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Why Ketosis Is Called A Protein-sparing Process

Nutrition 2

Nutrition 2

Sort Simple Carbs contain 1 or 2 molecules commonly referred to as sugars -monosaccharides (single sugar units) --glucose --fructose --galactose -disaccharides (pair of sugar units) --maltose --sucrose --lactose Monosaccharides *glucose- "blood sugar", used to supply cellular energy (fuel) the most abundant carb produced by plants through photosynthesis *fructose- "fruit sugar", sweetest. Abundant in fruits, honey saps (maple syrup). Used to sweeten a variety of food products (high fructose corn syrup). *galactose- not found free in nature, joins with glucose to create lactose "milk sugar" Disaccharides glucose+galactose->lactose "milk sugar" glucose+glucose->maltose "starch molecules" glucose+fructose->sucrose (sugar cane...) *maltose- found primarily in germinating seeds; product of polysaccharide digestion in the GI tract -composed of 2 glucose units *lactose- "milk sugar" composed of glucose and galactose -this includes all dairy products *sucrose- "table sugar"; main energy ingredient of candy and other sweets; found in sugar cane and sugar beets and in some fruits Effects of Fiber stimulates the flow of saliva delays gastric emptying -aiding in weight loss (early satiety) delays the absorption of CHO and fat -regulating glucose absorption in the blood binds heavy metals and minerals in the intestines attracts water in the colon -softens stool stimulate bacterial fermentation -produces short chain fatty acids Positive Effects of Dietary Fiber *moderates nutrient absorption *reduces the absorption of cholesterol and other sterols *stimulates the growth of a healthy bacterial population in the colon *increases softness and volume of stools -reduces risk of hemorrhoids, constipation and diverticulosis 1. may reduce the risk of colon cancer 2. may reduce the risk of he Continue reading >>

A Beginner’s Guide To Ketogenic Diets

A Beginner’s Guide To Ketogenic Diets

What is a Ketogenic Diet? A ketogenic diet (often referred to as “keto”) is a very low carb, high fat diet that shares many similarities with the Atkins diet, the Dukan diet, and several other low carb diets. It involves drastically reducing carbohydrate intake, and replacing it with increased protein and fat. The reduction in carbs puts your body into a metabolic state called ketosis, whereby the body becomes incredibly efficient at burning fat for energy. It also turns fat into ketone bodies (the chemical byproduct of the ketosis process) in the liver, which can supply energy for the brain. What are the Benefits of a Ketogenic Diet? The primary benefit of ketosis is that it increases the body’s ability to utilise fats for energy, while this same ability gets very lazy on a high carbohydrate diet (as the body expects an energy source to continuously enter at regular intervals). In a state of ketosis, however, the body has to become efficient at using fats for fuel. Ketosis also has a protein-sparing effect, where the body actually prefers ketones to glucose. Since the body has large quantities of fat, this means there is no need for it to oxidise protein to generate glucose (a process known as gluconeogenesis), meaning that muscle-wastage is limited when on the diet. Another small but highly important benefit of a keto diet is that ketone production (combined with a relatively high protein intake) is shown to suppress appetite. What are the Downfalls? During the first 7-10 days of the ketogenic diet, the body must go through the “metabolic shift,” as Dr. Mauro DiPasquale (proponent of the “Anabolic Diet”, which uses ketosis as its base) calls it. While going through this process, the body will experience a degree of physical and mental fatigue due to the Continue reading >>

How Much Protein Is Enough?

How Much Protein Is Enough?

It seems, from clinical claims and numerous anecdotes, that protein intake has to be below some threshold for ketogenesis to continue, all else being equal. (Conditions are rarely equal: the effects of fat intake, calorie intake, the profile of amino acids in your diet, the type of fat in your diet, exercise, and frequency of eating also matter!) It is commonly assumed that excess protein gets immediately turned into glucose by gluconeogenesis. However, we've shown in a series of articles (part 1, part 2, part 3, part 4) that such a mechanism is highly unlikely — excess protein does not just get immediately turned into glucose. The evidence points to gluconeogenesis being driven by demand for glucose, not supply of protein. However, it does appear that above a certain level of protein intake ketogenesis declines. So regardless of mechanism, as ketogenic dieters, we probably still need to limit protein. It's not clear how much is too much. But how much is enough? It is important not to turn a healthy, ketogenic diet into an unhealthy starvation diet! In this article we review some answers to this question, and some unanswered questions. In Brief It's important to get enough protein. The RDA for protein is too low: if you are like most people, your health will suffer if you eat as little protein as the RDA requires. Getting the minimum may not be optimal, but getting less than the minimum would be a mistake. There are several different conditions that are commonly believed to affect protein requirements. In particular, exercise and weight loss have both been said to increase protein needs. We couldn't find definitive support for either of those beliefs. We are most interested in studies that apply to keto dieters. Evidence from experiments on the Protein-Sparing Modifie Continue reading >>

The Definitive Guide To The Ketogenic Diet

The Definitive Guide To The Ketogenic Diet

If you want to lose weight or build muscle faster and think the ketogenic diet might help, you want to read this article. How did a diet meant for treating epileptic seizures turn into a popular weight loss fad? That’s the story of the ketogenic diet, which was introduced in 1921 by an endocrinologist named Dr. Henry Geyelin. Geyelin, presenting at the annual meeting of the American Medical Association, explained that the ancient Greeks had discovered that fasting was an effective method of managing epileptic seizures. Hippocrates wrote about it and, like Geyelin, found that the seizures would return once eating resumed. Why? What was it about fasting that suppressed the seizures? Well, epileptic seizures are triggered by electrical abnormalities in the brain. The causes can vary, from genetics to brain injury, but more common is chronic inflammation throughout the body. Geyelin found that when people fast, two major changes occur in the blood: glucose levels fall and ketone levels rise. You’ve probably heard of glucose, also known as blood sugar, but not ketones, which are carbon-oxygen molecules produced by the liver that cells can use for energy instead of glucose. This finding fascinated Geyelin and he set out to determine if similar effects could be achieved without starvation. A decade of work proved they could, and the “ketogenic diet,” as it would be later called, was born. The purpose of the ketogenic diet is to maintain a state of ketosis, wherein the body’s primary energy source is ketones, not glucose. Early studies showed it was an extremely effective treatment for seizures, but in 1938, it was eclipsed by the anticonvulsant drug phenytoin. This medication became the standard treatment for epilepsy, effectively retiring the ketogenic diet from cli Continue reading >>

How Many Carbohydrates Do You Need?

How Many Carbohydrates Do You Need?

A perennial question, argument and debate in the field of nutrition has to do with how many carbohydrates people should be eating. While the nutritional mainstream is still more or less advocating a large amount of daily carbohydrate (with fat being blamed for the health problems of the modern world), groups often considered at the ‘fringe’ of nutrition are adamant that carbohydrates are the source of all evil when it comes to health, obesity, etc. They advocate lowering carbohydrates and replacing them with dietary protein, fat or both. This is a topic that I discussed in some detail in Carbohydrates and Fat Controversies Part 1 and Carbohydrate and Fat Controversies Part 2 and I’d recommend readers take a look at those for a slightly different look at the issue than what is discussed here. Arguments over recommended carbohydrate intake have a long history and it doesn’t appear to be close to ending any time soon. Typical mainstream recommendations have carbohydrates contributing 50% or more of total calories while many low-carbohydrate advocates suggest far fewer (ranging from the 40% of the Zone diet to close to zero for ketogenic diets). This article looks at the topic in detail. And while I originally wrote it quite a while back (some of you have probably seen it before), it was nice going over it with fine toothed comb for an update. While the majority of it stands up well over time, I was able to make some slight changes to the values, along with removing some original stuff that wasn’t really relevant. Enjoy. Introduction It’s safe to say that most carbohydrate recommendations that you will see are put in terms of percentages, you should be eating 45% of your calories as carbs, or 65% or whatever number is being used. As I discussed in Diet Percentag Continue reading >>

Frequently Asked Questions

Frequently Asked Questions

Ketogenic Diet & Longevity Eric M. Verdin, M.D. is the fifth president and chief executive officer of the Buck Institute for Research on Aging and is a professor of Medicine at UCSF. Dr. Verdin's laboratory focuses on the role of epigenetic regulators in the aging process, the role of metabolism and diet in aging and on the chronic diseases of aging, including Alzheimer’s, proteins that play a central role in linking caloric restriction to increased healthspan, and more recently a topic near and dear to many of you, ketogenesis. He's held faculty positions at the University of Brussels, the NIH and the Picower Institute for Medical Research. KETO DIET: A LEGIT LIFESTYLE CHOICE Keto is a lifestyle change. Many who follow the Keto diet adopt a ketogenic lifestyle and intend to adopt long-term habits of reducing the consumption of carbohydrates and sugar. As the ketogenic diet spreads, this is what you need to know about the keto lifestyle, and how GoKeto can make you better. UNDERSTANDING THE KETO DIET Ketogenic diets goal is to put your body into ketosis — a condition in which your body burns down fat instead of carbohydrates for fuel. The diet is mostly fat (actually 75% of your daily calories), with moderate protein intake (20%) and very little carbohydrate (<5%). Without access to glucose from carbohydrates, your body does not have any ups and downs that lead to energy crashes, hunger pangs, and cravings. Instead, the liver must convert fatty acids from your diet into ketones for the body and brain to use as fuel. This stabilizes blood sugar. Your body also loses excess weight — fast. But that does not mean it’s unhealthy or unsustainable —as long as it's done properly. DON’T CALL THE KETO DIET “ATKINS.” First, do not confuse the ketogenic diet for Atk Continue reading >>

In Depth Look At Ketogenic Diets And Ketosis

In Depth Look At Ketogenic Diets And Ketosis

What exactly is Ketosis? The metabolic state of ketosis simply means that the quantity of ketone bodies in the blood have reached higher-than-normal levels. When the body is in a ketogenic state, this means that lipid energy metabolism is intact. The body will start breaking down your own body fat to fuel the body's normal, everyday functions. What's So Great About Being In Ketosis? Establishing this metabolic state of ketosis even for a short period of time has many outstanding benefits. Benefit 1 The main benefit of ketosis is that it increases the body's ability to utilize fats for fuel, which gets very lazy on a high-carbohydrate diet. When on high-carbohydrate diets, the body can usually expect an energy source to keep entering the body. But in the state of ketosis, the body has to become efficient at mobilizing fats as energy. Benefit 2 Ketosis has a protein-sparing effect, assuming that you are consuming adequate quantities of protein and calories—0.7 grams per pound of body weight per day—in the first place.[1] Once in ketosis, the body actually prefers ketones to glucose. Since the body has copious quantities of fat, this means there is no need to oxidize protein to generate glucose through gluconeogenesis. Benefit 3 Another benefit has to do with the low levels of insulin in the body, which causes greater lipolysis and free-glycerol release compared to a normal diet when insulin is around 80-120. Insulin has a lipolysis-blocking effect, which can inhibit the use of fatty acids as energy. Also, when insulin is brought to low levels, beneficial hormones are released in the body, such as growth hormone and other powerful growth factors. Benefit 4 Another small but very important benefit of the ketogenic diet is that when in the state of ketosis, ketones, alon Continue reading >>

The Effects Of Fasting Ketosis

The Effects Of Fasting Ketosis

Understanding ketosis and muscle loss during fasting. The process of ketosis is one of the physiological effects of fasting in which the brain (and some other bodily processes) uses ketones produced from fatty tissues as a fuel instead of the usual glucose. This is called "muscle sparing". When glucose isn't readily available via the diet (in the form of carbohydrates) and the glycogen stores in the liver become depleted, the body could break down muscle to get it. But ketosis is an adaptation that will spare muscle during times of shortage by instead breaking down fat stores and manufacturing ketones for brain fuel. It is said this state is attained at approximately 48 hours of a water fast for women and closer to 72 hours for men. The effects of fasting ketosis have become a more popular and controversial subject in recent years due to low-carb, high-protein dieters relying on it long-term to "burn the fat". Where ketosis was once considered a "crisis response" of the body and fine only for short durations, there are some doctors who now contend ketones are an acceptable alternative fuel, produced and used by the body any time glucose is scarce, which can happen even in non-fasting, non-dieting individuals, such as during intense exercise or during sleep. They are considering it a natural metabolic process where ketone production and use fluctuates constantly in response to the body's needs. What is so controversial about the low-carbers use of ketosis is the long term, artificially produced, use of it. Over long periods of time, their high-protein diet produces excess protein by-products that become a strain on the kidneys to eliminate. Ketosis also creates a mild acidosis of the blood, which, over a long period of time is considered detrimental to our health. One ef Continue reading >>

How Too Much Protein Is Bad For Ketosis

How Too Much Protein Is Bad For Ketosis

One of the well-known mantras of the ketogenic diet is very low carb intake and high fat intake. But there’s another nutrient that’s important to monitor when going keto—and a lot of people make the mistake of not considering its importance. That would be protein. Although protein is a critical element in the diet we need for optimal health, it’s important to not eat TOO much protein on the ketogenic diet. Why? Well, there are a couple reasons that we’ll be discussing below. How Too Much Protein is Bad for Ketosis The biggest energy source on the ketogenic diet is fat. In fact, around 75% of your diet should come from healthy fat sources. The key here is that, unlike the traditional idea of low-carb diets where protein is higher, protein intake should bemoderate, not high, on keto. Not following this advice will never allow your body to enter ketosis, which is the main point of going keto and reaping all of the amazing benefits. The reason too much protein is bad for ketosis is because our bodies have a fundamental energy process called gluconeogenesis. For a deeper dive into the topic, see our post on fixing the biggest ketosis mistakes. For now we shoud know the basics. Let’s break it down this mouthful of a term. The word gluconeogenesis has three parts to it, Gluco – coming from the greek root glukos – literally meaning “sweet wine.” Neo – “new” Genesis – “creation” So a great way to think about it is this is how your body creates new sweet wine for your body. Some people tout that “you don’t need carbohydrates to survive,” which is only partially true. To clarify, you don’t need to eat any carbs to survive, but make no mistake, your body needs carbs in the form of glucose and glycogen, and it will get this via survival mechan Continue reading >>

Gluconeogenesis – The Worst Name For A Rock Band Ever

Gluconeogenesis – The Worst Name For A Rock Band Ever

At least three times a week I am engaged either in the Facebook group or other places asking questions that generally go like this: “At what point do I eat too much protein and go into gluconeogenesis ?” So I wanted to provide a more thought out answer, so here goes. I should add that my commentary here is largely to be filtered through the lens of T1 diabetes…if you’re T1 diabetic, the regulatory feedback mechanisms are endogenously broken (the pancreas isn’t producing insulin), and must be regulated exogenously (the injection of insulin). What is gluconeogenesis? Gluconeogenesis (also known as GNG) is the process by which the body takes “stuff” that isn’t glucose (the more technical term is “non-glucose substrate”) and turns it into glucose. It is an ongoing process which happens in complete starvation as well as in a modified starvation or even a fully fed state. Translation – gluconeogenesis happens all the time, in everyone, everywhere. It seems to happen at a relatively consistent rate. I will get into some additional details on that rate later, but for now, the message is this – studies which have been conducted on humans are lacking, but those which have been done have shown that the rate of GNG does not materially change when protein content of the diet is manipulated. Often, GNG is spoken of as “too much protein in my diet causes it to turn into glucose,” or glibly said…“protein turning into chocolate cake.” The biochemical reality is, however, that it is a bit more complex than that. There are essentially three major contributors to gluconeogenesis which warrant discussion. Protein Protein is composed of amino acids linked together. Some amino acids are called “ketogenic” which (for the purposes of our talk) means that th Continue reading >>

Why Dietary Fat Is Fattening, And When It’s Not.

Why Dietary Fat Is Fattening, And When It’s Not.

Reducing stress in the hypothalamus – is this the best way to decrease body fat? In that article, I discussed how inflammation of the brain’s body-fat regulator – or ‘fat thermostat’ – is of critical importance for weight management. In this article, I discuss how certain dietary patterns affect inflammation in the fat thermostat, as well as short-and-longer term outcomes of different diet types. At the end of the article, I consider how to reflect this study against broad dietary choices we make, and I also link to a recent radio show where I answer audience questions about health and weight control with Robb Wolf and Stephan Guyenet, PhD. Remember from the first article that if the fat thermostat becomes insensitive to signals it relies on to keep the quantity of body fat stable, then the result is that fat mass gets ratcheted up to a new, higher stable point. So, what diet properties affect the sensitivity of the fat thermostat? A study by David McNay and John Speakman explored this. In the study, mice were fed a fattening diet until they became obese. At that point, the obese mice were divided into one of ten groups – five dietary styles, and two food-access conditions: Quick primer on dietary style number 5: a ketogenic diet is a very low carb diet that stimulates the liver to produce ketones, which are short chain fats the brain and body can use as fuel. Ketones may have unique effects on the fat thermostat, which I will discuss later. The diet intervention was maintained for four weeks, then all the animals were switched back to a normal diet and monitored for six weeks. The researchers were interested in: What effect did each diet have on body weight and adiposity (i.e., body fat level)? What happened to the weight after the mice went back on their Continue reading >>

Protein Sparing Effect

Protein Sparing Effect

I recently received a letter from a reader that asked about the protein-sparing effect of carbs. He sent me the address of a bodybuilding website he had been reading and wanted to know if what the guy who wrote the material said was true. The basic premise of the piece is that in order to keep from losing muscle during dieting, one has to eat carbs. If no carbs are eaten, then muscle vanishes, or so he would have us believe. Is this true, the reader wanted to know. Let’s take a look. Here are the pertinent paragraphs from the website: The first thing you may think of is protein. Protein builds muscle. You learned that in the high school weight room. Protein in excess, however, can be used as energy or converted to body fat. Using protein as energy means less body fat is being used as energy. So, having the right amount of protein plus a little extra “just to be sure” you have enough is optimal, but gross overages of protein isn’t going to help you build muscle or retain it. Believe it or not, carbs are key to retaining muscle. Carbohydrates and insulin have been targeted as the deadly duo in obesity and weight loss for very good reasons. However, even though excess carbs will make you gain fat fast, the silver lining is that you gain and retain muscle through the same mechanism. Even when dieting with a lower than normal carb intake, your carbs can be targeted to help you retain muscle, maintain energy levels, and keep your metabolic rate high. The anabolic effects of carbohydrates have been well documented since a 1940’s study showed them to be “protein sparing.” Compared to a fasting group, those with carbs (still no protein) lost only half as much muscle as those without carbs. Throw protein in and you get the same effect just at a higher level. Those w Continue reading >>

Protein Sparing Modified Fast Program

Protein Sparing Modified Fast Program

A protein sparing modified fast (PSMF) is an aggressive weight loss program designed for rapid weight loss. It includes not only dietary components, but medical and behavioral aspects as well. The protein sparing diet is restrictive and requires your commitment to the medically managed diet plan AND your commitment to consistent follow up with our supportive, professional medical team. In an ideal world you would only lose fat rather than lean body mass while dieting. Nevertheless, some loss of lean body mass occurs with any weight loss diet, particularly with very low calorie diets. Although a protein sparing diet typically provides fewer than 900 calories per day, it avoids loss of the majority of lean body mass because it includes 70 to 90 grams per day of high quality protein Carbohydrates are usually the body's primary source of energy. When a person's diet severely limits carbohydrates, the body begins to burn fat as its primary fuel source. Eating large amounts of protein during this process prevents the body from using its ownprotein stores in muscles, tissue, and cells for energy. The rapid breakdown of fat produces waste substances called ketones that are excreted through urine, a condition called ketosis. The protein sparing diet is a ketogenic diet. Loss of appetite is common during ketosis, which adds to the weight loss and makes the very low calorie diet easier to manage. The protein sparing diet allows only lean meat, poultry, seafood, and a small number of low-carbohydrate vegetables. The diet does not allow additional types of fat or other carbohydrates. Any missing required nutrients are provided through supplements. You follow the diet until reaching your target weight and then gradually reintroduce carbohydrates and decrease protein in a post diet pr Continue reading >>

Program Options

Program Options

Weight Loss Program Options First Visit Subsequent Visits Pricing Information Know Your BMI FAQ's Option 1: Protein Sparing Modified Fast Our Protein Sparing Modified Fast protocol is the most aggressive option to lose weight rapidly but in a safe and scientifically proven manner. It involves the use of pharmaceutical grade meal replacements in the form of shakes, soups and bars. The program typically runs 6-8 weeks and a person can expect to lose approximately 5 pounds a week on average. This protocol is not suitable for all patients and requires a thorough evaluation by the physician to determine eligibility. When following this protocol, the patient requires to be regularly monitored by the physician to ensure safety. This protocol forces the body to selectively burn its fat stores while preserving the lean body mass to generate energy by a process called ketosis leading to rapid loss of excess fat deposits. Option 2: Low Calorie Diet Low Calorie Diet is a less aggressive protocol and the weight loss is at a more moderate pace. Other than the usage of meal replacements, the protocol allows the usage of one's own regular, but low calorie food. This program typically runs for 16-20 weeks and one can expect to lose approximately 2-4 pounds per week on average. Majority of the patients qualify to follow this program, however the details vary depending upon the patients needs and co-morbid conditions. As before, this requires a thorough physical evaluation before starting and a regular follow-up by the physician usually once a month. Weight Loss Medications Medications may be used as an adjunct to meal replacement options, exercise and other regular low calorie food . Their usage is based on scientifically proven guidelines and the best clinical judgment of the physician. Continue reading >>

Protein Sparing

Protein Sparing

Protein sparing (amino acid sparing) is the process by which the body derives energy from sources other than protein. Such sources can include fatty tissues, dietary fats and carbohydrates. Protein sparing conserves muscle tissue. The balance between digestible protein (DP) and digestible energy (DE) in the diet is a key factor. Decreasing dietary DP/DE ratio results in an increase of protein conservation. The amino acids are not catabolized for energy, and are conserved in the body in a greater ratio. The amount of protein used in the body is influenced by the percentage that is digestible by the body, and the total quantity of protein fed to the body. Bodybuilding and other strength training promotes the utilization and conservation of protein's amino acids in the body. Using alternate energy sources lessens the amount of amino acids that will be metabolized for energy. An increase of protein in the diet does not lead to greater protein efficiency, more protein will be lost, but a greater amount of protein will be conserved in the body through sheer volume, staying a step ahead of the metabolization of amino acids for energy. This supposedly happens roughly two days after a water fast, according to fasting proponents. External links[edit] Evidence for protein sparing in protein-supplemented low-calorie diets 1985; American Journal of Clinical Nutrition Factors affecting metabolic waste products in fish University of Guelph Water-fasting for health recovery Ben Kim (chiropractor) Continue reading >>

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