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Insulin: Potential Negative Consequences Of Early Routine Use In Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

Insulin: Potential Negative Consequences of Early Routine Use in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

Insulin: Potential Negative Consequences of Early Routine Use in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

The lack of adequate insulin secretion characterizes all hyperglycemic states. When insulin action is normal, as in type 1 diabetes, there is a near total loss of insulin secretory function. In type 2 diabetes, the abnormalities in insulin secretion are multiple. One of the initial defects is a loss of the early phase of meal-stimulated insulin secretion. This is followed by an inability of the β-cell to increase insulin secretion sufficient to overcome hepatic and peripheral insulin resistance. Type 2 diabetes is characterized by a progressive decrease in both β-cell mass and secretory function so that, in most individuals, absolute insulin deficiency occurs in the late stages of the disease.
It would seem logical that the ideal treatment for type 2 diabetes should be early and continuing insulin therapy. Unfortunately, there are several characteristics of insulin treatment and insulin action in type 2 diabetes that limit the usefulness of insulin treatment and that suggest that chronic insulin therapy is best used in the later stages of diabetes when there is an absolute deficiency of insulin.
In normal physiology, β-cell insulin secretion is coupled immediately with changes in the plasma glucose level (1). The secretory response is rapid (within a minute or two), and because the half-life of insulin is ~5 min, there is little lag time in the glucose regulatory system. Endogenously secreted insulin goes via the portal vein to the liver, where 30–80% of it is either metabolized or used (2). The portal vein-to-peripheral arterial insulin ratio is ~2:1. The administrati Continue reading

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There’s a Third Type of Diabetes—and Doctors Are Misdiagnosing It as Type 2

There’s a Third Type of Diabetes—and Doctors Are Misdiagnosing It as Type 2

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There are many surprising facts about type 2 diabetes, including the fact that sometimes it’s actually something else. Say hello to a new form of diabetes. It’s called type 3c diabetes and may be commonly mistaken for type 2 diabetes, the form of the disease most closely linked to obesity, a new study suggests.
As a result, many people with type 3c diabetes may not be getting the care they need to keep the eventual consequences of diabetes, such as eye, nerve, and kidney damage, at bay, the researchers warn in Diabetes Care.
Type 3c diabetes follows disease of the pancreas and is also called pancreatogenic diabetes, explains study author Simon de Lusignan, BSc, MB BS, MSc, MD(Res), professor of primary care and clinical informatics, the chair in health care management, and head of the department of clinical and cxperimental medicine at University of Surrey in Guildford, UK. “After pancreas disease, it is possible to develop diabetes. The people who do should be labeled type 3c. This is often not thought about, and they are instead labeled as type 2.”
Some 88 percent of people who had type 3c diabetes in the study were misdiagnosed as having type 2 over a 10-year period. Put another way: Just 3 percent of the people in the study were correctly identified as having type 3c diabetes.
The pancreas is intricately involved in all forms of diabetes. Located behind the lower part of the stomach, this organ is charged with producing insulin, the hormone that helps the body use glucose (blood sugar) in foods for energy. It plays a crucial role in Continue reading

Can You Get Diabetes from Eating Too Much Fruit?

Can You Get Diabetes from Eating Too Much Fruit?

Diabetes is complicated and as such, you should try to avoid getting the disease to the maximum possible extent. In question today, are the otherwise healthy source of nutrients for diabetics, that is fruits. It is surprising that researchers could even question whether eating too much of fruit can be bad for people who suffer from diabetes. However, when you deeply analyze the various causes and factors that could expose you to a greater risk of developing the condition, you will understand the logic behind such a thought process. In this article, we have tried to understand the analyze the same.
So, come and join us for the article “Can You Get Diabetes from Eating Too Much Fruit?”
How Can Eating Too Much Fruit Lead to Diabetes?
The main type of sugar that is present in the fruits we eat is the fructose. The other forms of sugar such as glucose metabolizes in the blood, while fructose does so in the liver. So, when you eat too much of fruit, too much of fructose accumulates in the liver. When the sugar is more than the required quantity, your liver breaks down the same into triglycerides. The increase in the levels of triglycerides, as we know, is one of the many reasons that could expose you to a greater risk of getting diabetes as triglycerides are often stored as fat in different body cells. When you eat too much fruit, you often find it difficult to lose weight, particularly your belly fat. This, as we know, is a major contributor to diabetes, particularly type 2.
Relation Between Eating Too Much Fruit and Type 2 Diabetes
As you know, type 2 diabetes is a complex Continue reading

Researchers develop ‘breathalyzer’ that can detect diabetes

Researchers develop ‘breathalyzer’ that can detect diabetes

Breathalyzers to detect alcohol intoxication have existed for years, as the relationship between blood-alcohol content and alcohol in the breath is well understood. The same principles may soon be applied to diabetes screening. A team of researchers from Oxford University have succeeded in building a device that can flag patients as diabetic without the need for a blood test.
Right now, the only way to determine if someone is diabetic is to take some blood and check the levels of sugar through various methods. However, diabetes, the inability for the body to process sugar, comes with a number of metabolic quirks that can make it detectable in other ways.
The device developed at Oxford is looking for acetone in the patient’s breath. You probably know that as a volatile solvent, and it is. But it’s also produced as a consequence of regular human metabolism. Because diabetes sufferers are lacking in insulin, that throws much of their metabolism out of whack.
The condition that’s actually being tested for here is ketoacidosis, which is a condition associated with high concentration in the body of molecules called ketones — acetone, of course, is a ketone. In diabetic ketoacidosis, the lack of insulin means you can’t absorb glucose in the blood stream. This causes a cascade of metabolic failures that ends in a high concentration of ketones like acetoacetic acid in the blood. The acetoacetic acid in the bloodstream breaks down into acetone and carbon dioxide, and can be transferred to your breath via the lungs, just like alcohol in the bloodstream. That’s why someone Continue reading

Managing Chronic Pain

Managing Chronic Pain

Pain affects millions of people with diabetes. For most of these people, the pain is chronic, defined as pain persisting for more than six months, experienced almost every day, and of moderate to severe intensity, or that significantly interferes with daily activities. In some cases, a person’s pain is clearly related to complications of diabetes; in other cases, it is not. Regardless of the cause, however, studies show that chronic pain makes diabetes self-management much more difficult and often leads to higher blood glucose levels.
Surveys of people with diabetes report rates of chronic pain anywhere from 20% to over 60% – much higher than rates in the general population. The types of pain most often reported by people with diabetes include back pain and neuropathy pain in the feet or hands. (Peripheral neuropathy, or nerve damage in the feet and hands, is a common complication of diabetes.) Headaches and other pain sites are also frequently reported. Many people with diabetes also have arthritis, fibromyalgia (an arthritis-related illness that causes widespread muscle and joint pain and fatigue), or other painful conditions.
Pain has been shown to interfere with self-management activities, sleep, physical functioning, work, family relationships, mood, and quality of life. To make matters worse, pain is often invisible to others, so family members, coworkers, and health-care professionals often have no idea what a person in pain is going through. Many people feel that their physicians don’t understand and tell them they “just have to live with it.”
Why is there Continue reading

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