type 1 diabetes increases by geography—the further from the equator that you live, the greater the risk that you will have T1D. However, living in, for example, Canada, far north of the equator does not cause T1D. There is also a difference between known and possible risk factors. The known factors are backed by a large amount of evidence and a great deal of certainty in the medical and scientific communities. The possible risk factors lack the same amount of evidence and certainty, but are expected to have this in the near future, after long-term studies have been completed or after the evidence is examined and a consensus among experts is reached. Also, in possible risk factors, other influences—including known and other possible risk factors—may be involved, making the determination of the risk factor more difficult.
Risk Factors for Type 1 Diabetes (T1D)
There are some known risk factors for T1D. These include:[1]
A family history of T1D. This increases the risk because T1D has a connection to a number of genes that can be “handed down” from one generation to the next.
Genetic background. As mentioned, there are a number of genes that have been described to increase the risk of T1D. T1D is said to have a “polygenic risk” because there is not one single genetic mutation or change that ca Continue reading

Type 1 diabetes vaccine moving to human trials in Finland

Type 1 diabetes vaccine moving to human trials in Finland

It has long been hypothesized that viral infections play a significant role in the development of type 1 diabetes. Researchers in Finland have been investigating this connection for over 25 years and now believe they have targeted the particular virus group that can trigger the disease. After developing a prototype vaccine the team is now moving to human clinical trials in 2018.
Though not as common as type 2 diabetes, type 1 diabetes it still affects millions of people worldwide. The disease generally begins in childhood and an estimated 80,000 new cases are diagnosed worldwide every year.
Type 1 diabetes occurs when the immune system destroys insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. Recent research suggests that enteroviruses could play a strong role in the onset of type 1 diabetes, with several studies showing that the presence of an enteroviral infection significantly increases the chance of a person developing the disease.
The causal relationship between an enteroviral infection and type 1 diabetes is still unknown, but one study suggests it could act as "a critical trigger to push an already dysfunctional metabolic equilibrium over the brink."
A research group at the University of Tampere initially looked at the more than 100 different enterovirus types found in humans. After pinpointing six specific viral strains that could be associated with type 1 diabetes they ultimately identified the one type that held the biggest risk. A prototype vaccine was then produced and successfully tested on animals.
"Already now it is known that the vaccine is effective and safe o Continue reading

Finnish diabetes vaccine trials to start in 2018

Finnish diabetes vaccine trials to start in 2018

A vaccine for type 1 diabetes developed by Finnish researchers will be tested on mainly Finnish human subjects in late 2018, researchers announced on Tuesday.
The scientists first found that the prototype works effectively and safely on mice, and now say
that the vaccine could be in mainstream use within eight years if the coming rounds of tests prove successful.
The vaccine will first be given to a group of 30 healthy men during the first phase of the clinical trials, followed by a group of some 150 children if all goes well. After two successful rounds the vaccine can be considered safe and effective against viruses. The final round of vaccinations, intended for a group of some 4,000 children, should tell researchers whether the vaccine specifically prevents type 1 diabetes.
Virus likely culprit
A virus may be behind a significant proportion of type 1 diabetes cases, which are especially common among children. Professor Heikki Hyöty from the University of Tampere and Professor Mikael Knip of the University of Helsinki have worked on the pathology of diabetes from more than 20 years, and say they are confident that an enterovirus that attacks the pancreas to destroy insulin-producing cells is the root cause of type 1 diabetes.
If the vaccine proves effective in humans, it could do much to minimise suffering as well as expenses.
"It is estimated that the additional cost of care for one child with diabetes over their lifetime is about a million euros," Knip says. "This vaccine could prevent at least half of new cases, which amounts to some 250 million euros in annual saving Continue reading

Charity says diabetes patients in NI denied equipment

Charity says diabetes patients in NI denied equipment

Diabetes patients in Northern Ireland are being denied access to essential equipment which would help control their condition.
Three years ago, the department of health bought more than 1,000 insulin pumps costing over £2m.
However, according to the local director for Diabetes UK, more than half of the pumps remain in "hospital cupboards".
Iain Foster said it was a "public scandal" and a waste of money.
"This has happened because individual health trusts have not created modern diabetes services which would ensure these pumps are issued to the people who would benefit from them," he said.
"This is evidence of how disjointed our health service is."
A diabetes specialist nurse said providing the automatic pumps was in line with national health care guidance.
At a recent seminar in Belfast, Sally Friffina said there was a need for the NHS to make more of this therapy option for adults in Northern Ireland.
"Proper care and modern treatment and technology can and does make a real difference to adults with Type 1 diabetes. The NHS and the government need to work towards making the treatment and technology available to all those Type 1 patients in line with the health care guidance. "
More than 80,000 people in Northern Ireland live with the illness.
In a statement to the BBC, the Department of Health spokesperson said : "NICE Technology Appraisal No 151 about the provision of insulin pumps, endorsed by DHSSPS in June 2009, applies to all HSC Trusts and significant progress has been made to implement it.
"Trusts now provide insulin pumps to about 611 adults and children, but due Continue reading

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