Diabetes Medication Associates With DNA Methylation Of Metformin Transporter Genes In The Human Liver

Diabetes medication associates with DNA methylation of metformin transporter genes in the human liver

Diabetes medication associates with DNA methylation of metformin transporter genes in the human liver

Diabetes medication associates with DNA methylation of metformin transporter genes in the human liver
Clinical Epigenetics volume9, Articlenumber:102 (2017) Cite this article
Given that metformin is the most common pharmacological therapy for type 2 diabetes, understanding the function of this drug is of great importance. Hepatic metformin transporters are responsible for the pharmacologic action of metformin. However, epigenetics in genes encoding metformin transporters has not been fully elucidated. We examined the DNA methylation of these genes in the liver of subjects with type 2 diabetes and tested whether epigenetic alterations associate with diabetes medication, i.e., metformin or insulin plus metformin treatment.
DNA methylation in OCT1 encoded by SLC22A1, OCT3 encoded by SLC22A3, and MATE1 encoded by SLC47A1 was assessed in the human liver. Lower average and promoter DNA methylation of SLC22A1, SLC22A3, and SLC47A1 was found in diabetic subjects receiving just metformin, compared to those who took insulin plus metformin or no diabetes medication. Moreover, diabetic subjects receiving just metformin had a similar DNA methylation pattern in these genes compared to non-diabetic subjects. Notably, DNA methylation was also associated with gene expression, glucose levels, and body mass index, i.e., higher SLC22A3 methylation was related to lower SLC22A3 expression and to insulin plus metformintreatment, higher fasting glucose levels and higher body mass index. Importantly, metformin treatment did also directly decrease DNA methylation of SLC22A1 in hepatocytes cultu Continue reading

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Work to Do Before Medicare's Diabetes Prevention Program Is Set in Place

Work to Do Before Medicare's Diabetes Prevention Program Is Set in Place

Work to Do Before Medicare's Diabetes Prevention Program Is Set in Place
Nina C. Brown-Ashford, MPH, CHES, remembers when the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation (CMMI) received the first field reports from the pilot of the National Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) with the Y-USA. The results were so positive that another agency veteran said, I think there might be something here.
That set in motion calls to CDCs Ann Albright, PhD, RD, the director of the Division of Diabetes Translation, and a process that would lead CMS actuary to certify that pilot participants saved Medicare $2650 a piece over 15 months. Ultimately, 83% of the participants would take part in at least 4 sessions, and the average weight loss was 9 pounds.
Back in March 2016, it was official: DPP would go national in Medicare, come January 1, 2018. That felt really far away, said Brown-Ashford, now the acting director of the Division of Health Care Delivery at CMMI.
On Saturday, she described Medicare DPP as starting on or after that January 1, 2018, target date. While no one is arguing the benefits DPP will ultimately offer, starting a government program from scratchwith features no one has ever used beforeis proving a daunting task. Brown-Ashford led off a symposium at the 77thScientific Sessions of the American Diabetes Association on success stories about the DPP, which has been shown in clinical trials to help those with prediabetes reduce their risk of progressing to type 2 diabetes by 58%.
Recent evidence published in Diabetes Care from 4 years of experience with DPP found major prog Continue reading

Type 1 Diabetes and Sleepovers

Type 1 Diabetes and Sleepovers

10 Tips to Keep Your Child Safe When She Spends the Night Away from Home
Reviewed by Amy Hess-Fischl, MS, RD, LDN, BC-ADM, CDE
Slumber parties are one of the most highly anticipated events of childhood. Apart from time-honored traditions like eating unhealthy food, being silly and watching a lot of bad TV, slumber parties give children a chance to create memories with friends in a way that isnt possible on play dates after school.
But when your child has type 1 diabetes, the idea of having her or him attend a slumber party can be nerve-wracking. You cant help but worry about the myriad challenges that could arise, and how theyd be handled while your child is out of your care.
The good news: With some planning and prep slumber parties can be a successful experience for you, your child and the host parent.
Joyce C. Bookshester, MA, PsyD, a licensed clinical psychologist with expertise in treating the emotional and developmental issues associated with type 1 diabetes, encourages this social experience, provided certain criteria are met.
"Having type 1 diabetes requires a specific care program that the host parents need to be comfortable addressing. Its advisable to call the parents who are hosting and let them know your child has type 1 diabetes and ask them if they would be willing to meet with you previous to the sleep over so that you can get a sense of the carbs they will be serving and demonstrate how your childs insulin dispersing and monitoring devices work," says Dr. Bookshester. She adds: "If the childs numbers are relatively stable and the parents are convin Continue reading

Why High-Fat vs. Low-Fat Dairy May Be Better Suited for Those with Diabetes, Obesity, and Cardiovascular Disease

Why High-Fat vs. Low-Fat Dairy May Be Better Suited for Those with Diabetes, Obesity, and Cardiovascular Disease

Diabetes, Cardiovascular Disease, Obesity and the High-Fat, Low-Fat Dairy Debate
Penny Brooks is a Registered Dietitian, who at the age of 12 was diagnosed with prediabetes, which she reversed within a year. Based on her personal experience and expertise in nutrition, she discusses the health benefits of the full fat dairy option in the context of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.
Since the 1940s the concept of a low-fat diet has been promoted to decrease ones risk of or improve weight loss and cardiovascular disease. This belief has been reflected in American consumer beverage trends especially among adults 60 years of age and older. It was noted that full-fat dairy was being exchanged for lower fat options such as low-fat and skim milk over the past several years.
Obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease are interrelated conditions through consistently high insulin levels
With nutrition science as a dynamic and constantly evolving discipline, emerging evidence now is debunking fat as being the progenitor of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease in the diet where the culprit was actually discovered to be sugar and refined carbohydrates. As a result, the theory of low-fat diets for prevention and treatment of these conditions has been the center of much criticism recently. Research conducted using high-fat low-carbohydrate diets demonstrate promise and positive outcomes to assist in preventing and managing these conditions more effectively that align with current and updated nutrition science.
Obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease ar Continue reading

Protein Deposits Seem to Play Role in Type 2 Diabetes

Protein Deposits Seem to Play Role in Type 2 Diabetes

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Protein Deposits Seem to Play Role in Type 2 Diabetes
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TUESDAY, Aug. 1, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Protein deposits in the pancreas may lead scientists to a better understanding of type 2 diabetes .
The protein -- called amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) -- collects in the pancreas in people with type 2 diabetes . But whether these deposits cause the disease or appear after the disease begins hasn't been clear.
Researchers from McGovern Medical School at the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston injected mice with this protein to try to better define their role in type 2 diabetes . They found that when the mice received this protein, the animals developed symptoms of type 2 diabetes, such as the death of insulin-producing cells in the pancreas and high blood sugar levels.
The study team also injected the protein into pancreatic tissue from healthy human donors. The researchers found IAPP collected in the pancreatic tissue.
"Almost all patients with type 2 diabetes have these protein [deposits], but we don't know if it's a disease pathway or a correlate," said study author Claudio Soto, a professor of neurology.
"I think the IAPP are really essential for the [development of] this disease, and that's why we did the animal studies," he said.
Type 2 diabetes begins with insulin resistance . Insulin is a hormone that helps the body usher sugar from foods into the body's cells to be used as energy. When someone Continue reading

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