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Why Ketoacidosis Cause Coma

Cause Of Diabetic Coma

Cause Of Diabetic Coma

Diabetic coma is a dangerous condition that can lead to unconsciousness and even death. Diabetic coma may affect 2% to 15% of all diabetics at least once in their lifetime and the condition that most commonly causes the coma is severe hypoglycaemia or low blood sugar. There are three main causes of coma in people with diabetes: diabetic ketoacidosis, severe hypoglycaemia and hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar state. However, despite the increased prevalence of diabetes across the globe, improved diagnosis and early treatment of these causative conditions has lessened the risk of death due to diabetic coma. A glucometer, for example, can detect high or low blood sugar in an unconscious diabetic patient within seconds and this can be confirmed in the laboratory within an hour. Furthermore, due to the widespread warnings and knowledge regarding the possibility of the three conditions, most patients are brought to an emergency unit before the onset of coma. The three causes of diabetic coma Severe hypoglycaemia If an individual’s sugar level in the blood and the brain drops to below 3.5 mmol/l, they are at risk of losing consciousness and falling into a diabetic coma. This risk is greater if an excess dose of insulin or other anti-diabetic medications has been taken, if alcohol is in the person’s body while they are hypoglycemic, or if vigorous exercise has depleted the body’s supply of glycogen. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) This condition is more common among people with type 1 diabetes or those with type 2 diabetes who are taking insulin. If there is shortage of insulin, the body fails to use the glucose in the blood for energy and instead fats are broken down in the liver to form acidic compounds called ketones. These ketones build up in the body causing DKA. The condition Continue reading >>

Diabetic Coma Different From Insulin Shock, Role Of Hyperglycemia And Hypoglycemia Crucial

Diabetic Coma Different From Insulin Shock, Role Of Hyperglycemia And Hypoglycemia Crucial

The role of hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia are crucial in diabetic coma. A diabetic coma is a complication of diabetes that leads to unconsciousness. A diabetic coma can result from both hyperglycemia – high blood sugar – or hypoglycemia – low blood sugar. A person in a diabetic coma is still alive, but they do not respond to light, sound, touch or any stimulation. If left untreated a diabetic coma can be fatal. A diabetic coma can be confused with an insulin shock, but although the two may appear similar, they do contain their own unique differences. Diabetic coma vs. insulin shock Insulin shock is the body’s reaction to a drop in blood sugar – or hypoglycemia – as a result of too much insulin. Even though the condition is called insulin shock, there is no shock involved and insulin isn’t the main culprit. Even people without diabetes can experience insulin shock if their blood sugar drops low enough. The condition is called a shock because it makes the body react similarly to when blood pressure drops – a fight or flight response. Symptoms of insulin shock are fast breathing, rapid pulse, dizziness, headache, numbness and hunger. Diabetic coma, on the other hand, causes unconsciousness that can occur over the course of days or even weeks and also cause dehydration. Although both conditions must be treated immediately, diabetic coma can be fatal. Causes of diabetic coma There are various causes of diabetic coma, including diabetic ketoacidosis, diabetic hyperosmolar syndrome, and hypoglycemia. Diabetic ketoacidosis: This is a condition where muscles become starved for energy, so the body begins breaking down fat from storage. This forms a toxin known as ketones and, if untreated, can contribute to diabetic coma. Diabetic hyperosmolar syndrome: Diabetic Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Hyperglycaemic Hyperosmolar State

Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Hyperglycaemic Hyperosmolar State

The hallmark of diabetes is a raised plasma glucose resulting from an absolute or relative lack of insulin action. Untreated, this can lead to two distinct yet overlapping life-threatening emergencies. Near-complete lack of insulin will result in diabetic ketoacidosis, which is therefore more characteristic of type 1 diabetes, whereas partial insulin deficiency will suppress hepatic ketogenesis but not hepatic glucose output, resulting in hyperglycaemia and dehydration, and culminating in the hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar state. Hyperglycaemia is characteristic of diabetic ketoacidosis, particularly in the previously undiagnosed, but it is the acidosis and the associated electrolyte disorders that make this a life-threatening condition. Hyperglycaemia is the dominant feature of the hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar state, causing severe polyuria and fluid loss and leading to cellular dehydration. Progression from uncontrolled diabetes to a metabolic emergency may result from unrecognised diabetes, sometimes aggravated by glucose containing drinks, or metabolic stress due to infection or intercurrent illness and associated with increased levels of counter-regulatory hormones. Since diabetic ketoacidosis and the hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar state have a similar underlying pathophysiology the principles of treatment are similar (but not identical), and the conditions may be considered two extremes of a spectrum of disease, with individual patients often showing aspects of both. Pathogenesis of DKA and HHS Insulin is a powerful anabolic hormone which helps nutrients to enter the cells, where these nutrients can be used either as fuel or as building blocks for cell growth and expansion. The complementary action of insulin is to antagonise the breakdown of fuel stores. Thus, the relea Continue reading >>

Diabetic Coma Causes

Diabetic Coma Causes

Diabetics with prolonged blood-sugar extremes (either too high or too low blood-sugar level) may lead to a diabetic coma. Causes of Diabetes coma Many condition diabetes conditions lead to the cause of diabetes coma. They are: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) - If the muscle cells become energy starved, and the body may respond by breaking down stored fats. Breaking down of fats produces a toxic acid known as ketones and this breakdown is called as ketoacidosis. If it left untreated, DKA can lead to a diabetic coma. DKA is most common among diabetes type 1, but can also affect the type 2 diabetes or gestational diabetes. Diabetic hyperosmolar syndrome - If the blood-sugar level rises to 600 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL), or 33 millimoles per liter (mmol/L) it is called as diabetic hyperosmolar syndrome. Such a high level of glucose in blood makes the blood thicker like syrup. This excess sugar level is removed from the blood through the urine, which remove tremendous amounts of fluid from the body causing dehydration. If it left untreated diabetic hyperosomolar syndrome can lead to dangerous dehydration and coma. Hyperosmolar syndrome is more common among type 2 diabetes. Hypoglycemia - Brain needs glucose to function properly. An extreme low blood-sugar level may lead to pass out. Hypoglycemia can be caused by large quantityof insulin or too little of food or vigorous exercise or drinking lot of alcohol. Anyone who has diabetes is at risk of a diabetic coma. Type 1 is more at risk of a diabetic coma caused by: Low blood-sugar (hypoglycemia), and DKA Type 2 is more at risk of a diabetic coma caused by: hyperosmolar syndrome. Diabetic coma risk factors. Some factors can increase the risk of diabetic coma they include: Insulin delivery system problems - If on an insulin pum Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Syndrome

Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Syndrome

In Brief Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome (HHS) are two acute complications of diabetes that can result in increased morbidity and mortality if not efficiently and effectively treated. Mortality rates are 2–5% for DKA and 15% for HHS, and mortality is usually a consequence of the underlying precipitating cause(s) rather than a result of the metabolic changes of hyperglycemia. Effective standardized treatment protocols, as well as prompt identification and treatment of the precipitating cause, are important factors affecting outcome. The two most common life-threatening complications of diabetes mellitus include diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome (HHS). Although there are important differences in their pathogenesis, the basic underlying mechanism for both disorders is a reduction in the net effective concentration of circulating insulin coupled with a concomitant elevation of counterregulatory hormones (glucagon, catecholamines, cortisol, and growth hormone). These hyperglycemic emergencies continue to be important causes of morbidity and mortality among patients with diabetes. DKA is reported to be responsible for more than 100,000 hospital admissions per year in the United States1 and accounts for 4–9% of all hospital discharge summaries among patients with diabetes.1 The incidence of HHS is lower than DKA and accounts for <1% of all primary diabetic admissions.1 Most patients with DKA have type 1 diabetes; however, patients with type 2 diabetes are also at risk during the catabolic stress of acute illness.2 Contrary to popular belief, DKA is more common in adults than in children.1 In community-based studies, more than 40% of African-American patients with DKA were >40 years of age and more than 2 Continue reading >>

Diabetic Emergencies (ketoacidosis And Coma)

Diabetic Emergencies (ketoacidosis And Coma)

The blood glucose (sugar) level is maintained with a narrow range that is sufficient for the cells to have an adequate supply of nutrition for energy production. High glucose levels can damage or even destroy cells over time while low levels will prevent cells from functioning optimally and lead to key systems in the body shutting down. Glucose like all other nutrients are derived from the food we eat. The food is digested and absorbed within the alimentary tract that runs from the mouth to the anus. The stomach and intestines (gastrointestinal tract) are the main sites for digestion and absorption. The nutrients then enter the bloodstream and travel to the liver where it is processed further. Other organs like the pancreas play a role in managing the nutrient levels within the body and its availability to the body’s cells. The pancreas specifically impacts on the blood glucose levels by secreting the hormone insulin which lowers blood glucose levels by promoting the cells to take up more glucose from the bloodstream and stimulating the liver to convert the glucose into other storage forms like glycogen and even fat. What is a diabetic emergency? Diabetes mellitus is a clinical condition which is characterized by high blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia) due to absolute (type 1 diabetes) or relative (type 2 diabetes) deficiency of insulin. This means that the body lacks insulin, secretes too little insulin or the body cells becomes resistant to the effects of insulin. The elevated blood glucose levels gradually diminishes different cells and organs. Diabetic emergencies can occur due to very high or very low blood sugar levels (hypoglycemia). They may arise in a person undergoing diabetes treatment but can also occur in new diabetic cases. Types of Diabetic Emergencies Continue reading >>

Diabetic Coma Symptoms

Diabetic Coma Symptoms

A diabetic coma is one of the most life-threatening complications of diabetes. The main symptom is unconsciousness. A diabetic coma can be the result of having a blood glucose level that is too high (hyperglycemia) or a blood glucose level that is too low (hypoglycemia). The diabetic in a diabetic coma is unconscious and can die if the condition is not treated. Symptoms of Diabetic Coma Before you lapse into a diabetic coma, there are usually warning signs of blood sugar levels that are too low or blood sugar levels that are too high. For example, if the blood sugar is too high, the you may experience tiredness, abdominal pain, shortness of breath, increased urination, increased thirst, a rapid heart rate, a dry mouth, and a fruity smell to your breath. If the blood sugar is too low, you may experience signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia, including weakness, tiredness, anxiety, tremulousness, nervousness, nausea, confusion, problems communicating, light-headedness, hunger, or dizziness. If you have had diabetes for many years, you may not have many symptoms of low blood sugar and won’t know you have the condition prior to falling into a coma. If you suspect that you have either high blood sugar or low blood sugar, you need to check your blood glucose levels and do what your doctor has recommended for you to treat the disease. If you don’t feel better after trying home remedies, you need to call 911 and get some kind of emergency care. Causes of Diabetic Coma The main cause of a diabetic coma is an extremely high blood sugar or an extremely low blood sugar. The following medical conditions can cause a diabetic coma: Diabetic hyperosmolar syndrome. This is a condition in which the blood sugar is as high as 600 mg/d: or 33.3 mmol per liter. There are no ketones in the u Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Hyperosmolar Coma.

Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Hyperosmolar Coma.

Abstract DKA-hyperosmolar coma is a readily diagnosed and easily treated, potentially catastrophic emergency that regularly occurs in both Type I and Type II diabetics. This review emphasized that diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar coma can, and very frequently do, occur concurrently, but it is the hyperosmolar state rather than the DKA that is the primary cause of coma and death in this condition. One must therefore vigorously treat the hyperosmolarity and resulting dehydration, especially when total calculated osmolarity exceeds 230 to 240 mOsm/L. The major aim of treatment is to rapidly replace the major water loss that is responsible for this clinical condition and to stimulate glucose metabolism with insulin. The diagnosis of this dangerous condition is relatively simple. The therapy, in most regards, is equally apparent. There are good data demonstrating that the prompt recognition of DKA-hyperosmolar coma and the simple institution of rapid rehydration have continued to reduce the mortality and complications of this potentially disastrous complication of diabetes mellitus. Continue reading >>

Diabetes With Coma In Dogs

Diabetes With Coma In Dogs

Though diabetes is a relatively common disease in canines, the problem of accompanying complications is less seen. Often, with insulin therapy, diabetes can be managed quite well in our pets. However, difficulties can arise that can cause our pets to become very ill. Urgent care is required and some pets arrive at the clinic in a comatose, or near comatose state. The list of pets predisposed to diabetes is very long, with some of the breeds being Labrador and Golden Retrievers, Poodles, Miniature Schnauzers, Beagles, Doberman Pinschers, Chow Chow, Dachshund, and West Highland Terrier. Females are affected more often than males. When the pancreas is unable to regulate blood sugar, diabetes results. Once a dog is diagnosed with diabetes, the main protocol is to regulate the blood glucose levels. There can be cases of canine diabetes that occur with serious complications, resulting in issues like hyperglycemia and hyperosmolar coma. A dog with diabetes displays symptoms that are easily recognized. Increased thirst (polydipsia) Frequent urination (polyuria) Increased appetite (polyphagia) Weight loss (even though he is eating regularly) Weakness A dog with complications that can lead to coma will exhibit additional signs. Lethargy and fatigue Restlessness Muscle twitching Depression Dehydration Vomiting Seizure Daze, confusion, and unresponsiveness Rapid breathing (tachypnea) Coma Death Types There are many types of disorders that can lead to diabetes with coma. Each one has specific causes that will lead your dog to a state of being unresponsive and comatose. If your pet is becoming extremely lethargic and moving in and out of consciousness, bring him to the veterinarian or emergency clinic without delay. Insulin resistance Insulin effectiveness Diabetic ketoacidosis Hyper Continue reading >>

How To Help Someone In A Coma

How To Help Someone In A Coma

Author's Sidebar: Every once in a while, I'll get a phone call or an email message from a person, who has a relative in the hospital in a diabetic coma. I can usually tell by the tone in their voice that they are desperate, afraid and uncertain what to do. These types of phone calls are difficult, because there's nothing that I can do to help them. Usually, I suggest that the person make sure that they share as much information that they can about the person's health with the doctors and nurses. The more that you know about the person's health, the better it can help the doctors understand what is happening. Another thing that I usually suggest is to keep a notebook or journal of what's going on and ask questions, but be respectful to the medical staff. Use the notebook for taking notes when the doctors tell you things about the patient's condition, etc. Otherwise, you will never remember what was said to relay to other family members. When a large family is involved it gets tiring to keep repeating the same information -- so they can read your notebook. Also, write down all the pertinent phone numbers and emails of people who would need to be contacted when changes in condition occur. There are usually a lot of people who want this information and having email addresses makes it easier than trying to call everyone. Keeping notes is also a good way to keep busy. A journal may not only serve as a method for coping with grief, it may also be helpful for the patient when they come out of the coma -- to realize what happened to them. If the person has a smartphone or similar device, usually I'll suggest that they google phrases like "diabetic coma" to better understand what is going on. If the hospital allows it, bring a small CD player or tape player and play some of the p Continue reading >>

Diabetic Coma

Diabetic Coma

Tweet Coma is relatively rare in diagnosed diabetes but it is very important to be aware of the situations that increase risk of coma. Causes of diabetic coma The main causes of coma occurring in people with diabetes are as a result of very low or very high blood glucose levels. The three most common causes of coma in people with diabetes are: Severe hypoglycemia and coma Severe hypoglycemia (very low blood glucose levels) can lead to loss of consciousness and coma if not treated. In most cases the body will restore blood sugar levels to normal by releasing glucagon to raise blood sugar levels. Coma is more likely to occur from low blood glucose levels if: A large insulin overdose is taken Alcohol is in the body during hypoglycemia Exercise has depleted the body’s glycogen supply Diabetic ketoacidosis and coma Diabetic ketoacidosis is a dangerous state of having very high blood glucose levels (typically above 17 mmol/L) in combination with high ketone levels. Ketoacidosis is able to occur if the body runs out of insulin and is therefore a factor for people with type 1 diabetes to be aware of. Insulin can prevent ketone levels rising and this is the key reason why people with diabetes are advised never to miss their long term (basal) insulin injections. The symptoms of ketoacidosis include nausea, vomiting, dehydration, disorientation and deep, laboured breathing. If someone with diabetes is displaying these symptoms call for emergency medical help as loss of consciousness and coma could follow. Illness in type 1 diabetes can lead to high blood glucose and ketone levels. It is advisable to test for ketones during periods of illness to prevent ketoacidosis developing. Diabetic coma at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes If the symptoms of type 1 diabetes are not spotted soon e Continue reading >>

Fatal Coma In Diabetes.

Fatal Coma In Diabetes.

Abstract Analysis of causes of death in a population of 3,113 diabetics was carried out for a period of eight years and those patients dying of some form of diabetic coma identified. Of 1,274 deaths, only 22 (1.73%) were primarily due to coma; 7 hypoglycaemia, 8 ketoacidosis, 3 hyperosmolar coma and 4 lactic acidosis. Three of the ketoacidosis patients may have died from other causes. Most deaths occurred in patients with long-standing diabetes. In the hypoglycaemic group all were on insulin and several had been difficult to control for many years. Infection was an important precipitating factor for ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar coma. Phenformin was the cause of all cases of fatal lactic acidosis. It is reassuring that death from coma is a comparatively rare event in known treated diabetic patients. Continue reading >>

Sometimes While Working Out And Trying Hard To Hit Last Reps, I Feel A Taste Of Alcohol In My Mouth. Why Does This Happen?

Sometimes While Working Out And Trying Hard To Hit Last Reps, I Feel A Taste Of Alcohol In My Mouth. Why Does This Happen?

My theory is that your body is burning fat while you are working out (that is part of the goal, no?) and you are tasting ketones/acetone. When our bodies metabolize fat, ketones (ketone bodies) develop and circulate in our bloodstream. This is a mild, usually harmless, condition called ketosis. Ketones spontaneously break down into acetone. Yes, the same acetone that is paint thinner, finger nail polish remover or adhesive remover/glue dissolver. The ketones and acetone have a very distintive taste and smell. To many people, the taste and smell are very similar to alcohol. So similar that people in ketoacidosis* have been arrested for public drunkeness, because their breath smelled like wine breath (also, ketoacidosis makes a person act drunk). [To me, ketones/acetone tastes like Elmer’s Glue when I was a kid.] *Ketoacidosis or Diabetic Ketoacidosis is a life-threatening condition in people whose bodies don’t make enough insulin to metabolize the glucose in their blood. Ketones and excess glucose make the blood too acidic and this hyperacidic blood can cause coma, liver and kidney damage and (if not treated) death. Continue reading >>

What Is A Diabetic Coma?: Signs, Symptoms, Causes And Treatment

What Is A Diabetic Coma?: Signs, Symptoms, Causes And Treatment

What is a diabetic coma? Diabetic coma is a serious condition that can be life threatening, and usually occurs in patients who experience extremely high or low levels of blood sugar. This is a rare condition where a patient is alive, but unable to respond to stimulation such as sound or sight. In other words, diabetic coma happens when a diabetic patients becomes unconscious. When you have high levels of blood glucose, you can experience fatigue, stomach pain, and shortness of breath. On the other hand, low levels of blood glucose can make you feel dizzy and weak. The symptoms can worsen until you fall into a coma. If diabetic coma is not treated, it can be fatal. However, the good news is that diabetic coma is preventable. Usually, when you carefully follow your diabetes treatment plan, you can prevent low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) and high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) from advancing to a more serious condition, i.e. diabetic coma. If you lapse into a diabetic coma, you will need emergency medical care. If you start to experience signs of hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia, you should seek medical attention immediately—especially if the symptoms get worse. Types of diabetic coma There are 3 common types of diabetic coma: Severe hypoglycemia in patients with diabetes Hypoglycemia can be treated, but a diabetic patient may lose consciousness if it becomes severe. Hyperosmolar nonketotic coma Hyperosmolar nonketotic coma usually occurs in type 2 diabetic patients who have very high blood sugar levels. Diabetic ketoacidosis If diabetic ketoacidosis advances without proper treatment, a diabetic patient may lose consciousness as result of extremely high blood glucose, fatigue, and dehydration. Signs and symptoms of diabetic coma There are certain warning signs which may alert y Continue reading >>

Diabetic Coma Symptoms, What You Need To Know

Diabetic Coma Symptoms, What You Need To Know

Diabetic coma symptoms are something we should all be aware of. It is true that type 1 diabetics are more likely to experience them than type 2, but as diabetics are living longer, the chance of experiencing symptoms is greater. One statistic is that up to 15% of diabetics will go into diabetic coma because of severe hypoglycemia. Coma is another word for unconscious. A diabetic is in a coma if he cannot be wakened and can't respond to sounds and sights. It does not mean the person in a coma will die. These days, with swift blood test results and treatment, a diabetic will come out of a coma very fast. Diabetic medical alert bracelets and necklaces keep us from being misdiagnosed as drunk or epileptic when we cannot speak. But just knowing you are a diabetic is not enough. If you are taken to an emergency room, the doctors look for diabetic alert charms. But diabetic coma symptoms still need to be diagnosed correctly so the proper treatment is started, because there are three different types of coma, and the complications of all three are brain damage and death. Oddly, either chronic high blood sugar or sudden low blood sugar can trigger diabetic coma symptoms. That's why it's good to know how we react to both of them. With high blood sugar, or hyperglycemia, you feel thirsty and have to urinate more often. You feel fatigue, and there is always nausea and vomiting, often for days. You can feel short of breath and have stomach pain. There is a fruity or acetone smell to your breath and a fast heartbeat. The symptoms are not sudden. But low blood sugar comes on very swiftly and can wake you out of a sound sleep. You feel shaky, nervous, tired and either hungry or nauseated. You sweat a lot and your heart races. You can get irritated and even aggressive for no reason, and Continue reading >>

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