Body temperature regulation in diabetes
Diabetes mellitus, commonly known as diabetes, refers to a group of metabolic disorders which are associated with an impaired ability to regulate glycemia. Type 1 and type 2 diabetes are the most prevalent forms of the disease representing ~10 and ~90% of cases, respectively.1 Type 1 diabetes was formerly known as juvenile diabetes due to its common presentation in children and adolescents, and is characterized by the endocrine pancreas ceasing to produce insulin following the immune-mediated destruction of β-islet cells.2 Therefore, management of type 1 diabetes always requires exogenous delivery of insulin. Although the causes of type 1 diabetes remain to be elucidated, it is probably caused by a combination of genetic predisposition (with >40 loci known to affect susceptibility)3 and various environmental factors including stress and viruses.4 On the other hand, type 2 diabetes is most often diagnosed in adults and typically involves a combination of insulin resistance and relative (rather than absolute) deficiency of insulin.5 While the causes of type 2 diabetes are also incompletely understood, a plethora of studies have found associations with excessive abdominal adiposity,6 sedentary lifestyle, and poor dietary habits7 along with genetic factors. In contrast to type 1, type 2 diabetes may be treated in several ways including non-insulin pharmaceuticals, lifestyle modifications as well as exogenous insulin administration.
Diabetes is becoming a worldwide public health issue, with the global prevalence in 2014 estimated at 9% among adults.8 By 2035 Continue reading