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Why Ketoacidosis Cause Coma

Diabetic Coma Different From Insulin Shock, Role Of Hyperglycemia And Hypoglycemia Crucial

Diabetic Coma Different From Insulin Shock, Role Of Hyperglycemia And Hypoglycemia Crucial

The role of hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia are crucial in diabetic coma. A diabetic coma is a complication of diabetes that leads to unconsciousness. A diabetic coma can result from both hyperglycemia – high blood sugar – or hypoglycemia – low blood sugar. A person in a diabetic coma is still alive, but they do not respond to light, sound, touch or any stimulation. If left untreated a diabetic coma can be fatal. A diabetic coma can be confused with an insulin shock, but although the two may appear similar, they do contain their own unique differences. Diabetic coma vs. insulin shock Insulin shock is the body’s reaction to a drop in blood sugar – or hypoglycemia – as a result of too much insulin. Even though the condition is called insulin shock, there is no shock involved and insulin isn’t the main culprit. Even people without diabetes can experience insulin shock if their blood sugar drops low enough. The condition is called a shock because it makes the body react similarly to when blood pressure drops – a fight or flight response. Symptoms of insulin shock are fast breathing, rapid pulse, dizziness, headache, numbness and hunger. Diabetic coma, on the other hand, causes unconsciousness that can occur over the course of days or even weeks and also cause dehydration. Although both conditions must be treated immediately, diabetic coma can be fatal. Causes of diabetic coma There are various causes of diabetic coma, including diabetic ketoacidosis, diabetic hyperosmolar syndrome, and hypoglycemia. Diabetic ketoacidosis: This is a condition where muscles become starved for energy, so the body begins breaking down fat from storage. This forms a toxin known as ketones and, if untreated, can contribute to diabetic coma. Diabetic hyperosmolar syndrome: Diabetic Continue reading >>

Diabetic Coma Recovery: What You Need To Know

Diabetic Coma Recovery: What You Need To Know

In people with diabetes, a diabetic coma occurs when severe levels of either high or low uncontrolled blood sugar are not corrected. If treated quickly, a person will make a rapid recovery from a diabetic coma. However, diabetic coma can be fatal or result in brain damage. It is important for people with diabetes to control their blood sugars and know what to do when their blood sugar levels are not within their target range. The severe symptoms of uncontrolled blood sugar that can come before a diabetic coma include vomiting, difficulty breathing, confusion, weakness, and dizziness. Recovery from diabetic coma If a diabetic coma is not treated within a couple of hours of it developing, it can cause irreversible brain damage. If no treatment is received, a diabetic coma will be fatal. In addition, having blood sugar levels that continue to be too low or too high can be bad for long-term health. This remains true even if they do not develop into diabetic coma. Recognizing the early signs of low or high blood sugar levels and regular monitoring can help people with diabetes keep their blood sugar levels within the healthy range. Doing so will also reduce the risk of associated complications and diabetic coma. What is diabetes? Diabetes is a long-term condition in which the body is unable to control the level of a sugar called glucose in the blood. Diabetes is caused by either a lack of insulin, the body's inability to use insulin correctly, or both. In people who don't have diabetes, insulin usually ensures that excess glucose is removed from the bloodstream. It does this by stimulating cells to absorb the glucose they need for energy from the blood. Insulin also causes any remaining glucose to be stored in the liver as a substance called glycogen. The production of insul Continue reading >>

Diabetes With Coma In Dogs

Diabetes With Coma In Dogs

Though diabetes is a relatively common disease in canines, the problem of accompanying complications is less seen. Often, with insulin therapy, diabetes can be managed quite well in our pets. However, difficulties can arise that can cause our pets to become very ill. Urgent care is required and some pets arrive at the clinic in a comatose, or near comatose state. The list of pets predisposed to diabetes is very long, with some of the breeds being Labrador and Golden Retrievers, Poodles, Miniature Schnauzers, Beagles, Doberman Pinschers, Chow Chow, Dachshund, and West Highland Terrier. Females are affected more often than males. When the pancreas is unable to regulate blood sugar, diabetes results. Once a dog is diagnosed with diabetes, the main protocol is to regulate the blood glucose levels. There can be cases of canine diabetes that occur with serious complications, resulting in issues like hyperglycemia and hyperosmolar coma. A dog with diabetes displays symptoms that are easily recognized. Increased thirst (polydipsia) Frequent urination (polyuria) Increased appetite (polyphagia) Weight loss (even though he is eating regularly) Weakness A dog with complications that can lead to coma will exhibit additional signs. Lethargy and fatigue Restlessness Muscle twitching Depression Dehydration Vomiting Seizure Daze, confusion, and unresponsiveness Rapid breathing (tachypnea) Coma Death Types There are many types of disorders that can lead to diabetes with coma. Each one has specific causes that will lead your dog to a state of being unresponsive and comatose. If your pet is becoming extremely lethargic and moving in and out of consciousness, bring him to the veterinarian or emergency clinic without delay. Insulin resistance Insulin effectiveness Diabetic ketoacidosis Hyper Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

What Is It? Diabetic ketoacidosis is a potentially fatal complication of diabetes that occurs when you have much less insulin than your body needs. This problem causes the blood to become acidic and the body to become dangerously dehydrated. Diabetic ketoacidosis can occur when diabetes is not treated adequately, or it can occur during times of serious sickness. To understand this illness, you need to understand the way your body powers itself with sugar and other fuels. Foods we eat are broken down by the body, and much of what we eat becomes glucose (a type of sugar), which enters the bloodstream. Insulin helps glucose to pass from the bloodstream into body cells, where it is used for energy. Insulin normally is made by the pancreas, but people with type 1 diabetes (insulin-dependent diabetes) don't produce enough insulin and must inject it daily. Your body needs a constant source of energy. When you have plenty of insulin, your body cells can get all the energy they need from glucose. If you don't have enough insulin in your blood, your liver is programmed to manufacture emergency fuels. These fuels, made from fat, are called ketones (or keto acids). In a pinch, ketones can give you energy. However, if your body stays dependent on ketones for energy for too long, you soon will become ill. Ketones are acidic chemicals that are toxic at high concentrations. In diabetic ketoacidosis, ketones build up in the blood, seriously altering the normal chemistry of the blood and interfering with the function of multiple organs. They make the blood acidic, which causes vomiting and abdominal pain. If the acid level of the blood becomes extreme, ketoacidosis can cause falling blood pressure, coma and death. Ketoacidosis is always accompanied by dehydration, which is caused by high Continue reading >>

Diabetic Coma

Diabetic Coma

Tweet Coma is relatively rare in diagnosed diabetes but it is very important to be aware of the situations that increase risk of coma. Causes of diabetic coma The main causes of coma occurring in people with diabetes are as a result of very low or very high blood glucose levels. The three most common causes of coma in people with diabetes are: Severe hypoglycemia and coma Severe hypoglycemia (very low blood glucose levels) can lead to loss of consciousness and coma if not treated. In most cases the body will restore blood sugar levels to normal by releasing glucagon to raise blood sugar levels. Coma is more likely to occur from low blood glucose levels if: A large insulin overdose is taken Alcohol is in the body during hypoglycemia Exercise has depleted the body’s glycogen supply Diabetic ketoacidosis and coma Diabetic ketoacidosis is a dangerous state of having very high blood glucose levels (typically above 17 mmol/L) in combination with high ketone levels. Ketoacidosis is able to occur if the body runs out of insulin and is therefore a factor for people with type 1 diabetes to be aware of. Insulin can prevent ketone levels rising and this is the key reason why people with diabetes are advised never to miss their long term (basal) insulin injections. The symptoms of ketoacidosis include nausea, vomiting, dehydration, disorientation and deep, laboured breathing. If someone with diabetes is displaying these symptoms call for emergency medical help as loss of consciousness and coma could follow. Illness in type 1 diabetes can lead to high blood glucose and ketone levels. It is advisable to test for ketones during periods of illness to prevent ketoacidosis developing. Diabetic coma at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes If the symptoms of type 1 diabetes are not spotted soon e Continue reading >>

How To Help Someone In A Coma

How To Help Someone In A Coma

Author's Sidebar: Every once in a while, I'll get a phone call or an email message from a person, who has a relative in the hospital in a diabetic coma. I can usually tell by the tone in their voice that they are desperate, afraid and uncertain what to do. These types of phone calls are difficult, because there's nothing that I can do to help them. Usually, I suggest that the person make sure that they share as much information that they can about the person's health with the doctors and nurses. The more that you know about the person's health, the better it can help the doctors understand what is happening. Another thing that I usually suggest is to keep a notebook or journal of what's going on and ask questions, but be respectful to the medical staff. Use the notebook for taking notes when the doctors tell you things about the patient's condition, etc. Otherwise, you will never remember what was said to relay to other family members. When a large family is involved it gets tiring to keep repeating the same information -- so they can read your notebook. Also, write down all the pertinent phone numbers and emails of people who would need to be contacted when changes in condition occur. There are usually a lot of people who want this information and having email addresses makes it easier than trying to call everyone. Keeping notes is also a good way to keep busy. A journal may not only serve as a method for coping with grief, it may also be helpful for the patient when they come out of the coma -- to realize what happened to them. If the person has a smartphone or similar device, usually I'll suggest that they google phrases like "diabetic coma" to better understand what is going on. If the hospital allows it, bring a small CD player or tape player and play some of the p Continue reading >>

Diabetic Emergencies (ketoacidosis And Coma)

Diabetic Emergencies (ketoacidosis And Coma)

The blood glucose (sugar) level is maintained with a narrow range that is sufficient for the cells to have an adequate supply of nutrition for energy production. High glucose levels can damage or even destroy cells over time while low levels will prevent cells from functioning optimally and lead to key systems in the body shutting down. Glucose like all other nutrients are derived from the food we eat. The food is digested and absorbed within the alimentary tract that runs from the mouth to the anus. The stomach and intestines (gastrointestinal tract) are the main sites for digestion and absorption. The nutrients then enter the bloodstream and travel to the liver where it is processed further. Other organs like the pancreas play a role in managing the nutrient levels within the body and its availability to the body’s cells. The pancreas specifically impacts on the blood glucose levels by secreting the hormone insulin which lowers blood glucose levels by promoting the cells to take up more glucose from the bloodstream and stimulating the liver to convert the glucose into other storage forms like glycogen and even fat. What is a diabetic emergency? Diabetes mellitus is a clinical condition which is characterized by high blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia) due to absolute (type 1 diabetes) or relative (type 2 diabetes) deficiency of insulin. This means that the body lacks insulin, secretes too little insulin or the body cells becomes resistant to the effects of insulin. The elevated blood glucose levels gradually diminishes different cells and organs. Diabetic emergencies can occur due to very high or very low blood sugar levels (hypoglycemia). They may arise in a person undergoing diabetes treatment but can also occur in new diabetic cases. Types of Diabetic Emergencies Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious problem that can occur in people with diabetes if their body starts to run out of insulin. This causes harmful substances called ketones to build up in the body, which can be life-threatening if not spotted and treated quickly. DKA mainly affects people with type 1 diabetes, but can sometimes occur in people with type 2 diabetes. If you have diabetes, it's important to be aware of the risk and know what to do if DKA occurs. Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis Signs of DKA include: needing to pee more than usual being sick breath that smells fruity (like pear drop sweets or nail varnish) deep or fast breathing feeling very tired or sleepy passing out DKA can also cause high blood sugar (hyperglycaemia) and a high level of ketones in your blood or urine, which you can check for using home-testing kits. Symptoms usually develop over 24 hours, but can come on faster. Check your blood sugar and ketone levels Check your blood sugar level if you have symptoms of DKA. If your blood sugar is 11mmol/L or over and you have a blood or urine ketone testing kit, check your ketone level. If you do a blood ketone test: lower than 0.6mmol/L is a normal reading 0.6 to 1.5mmol/L means you're at a slightly increased risk of DKA and should test again in a couple of hours 1.6 to 2.9mmol/L means you're at an increased risk of DKA and should contact your diabetes team or GP as soon as possible 3mmol/L or over means you have a very high risk of DKA and should get medical help immediately If you do a urine ketone test, a result of more than 2+ means there's a high chance you have DKA. When to get medical help Go to your nearest accident and emergency (A&E) department straight away if you think you have DKA, especially if you have a high level of ketones in Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Practice Essentials Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is an acute, major, life-threatening complication of diabetes that mainly occurs in patients with type 1 diabetes, but it is not uncommon in some patients with type 2 diabetes. This condition is a complex disordered metabolic state characterized by hyperglycemia, ketoacidosis, and ketonuria. Signs and symptoms The most common early symptoms of DKA are the insidious increase in polydipsia and polyuria. The following are other signs and symptoms of DKA: Nausea and vomiting; may be associated with diffuse abdominal pain, decreased appetite, and anorexia History of failure to comply with insulin therapy or missed insulin injections due to vomiting or psychological reasons or history of mechanical failure of insulin infusion pump Altered consciousness (eg, mild disorientation, confusion); frank coma is uncommon but may occur when the condition is neglected or with severe dehydration/acidosis Signs and symptoms of DKA associated with possible intercurrent infection are as follows: See Clinical Presentation for more detail. Diagnosis On examination, general findings of DKA may include the following: Characteristic acetone (ketotic) breath odor In addition, evaluate patients for signs of possible intercurrent illnesses such as MI, UTI, pneumonia, and perinephric abscess. Search for signs of infection is mandatory in all cases. Testing Initial and repeat laboratory studies for patients with DKA include the following: Serum electrolyte levels (eg, potassium, sodium, chloride, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus) Note that high serum glucose levels may lead to dilutional hyponatremia; high triglyceride levels may lead to factitious low glucose levels; and high levels of ketone bodies may lead to factitious elevation of creatinine levels. Continue reading >>

Risk Factors And Symptoms Of A Diabetic Coma

Risk Factors And Symptoms Of A Diabetic Coma

It is important for diabetics to keep track of their blood sugar levels because any discrepancies that result in dangerously high or low levels can lead to a diabetic coma. A diabetic coma is a life-threatening complication associated with the disease that causes unconsciousness. If left untreated, a diabetic coma can be fatal. Risk Factors for a Diabetic Coma Anyone who has diabetes is at risk of experiencing a diabetic coma. If you suffer from type 1 diabetes, you're at risk of a diabetic coma due to low blood sugar or diabetic ketoacidosis. If you have type 2 diabetes, you're at risk of a diabetic coma due to diabetic hyperosmolar syndrome, particularly if you're middle-aged or older. Both type 1 and type 2 diabetics are at risk due to insulin delivery problems as well. It is important to know that even if you're on an insulin pump, you have to check your blood sugar frequently. Always ensure that there are no kinks in your insulin pump tubing, as this could cause all insulin delivery to stop. Even tubeless pumps can occasionally cause problems that can cause insulin delivery to stop. There are other risk factors that diabetics should be aware of as well, such as illness, trauma or surgery. When you are sick or injured, your blood sugar levels tend to rise. This sudden rise may cause diabetic ketoacidosis if you have type 1 diabetes and don't increase your insulin intake to compensate. Congestive heart failure or kidney disease can also increase your risk of diabetic hyperosmolar syndrome, which can lead to a diabetic coma. Diabetes management is absolutely key to staying healthy, and if you do not monitor your blood sugar properly or take your medications as directed, you are increasing your risk of developing long-term complications and diabetic coma. Deliberately Continue reading >>

Sometimes While Working Out And Trying Hard To Hit Last Reps, I Feel A Taste Of Alcohol In My Mouth. Why Does This Happen?

Sometimes While Working Out And Trying Hard To Hit Last Reps, I Feel A Taste Of Alcohol In My Mouth. Why Does This Happen?

My theory is that your body is burning fat while you are working out (that is part of the goal, no?) and you are tasting ketones/acetone. When our bodies metabolize fat, ketones (ketone bodies) develop and circulate in our bloodstream. This is a mild, usually harmless, condition called ketosis. Ketones spontaneously break down into acetone. Yes, the same acetone that is paint thinner, finger nail polish remover or adhesive remover/glue dissolver. The ketones and acetone have a very distintive taste and smell. To many people, the taste and smell are very similar to alcohol. So similar that people in ketoacidosis* have been arrested for public drunkeness, because their breath smelled like wine breath (also, ketoacidosis makes a person act drunk). [To me, ketones/acetone tastes like Elmer’s Glue when I was a kid.] *Ketoacidosis or Diabetic Ketoacidosis is a life-threatening condition in people whose bodies don’t make enough insulin to metabolize the glucose in their blood. Ketones and excess glucose make the blood too acidic and this hyperacidic blood can cause coma, liver and kidney damage and (if not treated) death. Continue reading >>

Your Intensive Care Hotline - Diabetic Coma

Your Intensive Care Hotline - Diabetic Coma

What is Diabetic Coma? Diabetic coma is a reversible form of coma found in people with diabetes mellitus. It is a medical emergency. Three different types of diabetic coma are identified: Severe diabetic hypoglycemia Diabetic ketoacidosis advanced enough to result in unconsciousness from a combination of severe hyperglycemia, dehydration and shock, and exhaustion Hyperosmolar nonketotic coma in which extreme hyperglycemia and dehydration alone are sufficient to cause unconsciousness. In most medical contexts, the term diabetic coma refers to the diagnostical dilemma posed when a physician is confronted with an unconscious Patient about whom nothing is known except that he has diabetes. An example might be a physician working in an emergency department who receives an unconscious Patient wearing a medical identification tag saying DIABETIC. Paramedics may be called to rescue an unconscious person by friends who identify him as diabetic. Brief descriptions of the three major conditions are followed by a discussion of the diagnostic process used to distinguish among them, as well as a few other conditions which must be considered. An estimated 2 to 15 percent of diabetics will suffer from at least one episode of diabetic coma in their lifetimes as a result of severe hypoglycemia. What is diabetes? Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) Hyperosmolar Hypoglycemic Non-Ketotic Coma (HHNKC) Hypoglycemic Coma What happens In Intensive Care? How long will your loved one remain in Intensive Care? Internet Links What is Diabetes? Diabetes mellitus, or simply diabetes, is a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced.This high blood sugar produces Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Syndrome

Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Syndrome

In Brief Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome (HHS) are two acute complications of diabetes that can result in increased morbidity and mortality if not efficiently and effectively treated. Mortality rates are 2–5% for DKA and 15% for HHS, and mortality is usually a consequence of the underlying precipitating cause(s) rather than a result of the metabolic changes of hyperglycemia. Effective standardized treatment protocols, as well as prompt identification and treatment of the precipitating cause, are important factors affecting outcome. The two most common life-threatening complications of diabetes mellitus include diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome (HHS). Although there are important differences in their pathogenesis, the basic underlying mechanism for both disorders is a reduction in the net effective concentration of circulating insulin coupled with a concomitant elevation of counterregulatory hormones (glucagon, catecholamines, cortisol, and growth hormone). These hyperglycemic emergencies continue to be important causes of morbidity and mortality among patients with diabetes. DKA is reported to be responsible for more than 100,000 hospital admissions per year in the United States1 and accounts for 4–9% of all hospital discharge summaries among patients with diabetes.1 The incidence of HHS is lower than DKA and accounts for <1% of all primary diabetic admissions.1 Most patients with DKA have type 1 diabetes; however, patients with type 2 diabetes are also at risk during the catabolic stress of acute illness.2 Contrary to popular belief, DKA is more common in adults than in children.1 In community-based studies, more than 40% of African-American patients with DKA were >40 years of age and more than 2 Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

As fat is broken down, acids called ketones build up in the blood and urine. In high levels, ketones are poisonous. This condition is known as ketoacidosis. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is sometimes the first sign of type 1 diabetes in people who have not yet been diagnosed. It can also occur in someone who has already been diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. Infection, injury, a serious illness, missing doses of insulin shots, or surgery can lead to DKA in people with type 1 diabetes. People with type 2 diabetes can also develop DKA, but it is less common. It is usually triggered by uncontrolled blood sugar, missing doses of medicines, or a severe illness. Continue reading >>

Diabetic Coma Causes

Diabetic Coma Causes

Diabetics with prolonged blood-sugar extremes (either too high or too low blood-sugar level) may lead to a diabetic coma. Causes of Diabetes coma Many condition diabetes conditions lead to the cause of diabetes coma. They are: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) - If the muscle cells become energy starved, and the body may respond by breaking down stored fats. Breaking down of fats produces a toxic acid known as ketones and this breakdown is called as ketoacidosis. If it left untreated, DKA can lead to a diabetic coma. DKA is most common among diabetes type 1, but can also affect the type 2 diabetes or gestational diabetes. Diabetic hyperosmolar syndrome - If the blood-sugar level rises to 600 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL), or 33 millimoles per liter (mmol/L) it is called as diabetic hyperosmolar syndrome. Such a high level of glucose in blood makes the blood thicker like syrup. This excess sugar level is removed from the blood through the urine, which remove tremendous amounts of fluid from the body causing dehydration. If it left untreated diabetic hyperosomolar syndrome can lead to dangerous dehydration and coma. Hyperosmolar syndrome is more common among type 2 diabetes. Hypoglycemia - Brain needs glucose to function properly. An extreme low blood-sugar level may lead to pass out. Hypoglycemia can be caused by large quantityof insulin or too little of food or vigorous exercise or drinking lot of alcohol. Anyone who has diabetes is at risk of a diabetic coma. Type 1 is more at risk of a diabetic coma caused by: Low blood-sugar (hypoglycemia), and DKA Type 2 is more at risk of a diabetic coma caused by: hyperosmolar syndrome. Diabetic coma risk factors. Some factors can increase the risk of diabetic coma they include: Insulin delivery system problems - If on an insulin pum Continue reading >>

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