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A New Drug May Be Able To Completely Reverse Diabetes

A New Drug May Be Able to Completely Reverse Diabetes

A New Drug May Be Able to Completely Reverse Diabetes

Scientists have used a new drug to reverse diabetes in mice. The drug inhibits the enzyme LMPTP, which contributes to the development of Type 2 diabetes by weakening the body's sensitivity to the hormone.
Defining Diabetes
In the global community, the number of people with diabetes has been on the rise since 1980, with 422 million people diagnosed by 2014. The U.S. alone has experienced a substantial rise in the incidence of diabetes, with the number of Americans diagnosed increasing from 5.5 million in 1980, to 22 million in 2014—a more than 300 percent increase in less than 40 years.
A team of researchers, led by Stephanie Stanford at the University of California, San Diego, is proposing a solution in the form of a single pill that aims to restore insulin sensitivity in diabetic patients. Type 2 diabetes develops when the body’s response to insulin, the hormone responsible for regulating sugar in our blood, weakens. A number of genetic and lifestyle factors will influence whether or not someone develops this type of diabetes in their lifetime.
Up until now, drugs were unable to restore the insulin signaling function in diabetic patients — instead, they work by filtering out excess glucose in the blood that comes as a result of the dysfunction. The drug produced by Stanford’s team, on the other hand, hopes to restore function.
Restoring Function
The drug inhibits an enzyme called low molecular weight protein tyrosine phosphatase (LMPTP), which is suspected to contribute to the reduction in cell sensitivity to insulin. With reduced LMPTP activity, the drug reenables Continue reading

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New diabetes treatment tops Cleveland Clinic's Top 10 Medical Innovations 2018 list (photos)

New diabetes treatment tops Cleveland Clinic's Top 10 Medical Innovations 2018 list (photos)

CLEVELAND, Ohio -- An insulin pump that functions like an artificial pancreas ranked No. 1 on Cleveland Clinic's list of the Top 10 Medical Innovations for 2018. The announcement of the entire list will be made Wednesday as part of the Cleveland Clinic Medical Innovation Summit.
Other innovations being honored include gene therapy for blindness, new ways of creating vaccines and targeted breast cancer treatment. The insulin pump, which will help patients with Type 1 diabetes, was judged to be the innovation that will have the biggest impact on healthcare next year.
"This is a major breakthrough," said Dr. James Young, chairman of the Endocrinology and Metabolism Institute at the Cleveland Clinic.
The pump senses blood glucose levels and delivers insulin via subcutaneous sensors, Young said.
This year, a 20-person committee looked at more than 300 nominated innovations to find ones that are likely to have the biggest immediate impact, said the Clinic's Dr. Michael Roizen, who will host a multi-media presentation of the Top 10 Medical Innovations. Roizen is chairman of the Cleveland Clinic Wellness Institute and chief wellness officer.
Roizen is excited about the rapid development of new vaccines, and the development of new ways to deliver them, an innovation that earned a spot on the list. "It means really radical changes in vaccine prevention," Roizen said.
The presentation of the Top 10 Medical Innovations comes on the final day of the Medical Innovation Summit, which started Monday at the Huntington Convention Center.
Below, the Top 10 Medical Innovations of 2018 are list Continue reading

Stick to This Diet If You Want to Reverse Diabetes Risk Factors—or Avoid Them Completely

Stick to This Diet If You Want to Reverse Diabetes Risk Factors—or Avoid Them Completely

“Your blood sugar is too high. You have pre-diabetes.” When Gail Tudor heard her doctor say that in July last year, the 54-year-old U.K. wedding videographer was shocked. How could she? She had a normal body mass index of 24, and she followed the NHS-recommended diet low in fat and high in fruits, vegetables and healthy grains. Plus Gail, a mother of two who lives in Wales, was very active—skating, walking, kayaking, and more. Since she already did those things, her doctor said, it was unlikely she could reverse her path to Type 2 diabetes. She was offered a treatment plan including drugs, and was told that it was likely she’d need them for the rest of her life. “I couldn’t believe it,” Gail says. She determined to learn what else she could do to prevent diabetes from developing—without resorting to drugs. (Watch out for these diabetes symptoms that people typically miss.)
Retired engineer Frank Linnhoff, 69, who lives near Bordeaux, France, knew his obesity and his family history put him at high risk of T2 diabetes. His father died aged 70 from kidney failure caused by the disease; his brother had a leg amputated at 45 because of it. Diagnosed with pre-diabetes a number of years earlier, Linhoff had tried his best to follow his doctor’s advice on diet and exercise, but still his weight climbed.
In January 2015, he was feeling so poorly he went for a blood test at a medical laboratory. The results showed his fasting blood glucose was sky high. He knew if he went to the doctor he would be diagnosed with diabetes. “I was so shocked that I was up all night, Continue reading

New diabetes drug may also treat obesity

New diabetes drug may also treat obesity

Semaglutide is a compound that's already being developed as a treatment for diabetes, by Danish pharmaceutical company Novo Nordisk. According to a new study conducted by scientists from the University of Leeds, however, it may serve another valuable purpose – it could greatly aid the obese is losing weight.
The chemical structure of semaglutide is very similar to that of GLP-1, a naturally-occurring hormone that is thought to act on the appetite control centre in the hypothalamus region of the brain, reducing feelings of hunger. With that in mind, a team led by Prof. John Blundell was recruited by Novo Nordisk, to see if it could also be used as a weight-loss medication.
The study incorporated 28 test subjects, all of whom were clinically obese, with a body mass index range of 30 to 45 kg/m2. For 12 weeks, half of them received a weekly dose of semaglutide, while the other half were given a placebo – neither group knew which they were getting.
At the end of that period, they were invited to a testing center to have their body weight and body composition recorded, where they were given a lunch and evening meal. They were told to eat as much as they wanted in order to feel "pleasantly full." The amount that each person consumed was noted, along with their food-type preferences.
The whole 12-week process was then repeated, with the placebo group now receiving semaglutide and vice-versa.
It was found that when given the meals, the people receiving semaglutide ate considerably less than their placebo-taking counterparts, and showed less of a preference for high-fat foods. M Continue reading

Risk of Diabetic Ketoacidosis after Initiation of an SGLT2 Inhibitor

Risk of Diabetic Ketoacidosis after Initiation of an SGLT2 Inhibitor

To the Editor:
Inhibitors of sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) decrease plasma glucose by blocking the reabsorption of glucose at the proximal tubule.1,2 Case reports have suggested that SGLT2 inhibitors may be associated with an increased risk of diabetic ketoacidosis, which led to a warning from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in May 2015.3,4 The objective of our study was to assess the risk of diabetic ketoacidosis after the initiation of an SGLT2 inhibitor.
Using a large claims database of commercially insured patients in the United States (Truven MarketScan), we identified a cohort of adult patients (≥18 years of age) who had newly started treatment with either an SGLT2 inhibitor or a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibitor between April 1, 2013, and December 31, 2014 (before the FDA warning). DPP4 inhibitors were chosen as the comparator medication because they are similarly used as a second-line treatment for diabetes but have no known association with diabetic ketoacidosis. We excluded patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection, end-stage renal disease, cancer, type 1 diabetes, or past diabetic ketoacidosis. Our primary outcome was hospitalization for diabetic ketoacidosis (using the primary position code of the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision) within 180 days after the initiation of an SGLT2 inhibitor or a DPP4 inhibitor. We censored data for patients at the time that they discontinued the initial medication, had the outcome, lost insurance coverage, or died.
We used 1:1 propensity-score matching to balance 46 char Continue reading

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