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Diabetes Breakthrough Increases Insulin Producing Cells

Diabetes breakthrough increases insulin producing cells

Diabetes breakthrough increases insulin producing cells

A potential cure for Type 1 diabetes looms on the horizon in San Antonio, and the novel approach would also allow Type 2 diabetics to stop insulin shots.
The discovery, made at UT Health San Antonio, increases the types of pancreatic cells that secrete insulin.
UT Health San Antonio researchers have a goal to reach human clinical trials in three years, but to do so they must first test the strategy in large-animal studies, which will cost an estimated $5 million.
Those studies will precede application to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for Investigational New Drug (IND) approval, Bruno Doiron, Ph.D., a co-inventor, said.
The scientists received a U.S. patent in January, and UT Health San Antonio is spinning out a company to begin commercialization.
The strategy has cured diabetes in mice.
“It worked perfectly,” Dr. Doiron, assistant professor of medicine at UT Health, said. “We cured mice for one year without any side effects. But it’s a mouse model, so caution is needed. We want to bring this to large animals that are closer to humans in physiology of the endocrine system.”
Ralph DeFronzo, M.D., professor of medicine and chief of the Division of Diabetes at UT Health, is co-inventor on the patent. He described the therapy:
“The pancreas has many other cell types besides beta cells, and our approach is to alter these cells so that they start to secrete insulin, but only in response to glucose [sugar],” he said. “This is basically just like beta cells.”
Insulin, which lowers blood sugar, is only made by beta cells. In Type 1 diabetes, beta cells are d Continue reading

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Researchers Detail Link Between Stress and Diabetes

Researchers Detail Link Between Stress and Diabetes

Summary: Researchers report they have established a link between emotional stress and diabetes.
Source: Rice University.
Connection established between anxiety control, inflammation and Type 2 diabetes.
A Rice University study has found a link between emotional stress and diabetes, with roots in the brain’s ability to control anxiety.
That control lies with the brain’s executive functions, processes that handle attention, inhibition, working memory and cognitive flexibility and are also involved in reasoning, problem-solving and planning.
The study published in Psychoneuroendocrinology establishes a metabolic chain reaction that starts with low inhibition, aka attention control, which leaves a person vulnerable to tempting or distracting information, objects, thoughts or activities. Previous studies have shown that such vulnerability can lead to more frequent anxiety, and anxiety is known to activate a metabolic pathway responsible for the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, signaling proteins that include interleukin-6 (IL-6).
Rice University researchers have established a metabolic connection between the brain’s executive function responsible for inhibition and type 2 diabetes. NeuroscienceNews.com image is credited to Andrea Lugo/Rice University.
Along with cognitive tests that measured attention control, the Rice study measured levels of both blood glucose and IL-6 in more than 800 adults. IL-6 is a protein the body produces to stimulate immune response and healing. It is a biomarker of acute and chronic stress that also has been associated with a greater li Continue reading

Gut bacteria compound may help to prevent type 2 diabetes

Gut bacteria compound may help to prevent type 2 diabetes

New research from Finland suggests that higher blood levels of indolepropionic acid - a product of gut bacteria that is increased by a fiber-rich diet - may help to protect against type 2 diabetes.
Writing about the discovery in the journal Scientific Reports, the team - led by researchers from the University of Eastern Finland in Kuopio - suggests that it increases our understanding of the important part played by gut bacteria in the relationship between diet, metabolism, and health.
Diabetes is a disease in which the blood contains too much sugar, or glucose - a vital source of energy for the body's cells.
If uncontrolled, high blood sugar can lead to blindness, kidney failure, heart disease, stroke, and amputation of lower limbs.
Levels of blood sugar are regulated by the hormone insulin, which is made in the pancreas.
The type of diabetes that develops depends on whether the high blood glucose results from lack of insulin (type 1 diabetes) or the body's inability to use insulin (type 2 diabetes).
Type 2 diabetes is by far the most common form of diabetes around the world and largely develops from being overweight and not exercising.
Molecular factors in type 2 diabetes less well-understood
Once a disease occurring only in adults, the number of children with type 2 diabetes is now on the rise.
Adults with diabetes have a two- to threefold higher risk of heart attacks and strokes.
Type 2 diabetes patients can be treated with oral medication, but they may also need insulin.
More than a fifth of healthcare spending in the U.S. is for people diagnosed with diabetes.
The glob Continue reading

Insulin weight gain-understanding diabetes better

Insulin weight gain-understanding diabetes better

Nobody is as familiar to the word “insulin” as diabetics around the world. This simple hormone named “insulin” has created havoc in millions of lives around the world.
Importance of Insulin
If by any chance you are not familiar with insulin, let me clear your doubt.
It is a hormone produced by an organ called pancreas. the insulin helps our body cells to absorb glucose from our blood to utilize it for their energy needs.
If the insulin produced is insufficient, then our cells would not be able to absorb glucose from blood and as a result condition for diabetes develops.
Usually, diabetics (especially Type 1) who produce very little insulin, get their daily requirement from an external source. They inject the insulin either through insulin pens or pump as per their body needs.
Click here to read about Type 1 diabetes
Discovering the external source of insulin is one of the great medical achievement that saved millions of lives around the world.
Imagine the plight of diabetic patient during the time when insulin was not discovered;
They would have died million times because of the daily sufferings associated with diabetes.
Insulin Issues
No doubt about the importance of insulin for managing diabetes and saving people around the world. But still, there are some issues associated with insulin that makes people to stay away from it and to rely on medication as much as possible.
One of the main concern is about insulin weight gain
You may have come across fellow diabetics who have gained a lot of weight and blaming it all to the insulin.
So is insulin really responsible f Continue reading

Viral Trigger for Type 1 Diabetes

Viral Trigger for Type 1 Diabetes

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INSIGHT FROM EPIDEMIOLOGY AND CLINICAL INVESTIGATIONS
The influence of the environment.
Type 1 diabetes is a genetic autoimmune disorder caused by autoreactive CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells that recognize pancreatic antigens such as insulin or GAD and subsequently destroy insulin-producing β-cells. The subject of very active research is the question of how endogenous β-cell antigens become immunogenic. Infiltration of the islets of Langerhans, where β-cells reside, by activated autoreactive T-cells is considered to be the major driving force in type 1 diabetes progression. The islet infiltrate in humans consists primarily of CD8+ T-cells and B-cells, followed by macrophages and dendritic cells of different subtypes (1). Interestingly, significantly fewer T-cells are found in human islets compared with islets from nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. The reduced numbers of T-cells, and in this way a limited autoreactive component in human islets, leads one to consider whether other contributing factors may be involved in disease development. Otherwise, sufficient insulitic infiltrate to destroy islet β-cells might not be easily maintained in humans. Further supporting a role for nongenetic factors in the control of type 1 diabetes is the observation that disease concordance among monozygotic twins is below 50% (2). Migrant studies also suggest the involvement of an environmental factor in type 1 diabetes, since disease incidence in migrating populations appears to conform to the incidence of the region to which there is migration (3). There is an ever-increasing body of literatu Continue reading

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