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Why Is Dka A Medical Emergency

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Print Overview Diabetic ketoacidosis is a serious complication of diabetes that occurs when your body produces high levels of blood acids called ketones. The condition develops when your body can't produce enough insulin. Insulin normally plays a key role in helping sugar (glucose) — a major source of energy for your muscles and other tissues — enter your cells. Without enough insulin, your body begins to break down fat as fuel. This process produces a buildup of acids in the bloodstream called ketones, eventually leading to diabetic ketoacidosis if untreated. If you have diabetes or you're at risk of diabetes, learn the warning signs of diabetic ketoacidosis — and know when to seek emergency care. Symptoms Diabetic ketoacidosis signs and symptoms often develop quickly, sometimes within 24 hours. For some, these signs and symptoms may be the first indication of having diabetes. You may notice: Excessive thirst Frequent urination Nausea and vomiting Abdominal pain Weakness or fatigue Shortness of breath Fruity-scented breath Confusion More-specific signs of diabetic ketoacidosis — which can be detected through home blood and urine testing kits — include: High blood sugar level (hyperglycemia) High ketone levels in your urine When to see a doctor If you feel ill or stressed or you've had a recent illness or injury, check your blood sugar level often. You might also try an over-the-counter urine ketones testing kit. Contact your doctor immediately if: You're vomiting and unable to tolerate food or liquid Your blood sugar level is higher than your target range and doesn't respond to home treatment Your urine ketone level is moderate or high Seek emergency care if: Your blood sugar level is consistently higher than 300 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL), or 16.7 mill Continue reading >>

Fluid Replacement Give Sodium Chloride 0.9% Intravenously As Follows:

Fluid Replacement Give Sodium Chloride 0.9% Intravenously As Follows:

Diabetic emergencies: guidelines for the management of diabetic ketoacidosis and management of hyperosmolar non-ketotic diabetic coma The following guideline is approved only for use at University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust. It is provided as supporting information for the UCLH Injectable Medicines Administration Guide. Neither UCLH nor Wiley accept liability for errors or omissions within the guideline. Wherever possible, users of the Guide should refer to locally produced practice guidelines. UCLH’s guidelines represent the expert opinion of the clinicians within the hospital and may not be applicable to patients outside the Trust. Adapted from UCLH Guidelines for the management of common medical emergencies and for the use of antimicrobial drugs Reviewed by: Dr Stephanie Baldeweg, Consultant Endocrinologist, UCLH and Mrs Sejal Rabone, Pharmacist, MES Directorate, UCLH January 2006 Management of diabetic ketoacidosis and management of hyperosmolar The principal problems are dehydration and acidosis. Diabetic ketoacidosis is a medical emergency. Aim of treatment: Correct acidosis with IV fluids and insulin, and restore electrolyte balance. Criteria for diagnosis: • Blood glucose > 10 mmol/L and • Positive urine ketones test and • Acidosis (pH ≤ 7.3 or bicarbonate ≤ 15 mmol/L) Also look for thirst and polyuria, hyperventilation (Kussmaul), abdominal pain, vomiting. Immediate admission to critical care must take priority over all except lifesaving interventions. Refer the patient to the DMR immediately whilst continuing management in A&E. Contact a member of the diabetic team (registrar bleep MX109); it is better to seek advice early than late. Urgent Investigations • Blood glucose. This is accurate up to abou Continue reading >>

Management Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Adults

Management Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Adults

Diabetic ketoacidosis is a potentially life-threatening complication of diabetes, making it a medical emergency. Nurses need to know how to identify and manage it and how to maintain electrolyte balance Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis Symptoms

Diabetic Ketoacidosis Symptoms

What is diabetic ketoacidosis? Diabetic ketoacidosis, also referred to as simply ketoacidosis or DKA, is a serious and even life-threatening complication of type 1 diabetes. DKA is rare in people with type 2 diabetes. DKA is caused when insulin levels are low and not enough glucose can get into the body's cells. Without glucose for energy, the body starts to burn fat for energy. Ketones are products that are created when the body burns fat. The buildup of ketones causes the blood to become more acidic. The high levels of blood glucose in DKA cause the kidneys to excrete glucose and water, leading to dehydration and imbalances in body electrolyte levels. Diabetic ketoacidosis most commonly develops either due to an interruption in insulin treatment or a severe illness, including the flu. What are the symptoms and signs of diabetic ketoacidosis? The development of DKA is usually a slow process. However, if vomiting develops, the symptoms can progress more rapidly due to the more rapid loss of body fluid. Excessive urination, which occurs because the kidneys try to rid the body of excess glucose, and water is excreted along with the glucose High blood glucose (sugar) levels The presence of ketones in the urine Other signs and symptoms of ketoacidosis occur as the condition progresses: These include: Fatigue, which can be severe Flushing of the skin Fruity odor to the breath, caused by ketones Difficulty breathing Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosis, Treatment, Medication What should I do if I think I may have, or someone I know may diabetic ketoacidosis? You should test your urine for ketones if you suspect you have early symptoms or warning signs of ketoacidosis. Call your health-care professional if your urine shows high levels of ketones. High levels of ketones and high blood sug Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)

Tweet Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a dangerous complication faced by people with diabetes which happens when the body starts running out of insulin. DKA is most commonly associated with type 1 diabetes, however, people with type 2 diabetes that produce very little of their own insulin may also be affected. Ketoacidosis is a serious short term complication which can result in coma or even death if it is not treated quickly. Read about Diabetes and Ketones What is diabetic ketoacidosis? DKA occurs when the body has insufficient insulin to allow enough glucose to enter cells, and so the body switches to burning fatty acids and producing acidic ketone bodies. A high level of ketone bodies in the blood can cause particularly severe illness. Symptoms of DKA Diabetic ketoacidosis may itself be the symptom of undiagnosed type 1 diabetes. Typical symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis include: Vomiting Dehydration An unusual smell on the breath –sometimes compared to the smell of pear drops Deep laboured breathing (called kussmaul breathing) or hyperventilation Rapid heartbeat Confusion and disorientation Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis usually evolve over a 24 hour period if blood glucose levels become and remain too high (hyperglycemia). Causes and risk factors for diabetic ketoacidosis As noted above, DKA is caused by the body having too little insulin to allow cells to take in glucose for energy. This may happen for a number of reasons including: Having blood glucose levels consistently over 15 mmol/l Missing insulin injections If a fault has developed in your insulin pen or insulin pump As a result of illness or infections High or prolonged levels of stress Excessive alcohol consumption DKA may also occur prior to a diagnosis of type 1 diabetes. Ketoacidosis can occasional Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a potentially life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus.[1] Signs and symptoms may include vomiting, abdominal pain, deep gasping breathing, increased urination, weakness, confusion, and occasionally loss of consciousness.[1] A person's breath may develop a specific smell.[1] Onset of symptoms is usually rapid.[1] In some cases people may not realize they previously had diabetes.[1] DKA happens most often in those with type 1 diabetes, but can also occur in those with other types of diabetes under certain circumstances.[1] Triggers may include infection, not taking insulin correctly, stroke, and certain medications such as steroids.[1] DKA results from a shortage of insulin; in response the body switches to burning fatty acids which produces acidic ketone bodies.[3] DKA is typically diagnosed when testing finds high blood sugar, low blood pH, and ketoacids in either the blood or urine.[1] The primary treatment of DKA is with intravenous fluids and insulin.[1] Depending on the severity, insulin may be given intravenously or by injection under the skin.[3] Usually potassium is also needed to prevent the development of low blood potassium.[1] Throughout treatment blood sugar and potassium levels should be regularly checked.[1] Antibiotics may be required in those with an underlying infection.[6] In those with severely low blood pH, sodium bicarbonate may be given; however, its use is of unclear benefit and typically not recommended.[1][6] Rates of DKA vary around the world.[5] In the United Kingdom, about 4% of people with type 1 diabetes develop DKA each year, while in Malaysia the condition affects about 25% a year.[1][5] DKA was first described in 1886 and, until the introduction of insulin therapy in the 1920s, it was almost univ Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis - Symptoms

Diabetic Ketoacidosis - Symptoms

A A A Diabetic Ketoacidosis Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) results from dehydration during a state of relative insulin deficiency, associated with high blood levels of sugar level and organic acids called ketones. Diabetic ketoacidosis is associated with significant disturbances of the body's chemistry, which resolve with proper therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis usually occurs in people with type 1 (juvenile) diabetes mellitus (T1DM), but diabetic ketoacidosis can develop in any person with diabetes. Since type 1 diabetes typically starts before age 25 years, diabetic ketoacidosis is most common in this age group, but it may occur at any age. Males and females are equally affected. Diabetic ketoacidosis occurs when a person with diabetes becomes dehydrated. As the body produces a stress response, hormones (unopposed by insulin due to the insulin deficiency) begin to break down muscle, fat, and liver cells into glucose (sugar) and fatty acids for use as fuel. These hormones include glucagon, growth hormone, and adrenaline. These fatty acids are converted to ketones by a process called oxidation. The body consumes its own muscle, fat, and liver cells for fuel. In diabetic ketoacidosis, the body shifts from its normal fed metabolism (using carbohydrates for fuel) to a fasting state (using fat for fuel). The resulting increase in blood sugar occurs, because insulin is unavailable to transport sugar into cells for future use. As blood sugar levels rise, the kidneys cannot retain the extra sugar, which is dumped into the urine, thereby increasing urination and causing dehydration. Commonly, about 10% of total body fluids are lost as the patient slips into diabetic ketoacidosis. Significant loss of potassium and other salts in the excessive urination is also common. The most common Continue reading >>

National Study Of U.s. Emergency Department Visits With Diabetic Ketoacidosis, 1993–2003

National Study Of U.s. Emergency Department Visits With Diabetic Ketoacidosis, 1993–2003

Patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) are often managed in the emergency department before hospital admission. DKA hospitalizations comprise a significant portion of health care costs for diabetes (1). Although mortality for DKA has fallen, it remains an important cause of diabetes-associated death, especially among younger patients with diabetes (2). Prior analyses of DKA have been single-center intensive care unit (ICU) studies or based on hospital discharges (3–5). Patients may, however, be treated in the emergency department and then admitted to a non-ICU setting or discharged; the frequency of these practices is not known. We sought to describe the epidemiology of emergency department visits with DKA. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS— We analyzed the emergency department component of the 1993–2003 U.S. National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS). Our institutional review board waived review of this analysis. Methodological details are described elsewhere (6–8). Briefly, NHAMCS uses a four-stage sampling strategy covering geographic primary sampling units, hospitals within primary sampling units, emergency departments within hospitals, and patients within emergency departments. Hospitals were stratified by region, presence of emergency department, ownership type, and size. Within each stratum, hospitals were selected with a probability proportional to the number of emergency department visits. Data were collected during randomly assigned 4-week periods. Data forms include demographic information, emergency department disposition (i.e., admission, transfer, and discharge), and up to three ICD-9 discharge diagnoses. For the present analysis, we identified DKA visits based on ICD-9 code 250.1x, the unique code for DKA, in any of the diagnosis field Continue reading >>

Ebm Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Ebm Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Epidemiology New diagnosis of diabetes 10-27%. Infection ~ 35%, inadequate insulin ~ 30%, surgery, trauma, alcohol, cocaine and drugs such as steroids, thiazides, sympathomimetics, pentamidine. No cause in 19-38%, but poor compliance / economic reasons frequent. Mortality 1% in adults, but 5% if over 65 years. Also high 15% in patients with hyperglycaemic, hyperosmolar non-ketotic syndrome (HHNS), when BSL usually > 50 mmol/L, more dehydrated with osmolality is > 320 mosm/L – can calculate latter by (2[NA + K] + glucose). Diagnostic Criteria Raised glucose >11.1 mmol/L Acidosis with arterial / venous pH < 7.3, or venous bicarb < 15 mmol/L Ketonaemia or ketonuria (urinalysis may miss 3-beta hydroxybutyrate early). Management / Complications Hypoperfusion Rapid initial crystalloid, especially for significant circulatory insufficiency, at 15-20 mL/kg in first hour ie. 1-1.5 L. Possible role for bicarbonate is in patients with impending cardiovascular collapse, if pH < 6.9. Dilute 100 mmol 8.4% bicarbonate in 250-1000 mL 0.45% NS, and give over 30-60 minutes with 20 mmol K via infusion pump. (Note there are no prospective data concerning bicarbonate use below pH 6.9, and from 6.9-7.1 morbidity and mortality outcomes are equivocal ie. not proven). Fluid replacement Total body water deficit 100 mL/kg, and sodium deficit 7-10 mmol/kg. Restore normal hydration with 0.9% NS at 4-14 mL/kg/hr, to correct estimated fluid deficit over first 24 hours, without exceeding change in osmolality greater than 3 mOsm/kg per hour. One regime is NS 1000 mL in first hour, 500 mL/hr next 4 hours, then 250 mL/hr next 4 hours ie. around 4 L in first 9 hours. Aim to restore fluid deficits over 24 hours in adults, or up to 48 hours in children. Insulin infusion Insulin infusion at 0.1 units/kg/hr Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka) Myths

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka) Myths

Recently, I was asked to give a lecture to both my residents and nurses at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio (UTHSCSA) on some common DKA myths. Now this topic was originally covered by my good friend Anand Swaminathan on multiple platforms and I did ask his permission to create this blogpost with the idea of improving patient care and wanted to express full disclosure of that fact. I specifically covered four common myths that I still see people doing in regards to DKA management: We should get ABGs instead of VBGs After Intravenous Fluids (IVF), Insulin is the Next Step Once pH <7.1, Patients Need Bicarbonate Therapy We Should Bolus Insulin before starting the infusion DKA Myths Case: 25 y/o female with PMH of Type I DM who presents via EMS with AMS. Per EMS report, the patient ran out of her insulin 3 days ago….. Vital Signs: BP 86/52 HR 136 RR 30 O2Sat 97% on room air Temp 99.1 Accucheck: CRITICAL HIGH EMS was not able to establish IV access, so decided to just bring her to the ED due to how sick she looks. Your nurses are on point today and get you two large bore 18G IVs and start to draw blood work to send to the lab. You state I need a blood gas, and the nurse turns to you and asks do you need an ABG or VBG? Myth #1: We should get ABGs instead of VBGs in DKA So you do a literature review and come across two studies that specifically look at ABG vs VBG in an ED population: Study #1: Kelly AM et al. Review Article – Can Venous Blood Gas Analysis Replace Arterial in Emergency Medical Care. Emery Med Australas 2010; 22: 493 – 498. PMID: 21143397 For pH, 3 studies of patients with DKA (265 patients) were reviewed showing a weighted mean difference of 0.02 pH units. Only one study, which was the largest study (200 patients) reported 95% Continue reading >>

Medical Emergencies: Diagnosing And Treating Insulin Shock And Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Medical Emergencies: Diagnosing And Treating Insulin Shock And Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Excerpt from A Comprehensive Guide to Wilderness & Travel Medicine, 3rd Edition, by Dr. Eric A. Weiss. If a person who has diabetes becomes confused, weak, or unconscious for no apparent reason, he may be suffering from insulin shock (low blood sugar) or diabetic ketoacidosis (high blood sugar). INSULIN SHOCK (LOW BLOOD SUGAR) If a person with diabetes takes too much insulin or fails to eat enough food to match his insulin level or his level of exercise, a rapid drop in blood sugar can occur. Symptoms may come on very rapidly and include an altered level of consciousness, ranging from slurred speech, bizarre behaviour, and loss of coordination, to seizures and unconsciousness. Treatment If still conscious, the victim should be given something containing sugar to drink or eat as rapidly as possible. This can be fruit juice, candy, or a non-diet soft drink. If the victim is unconscious, place sugar granules, cake icing, or Glutose® paste from your first aid kit under his tongue, where it will be rapidly absorbed. DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS (HIGH BLOOD SUGAR) Diabetic ketoacidosis (formerly called diabetic coma) comes on gradually and is the result of insufficient insulin. This eventually leads to a very high sugar level in the victim’s blood. Early symptoms include frequent urination and thirst. Later, the victim will become dehydrated, confused, or comatose, and will develop nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and a rapid breathing rate with a fruity odor to his breath. Treatment The victim needs immediate evacuation to a medical facility. If vomiting is not present and the victim is awake and alert, have him drink small, frequent sips of water. If you are unsure whether the victim is suffering from insulin shock (low blood sugar) or ketoacidosis (high blood sugar), it is al Continue reading >>

Diabetes In The Emergency Department And Hospital: Acute Care Of Diabetes Patients

Diabetes In The Emergency Department And Hospital: Acute Care Of Diabetes Patients

Go to: Hyperglycemic Crisis: DKA and HHS Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) accounts for more than 110,000 hospitalizations annually in the United States, with mortality ranging from 2 to 10%4–6. Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state (HHS) is much less common but confers a much greater mortality7. Patients with DKA classically present with uncontrolled hyperglycemia, metabolic acidosis, and increased total body ketone concentration. On the other hand, HHS is defined by altered mental status caused by hyperosmolality, profound dehydration, and severe hyperglycemia without significant ketoacidosis6,8. Initial evaluation In the Emergency Department, the primary goals are rapid evaluation and stabilization. All patients with severe hyperglycemia should immediately undergo assessment and stabilization of their airway and hemodynamic status, with consideration of administration of naloxone for all patients with altered mentation to reverse potential opiate overdose, and thiamine for all patients at risk for Wernicke’s encephalopathy. In cases requiring intubation, the paralytic succinylcholine should not be used if hyperkalemia is suspected as it may acutely further elevate potassium. Immediate assessment should also include placing patients on oxygen, measure O2 saturation and cardiac monitoring as well as obtaining vital signs, a fingerstick glucose, intravenous (IV) access, and a 12-lead electrocardiogram to evaluate for arrhythmias and signs of hyper-and hypokalemia. Emergency Department evaluation should include a thorough clinical history and physical examination, as well as a venous blood gas,9,10 complete blood count, basic metabolic panel, and urinalysis; a urine pregnancy test must be sent for all women with childbearing potential. An important goal of this evaluation is id Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)

Definition of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) A complication of diabetes mellitus (DM) caused by absolute or relative insulin deficiency It is diagnosed based on: Hyperglycaemia >11 mM or known diabetes Ketonaemia >3 mM or ketonuria >2+ Acidosis pH <7.3 and/or bicarbonate <15 mM Mostly occurs in patients with type 1 DM. However, it occur in patients with type 2 DM, although they are much more likely to suffer with the related condition hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar state (HHS) Epidemiology of DKA Annual incidence of 1-5% amongst patients with type 1 DM More common in women than men Causes of DKA Lack of compliance with insulin therapy Acute illness (e.g. infection, MI, trauma) Pathophysiology of DKA Insulin deficiency renders cells unable to take up and metabolise glucose Glucose remains trapped in the blood from where it is filtered by the kidneys in concentrations that exceed renal reabsorption capacity Glycosuria causes a profound osmotic diuresis leading to severe dehydration Unable to rely on carbohydrate metabolism, cells switch to fat metabolism and oxidise fatty acids to release acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) in concentrations that saturate the Kreb’s cycle Excess acetyl CoA is converted to the ketone bodies acetone, acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate, which are released into the blood causing a raised anion gap metabolic acidosis DKA mostly occurs in type 1 DM and is rare in type 2 DM because there is usually adequate levels of insulin to prevent ketogenesis History in DKA Polyuria Polydipsia Light-headedness Nausea and vomiting Abdominal pain Dyspnoea Drowsiness Loss of consciousness Lack of compliance with insulin therapy Symptoms of the precipitant Examination in DKA Airway May be compromised by reduced conscious level Breathing Kussmaul’s breathing Hyperventilati Continue reading >>

What You Should Know About Diabetic Ketoacidosis

What You Should Know About Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious condition that can occur in diabetes. DKA happens when acidic substances, called ketones, build up in your body. Ketones are formed when your body burns fat for fuel instead of sugar, or glucose. That can happen if you don’t have enough insulin in your body to help you process sugars. Learn more: Ketosis vs. ketoacidosis: What you should know » Left untreated, ketones can build up to dangerous levels. DKA can occur in people who have type 1 or type 2 diabetes, but it’s rare in people with type 2 diabetes. DKA can also develop if you are at risk for diabetes, but have not received a formal diagnosis. It can be the first sign of type 1 diabetes. DKA is a medical emergency. Call your local emergency services immediately if you think you are experiencing DKA. Symptoms of DKA can appear quickly and may include: frequent urination extreme thirst high blood sugar levels high levels of ketones in the urine nausea or vomiting abdominal pain confusion fruity-smelling breath a flushed face fatigue rapid breathing dry mouth and skin It is important to make sure you consult with your doctor if you experience any of these symptoms. If left untreated, DKA can lead to a coma or death. All people who use insulin should discuss the risk of DKA with their healthcare team, to make sure a plan is in place. If you think you are experiencing DKA, seek immediate medical help. Learn more: Blood glucose management: Checking for ketones » If you have type 1 diabetes, you should maintain a supply of home urine ketone tests. You can use these to test your ketone levels. A high ketone test result is a symptom of DKA. If you have type 1 diabetes and have a glucometer reading of over 250 milligrams per deciliter twice, you should test your urine for keton Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis: An Emergency Medicine Simulation Scenario

Diabetic Ketoacidosis: An Emergency Medicine Simulation Scenario

DOI: 10.7759/cureus.1286 Cite this article as: Addison R, Skinner T, Zhou F, et al. (May 29, 2017) Diabetic Ketoacidosis: An Emergency Medicine Simulation Scenario. Cureus 9(5): e1286. doi:10.7759/cureus.1286 Abstract Simulation provides a safe environment where learning is enhanced through the deliberate practice of skills and controlled management of a variety of clinical encounters. This is particularly important for core cases and low-frequency, high-stakes procedures and encounters. Competency-based medical education has seen widespread adoption in the field along with ongoing work in the areas of undergraduate and postgraduate training. Similarly, effective professional development activities stand to benefit greatly from a more stringent integration of simulation and competency-based approaches. This particularly makes sense when considering the goals of patient safety and achievement of optimal clinical outcomes. The current report describes a simulation training session designed to acquaint emergency medicine residents with the presentation and management of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) through the use of simulation. Continue reading >>

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