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Epidemiology Of Diabetes Mellitus

Epidemiology of diabetes mellitus

Epidemiology of diabetes mellitus

Prevalence (per 1,000 inhabitants) of diabetes worldwide in 2000 - world average was 2.8%.
no data
≤ 7.5
7.5–15
15–22.5
22.5–30
30–37.5
37.5–45
45–52.5
52.5–60
60–67.5
67.5–75
75–82.5
≥ 82.5
Disability-adjusted life year for diabetes mellitus per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004
No data
<100
100–200
200–300
300–400
400–500
500–600
600–700
700–800
800–900
900–1,000
1,000–1,500
>1,500
Globally, an estimated 422 million adults are living with diabetes mellitus, according to the latest 2016 data from the World Health Organization (WHO).[1] Diabetes prevalence is increasing rapidly; previous 2013 estimates from the International Diabetes Federation put the number at 381 million people having diabetes.[2] The number is projected to almost double by 2030.[3] Type 2 diabetes makes up about 85-90% of all cases.[4][5] Increases in the overall diabetes prevalence rates largely reflect an increase in risk factors for type 2, notably greater longevity and being overweight or obese.[1]
Diabetes mellitus occurs throughout the world, but is more common (especially type 2) in the more developed countries. The greatest increase in prevalence is, however, occurring in low- and middle-income countries[1] including in Asia and Africa, where most patients will probably be found by 2030.[3] The increase in incidence in developing countries follows the trend of urbanization and lifestyle changes, including increasingly sedentary lifestyles, less physically demanding work and the global nutrition transition, marked by increased intake of foods that are high en Continue reading

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Symptoms Of Diabetes

Symptoms Of Diabetes

It is possible to have diabetes with only very mild symptoms or without developing any symptoms at all. Such cases can leave some people with diabetes unaware of the condition and undiagnosed. This happens in around half of people with type 2 diabetes.1,2
A condition known as prediabetes that often leads to type 2 diabetes also produces no symptoms. Type 2 diabetes and its symptoms develop slowly.3
Type 1 diabetes can go unnoticed but is less likely to do so. Some of its symptoms listed below can come on abruptly and be accompanied by nausea, vomiting or stomach pains.2-4
It is important to see a doctor if there is any suspicion of diabetes or if any of the below signs and symptoms are present - prompt diagnosis and management lowers the likelihood of serious complications.5
The most common symptoms are related to hyperglycemia (high blood sugar levels), especially the classic symptoms of diabetes: frequent urination and thirst. Fatigue related to dehydration and eating problems can also be related to high blood sugars.5,6
The International Diabetes Foundation highlight four symptoms that should prompt someone to get checked for diabetes as soon as possible:1
Common symptoms of diabetes
The most common signs and symptoms of diabetes are:
Frequent urination
Have you been going to the bathroom to urinate more often recently? Do you notice that you spend most of the day going to the toilet? When there is too much glucose (sugar) in your blood you will urinate more often.
If your insulin is ineffective, or not there at all, your kidneys cannot filter the glucose back into the b Continue reading

Symptoms, Diagnosis & Monitoring of Diabetes

Symptoms, Diagnosis & Monitoring of Diabetes

According to the latest American Heart Association's Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics, about 8 million people 18 years and older in the United States have type 2 diabetes and do not know it. Often type 1 diabetes remains undiagnosed until symptoms become severe and hospitalization is required. Left untreated, diabetes can cause a number of health complications. That's why it's so important to both know what warning signs to look for and to see a health care provider regularly for routine wellness screenings.
Symptoms
In incidences of prediabetes, there are no symptoms. People may not be aware that they have type 1 or type 2 diabetes because they have no symptoms or because the symptoms are so mild that they go unnoticed for quite some time. However, some individuals do experience warning signs, so it's important to be familiar with them.
Prediabetes
Type 1 Diabetes
Type 2 Diabetes
No symptoms
Increased or extreme thirst
Increased thirst
Increased appetite
Increased appetite
Increased fatigue
Fatigue
Increased or frequent urination
Increased urination, especially at night
Unusual weight loss
Weight loss
Blurred vision
Blurred vision
Fruity odor or breath
Sores that do not heal
In some cases, no symptoms
In some cases, no symptoms
If you have any of these symptoms, see your health care provider right away. Diabetes can only be diagnosed by your healthcare provider.
Who should be tested for prediabetes and diabetes?
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services recommends that you should be tested if you are:
If your blood glucose levels are in normal range, testing shou Continue reading

Diabetes and Seizures: What Are They? What Are The Symptoms?

Diabetes and Seizures: What Are They? What Are The Symptoms?

Having a seizure is a very serious thing. It is dangerous for the person experiencing it, and it is also scary for those nearby.
Seizures can be caused for several reasons. Some people have epilepsy, which is a disorder where seizures happen often. For those without epilepsy, they are often called “provoked seizures” because they were provoked, or brought on, by something reversible. Individuals with diabetes can experience these “provoked seizures” when their blood sugar drops too low.
The following article explains the difference in these, how to prevent them, and how to care for someone that is having a diabetic seizure.
The difference between epilepsy and seizures
Epilepsy is a seizure disorder that happens because there is an electrical storm in the brain. People have recurrent seizures that involve loss of consciousness, convulsions, abnormal behavior, disruption of senses, or all of the above. Some have an “aura” before having a seizure and know when it is going to happen. Most causes of epilepsy are unknown, however they can be triggered by flickering light, loud noises, or physical stimulation. Treatment for this condition includes medications and sometimes diet changes.
A “provoked seizure” happens because something abnormal is happening in the body. This can include low sodium, fever, alcohol, drugs, trauma, or low blood sugar. The same thing happens as with epilepsy, and there is unusual activity in the brain causing abnormal movements and behaviors. Unlike epilepsy though, where a seizure can happen for no reason, there is an actual cause for ea Continue reading

Fasting blood sugar: Normal levels and testing

Fasting blood sugar: Normal levels and testing

Fasting blood sugar provides vital clues about how the body is managing blood sugar levels. Blood sugar tends to peak about an hour after eating, and declines after that.
High fasting blood sugar levels point to insulin resistance or diabetes. Abnormally low fasting blood sugar could be due to diabetes medications.
Knowing when to test and what to look for can help keep people with, or at risk of, diabetes healthy.
What are fasting blood sugar levels?
Following a meal, blood sugar levels rise, usually peaking about an hour after eating.
How much blood sugar rises by and the precise timing of the peak depends on diet. Large meals tend to trigger larger blood sugar rises. High-sugar carbohydrates, such as bread and sweetened snacks, also cause more significant blood sugar swings.
Normally, as blood sugar rises, the pancreas releases insulin. Insulin lowers blood sugar, breaking it down so that the body can use it for energy or store it for later.
However, people who have diabetes have difficulties with insulin in the following ways:
People with type 1 diabetes do not produce enough insulin because the body attacks insulin-producing cells.
People with type 2 diabetes do not respond well to insulin and, later, may not make enough insulin.
In both cases, the result is the same: elevated blood sugar levels and difficulties using sugar.
This means that fasting blood sugar depends on three factors:
the contents of the last meal
the size of the last meal
the body's ability to produce and respond to insulin
Blood sugar levels in between meals offer a window into how the body manages Continue reading

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