diabetestalk.net

Why Is Dka A Medical Emergency

Chapter 225: Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Chapter 225: Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is an acute, life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus. DKA occurs predominantly in patients with type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus, but 10% to 30% of cases occur in newly diagnosed type 2 (non–insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus, especially in African Americans and Hispanics.1,2 Between 1993 and 2003, the yearly rate of U.S. ED visits for DKA was 64 per 10,000 with a trend toward an increased rate of visits among the African American population compared with the Caucasian population.3 Europe has a comparable incidence. A better understanding of the pathophysiology of DKA and an aggressive, uniform approach to its diagnosis and management have reduced mortality to <5% of reported episodes in experienced centers.4 However, mortality is higher in the elderly due to underlying renal disease or coexisting infection and in the presence of coma or hypotension. Figure 225-1 illustrates the complex relationships between insulin and counterregulatory hormones. DKA is a response to cellular starvation brought on by relative insulin deficiency and counterregulatory or catabolic hormone excess (Figure 225-1). Insulin is the only anabolic hormone produced by the endocrine pancreas and is responsible for the metabolism and storage of carbohydrates, fat, and protein. Counterregulatory hormones include glucagon, catecholamines, cortisol, and growth hormone. Complete or relative absence of insulin and the excess counterregulatory hormones result in hyperglycemia (due to excess production and underutilization of glucose), osmotic diuresis, prerenal azotemia, worsening hyperglycemia, ketone formation, and a wide-anion-gap metabolic acidosis.4 Insulin deficiency. Pathogenesis of diabetic ketoacidosis secondary to relative insulin deficienc Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

A Preventable Crisis People who have had diabetic ketoacidosis, or DKA, will tell you it’s worse than any flu they’ve ever had, describing an overwhelming feeling of lethargy, unquenchable thirst, and unrelenting vomiting. “It’s sort of like having molasses for blood,” says George. “Everything moves so slow, the mouth can feel so dry, and there is a cloud over your head. Just before diagnosis, when I was in high school, I would get out of a class and go to the bathroom to pee for about 10–12 minutes. Then I would head to the water fountain and begin drinking water for minutes at a time, usually until well after the next class had begun.” George, generally an upbeat person, said that while he has experienced varying degrees of DKA in his 40 years or so of having diabetes, “…at its worst, there is one reprieve from its ill feeling: Unfortunately, that is a coma.” But DKA can be more than a feeling of extreme discomfort, and it can result in more than a coma. “It has the potential to kill,” says Richard Hellman, MD, past president of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. “DKA is a medical emergency. It’s the biggest medical emergency related to diabetes. It’s also the most likely time for a child with diabetes to die.” DKA occurs when there is not enough insulin in the body, resulting in high blood glucose; the person is dehydrated; and too many ketones are present in the bloodstream, making it acidic. The initial insulin deficit is most often caused by the onset of diabetes, by an illness or infection, or by not taking insulin when it is needed. Ketones are your brain’s “second-best fuel,” Hellman says, with glucose being number one. If you don’t have enough glucose in your cells to supply energy to your brain, yo Continue reading >>

Episode 63 – Pediatric Dka

Episode 63 – Pediatric Dka

Pediatric DKA was identified as one of key diagnoses that we need to get better at managing in a massive national needs assessment conducted by the fine folks at TREKK – Translating Emergency Knowledge for Kids – one of EM Cases’ partners who’s mission is to improve the care of children in non-pediatric emergency departments across the country. You might be wondering – why was DKA singled out in this needs assessment? It turns out that kids who present to the ED in DKA without a known history of diabetes, can sometimes be tricky to diagnose, as they often present with vague symptoms. When a child does have a known history of diabetes, and the diagnosis of DKA is obvious, the challenge turns to managing severe, life-threatening DKA, so that we avoid the many potential complications of the DKA itself as well as the complications of treatment – cerebral edema being the big bad one. The approach to these patients has evolved over the years, even since I started practicing, from bolusing insulin and super aggressive fluid resuscitation to more gentle fluid management and delayed insulin drips, as examples. There are subtleties and controversies in the management of DKA when it comes to fluid management, correcting serum potassium and acidosis, preventing cerebral edema, as well as airway management for the really sick kids. In this episode we‘ll be asking our guest pediatric emergency medicine experts Dr. Sarah Reid, who you may remember from her powerhouse performance on our recent episodes on pediatric fever and sepsis, and Dr. Sarah Curtis, not only a pediatric emergency physician, but a prominent pediatric emergency researcher in Canada, about the key historical and examination pearls to help pick up this sometimes elusive diagnosis, what the value of serum Continue reading >>

Fluid Replacement Give Sodium Chloride 0.9% Intravenously As Follows:

Fluid Replacement Give Sodium Chloride 0.9% Intravenously As Follows:

Diabetic emergencies: guidelines for the management of diabetic ketoacidosis and management of hyperosmolar non-ketotic diabetic coma The following guideline is approved only for use at University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust. It is provided as supporting information for the UCLH Injectable Medicines Administration Guide. Neither UCLH nor Wiley accept liability for errors or omissions within the guideline. Wherever possible, users of the Guide should refer to locally produced practice guidelines. UCLH’s guidelines represent the expert opinion of the clinicians within the hospital and may not be applicable to patients outside the Trust. Adapted from UCLH Guidelines for the management of common medical emergencies and for the use of antimicrobial drugs Reviewed by: Dr Stephanie Baldeweg, Consultant Endocrinologist, UCLH and Mrs Sejal Rabone, Pharmacist, MES Directorate, UCLH January 2006 Management of diabetic ketoacidosis and management of hyperosmolar The principal problems are dehydration and acidosis. Diabetic ketoacidosis is a medical emergency. Aim of treatment: Correct acidosis with IV fluids and insulin, and restore electrolyte balance. Criteria for diagnosis: • Blood glucose > 10 mmol/L and • Positive urine ketones test and • Acidosis (pH ≤ 7.3 or bicarbonate ≤ 15 mmol/L) Also look for thirst and polyuria, hyperventilation (Kussmaul), abdominal pain, vomiting. Immediate admission to critical care must take priority over all except lifesaving interventions. Refer the patient to the DMR immediately whilst continuing management in A&E. Contact a member of the diabetic team (registrar bleep MX109); it is better to seek advice early than late. Urgent Investigations • Blood glucose. This is accurate up to abou Continue reading >>

Diabetic Emergencies

Diabetic Emergencies

Tweet Diabetes can become serious in the short term if blood sugar levels become either too high or too low. The following information details what to do in an emergency. This covers low blood sugar (hypoglycemia), very high blood sugar (diabetic ketoacidosis) and what to do if you are left without your diabetes medication and/or supplies. What counts as a diabetic emergency? It can be a difficult area sometimes to know what counts as a genuine emergency. News reports in recent years have highlighted that a significant number of ‘999’ ambulance call-outs have not been necessary - for example to treat mild hypoglycemia which, in some cases, has been successfully treated befor e the ambulance has arrived. This isn’t to say that conditions, such as hypoglycemia, are not dangerous but that it’s important to know when a situation really is an emergency so that an ambulance is not unnecessarily called. When should I call an ambulance? An ambulance will be needed if someone has either very high or very low blood sugar levels that presents an immediate danger and neither they nor anyone around is confidently able to treat them. Ketoacidosis and Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic Nonketotic Syndrome are both life threatening conditions. Hypoglycemia can also be life threatening in some cases. Someone with diabetes that is unconscious is one of the situations in which you should call for an ambulance. If you have doubts about whether the situation is serious enough to warrant an ambulance, call 111. Severe hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia can become dangerous if it is not treated quickly, particularly if it is a result of an insulin overdose. Severe hypoglycemia is generally recognised as hypoglycemia involving: Convulsions (fitting) Unconsciousness Hypoglycemia can often be treated at Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Practice Essentials Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is an acute, major, life-threatening complication of diabetes that mainly occurs in patients with type 1 diabetes, but it is not uncommon in some patients with type 2 diabetes. This condition is a complex disordered metabolic state characterized by hyperglycemia, ketoacidosis, and ketonuria. Signs and symptoms The most common early symptoms of DKA are the insidious increase in polydipsia and polyuria. The following are other signs and symptoms of DKA: Nausea and vomiting; may be associated with diffuse abdominal pain, decreased appetite, and anorexia History of failure to comply with insulin therapy or missed insulin injections due to vomiting or psychological reasons or history of mechanical failure of insulin infusion pump Altered consciousness (eg, mild disorientation, confusion); frank coma is uncommon but may occur when the condition is neglected or with severe dehydration/acidosis Signs and symptoms of DKA associated with possible intercurrent infection are as follows: See Clinical Presentation for more detail. Diagnosis On examination, general findings of DKA may include the following: Characteristic acetone (ketotic) breath odor In addition, evaluate patients for signs of possible intercurrent illnesses such as MI, UTI, pneumonia, and perinephric abscess. Search for signs of infection is mandatory in all cases. Testing Initial and repeat laboratory studies for patients with DKA include the following: Serum electrolyte levels (eg, potassium, sodium, chloride, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus) Note that high serum glucose levels may lead to dilutional hyponatremia; high triglyceride levels may lead to factitious low glucose levels; and high levels of ketone bodies may lead to factitious elevation of creatinine levels. Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis Symptoms

Diabetic Ketoacidosis Symptoms

What is diabetic ketoacidosis? Diabetic ketoacidosis, also referred to as simply ketoacidosis or DKA, is a serious and even life-threatening complication of type 1 diabetes. DKA is rare in people with type 2 diabetes. DKA is caused when insulin levels are low and not enough glucose can get into the body's cells. Without glucose for energy, the body starts to burn fat for energy. Ketones are products that are created when the body burns fat. The buildup of ketones causes the blood to become more acidic. The high levels of blood glucose in DKA cause the kidneys to excrete glucose and water, leading to dehydration and imbalances in body electrolyte levels. Diabetic ketoacidosis most commonly develops either due to an interruption in insulin treatment or a severe illness, including the flu. What are the symptoms and signs of diabetic ketoacidosis? The development of DKA is usually a slow process. However, if vomiting develops, the symptoms can progress more rapidly due to the more rapid loss of body fluid. Excessive urination, which occurs because the kidneys try to rid the body of excess glucose, and water is excreted along with the glucose High blood glucose (sugar) levels The presence of ketones in the urine Other signs and symptoms of ketoacidosis occur as the condition progresses: These include: Fatigue, which can be severe Flushing of the skin Fruity odor to the breath, caused by ketones Difficulty breathing Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosis, Treatment, Medication What should I do if I think I may have, or someone I know may diabetic ketoacidosis? You should test your urine for ketones if you suspect you have early symptoms or warning signs of ketoacidosis. Call your health-care professional if your urine shows high levels of ketones. High levels of ketones and high blood sug Continue reading >>

National Study Of U.s. Emergency Department Visits With Diabetic Ketoacidosis, 1993–2003

National Study Of U.s. Emergency Department Visits With Diabetic Ketoacidosis, 1993–2003

Patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) are often managed in the emergency department before hospital admission. DKA hospitalizations comprise a significant portion of health care costs for diabetes (1). Although mortality for DKA has fallen, it remains an important cause of diabetes-associated death, especially among younger patients with diabetes (2). Prior analyses of DKA have been single-center intensive care unit (ICU) studies or based on hospital discharges (3–5). Patients may, however, be treated in the emergency department and then admitted to a non-ICU setting or discharged; the frequency of these practices is not known. We sought to describe the epidemiology of emergency department visits with DKA. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS— We analyzed the emergency department component of the 1993–2003 U.S. National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS). Our institutional review board waived review of this analysis. Methodological details are described elsewhere (6–8). Briefly, NHAMCS uses a four-stage sampling strategy covering geographic primary sampling units, hospitals within primary sampling units, emergency departments within hospitals, and patients within emergency departments. Hospitals were stratified by region, presence of emergency department, ownership type, and size. Within each stratum, hospitals were selected with a probability proportional to the number of emergency department visits. Data were collected during randomly assigned 4-week periods. Data forms include demographic information, emergency department disposition (i.e., admission, transfer, and discharge), and up to three ICD-9 discharge diagnoses. For the present analysis, we identified DKA visits based on ICD-9 code 250.1x, the unique code for DKA, in any of the diagnosis field Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious problem that can occur in people with diabetes if their body starts to run out of insulin. This causes harmful substances called ketones to build up in the body, which can be life-threatening if not spotted and treated quickly. DKA mainly affects people with type 1 diabetes, but can sometimes occur in people with type 2 diabetes. If you have diabetes, it's important to be aware of the risk and know what to do if DKA occurs. Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis Signs of DKA include: needing to pee more than usual being sick breath that smells fruity (like pear drop sweets or nail varnish) deep or fast breathing feeling very tired or sleepy passing out DKA can also cause high blood sugar (hyperglycaemia) and a high level of ketones in your blood or urine, which you can check for using home-testing kits. Symptoms usually develop over 24 hours, but can come on faster. Check your blood sugar and ketone levels Check your blood sugar level if you have symptoms of DKA. If your blood sugar is 11mmol/L or over and you have a blood or urine ketone testing kit, check your ketone level. If you do a blood ketone test: lower than 0.6mmol/L is a normal reading 0.6 to 1.5mmol/L means you're at a slightly increased risk of DKA and should test again in a couple of hours 1.6 to 2.9mmol/L means you're at an increased risk of DKA and should contact your diabetes team or GP as soon as possible 3mmol/L or over means you have a very high risk of DKA and should get medical help immediately If you do a urine ketone test, a result of more than 2+ means there's a high chance you have DKA. When to get medical help Go to your nearest accident and emergency (A&E) department straight away if you think you have DKA, especially if you have a high level of ketones in Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a potentially life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus.[1] Signs and symptoms may include vomiting, abdominal pain, deep gasping breathing, increased urination, weakness, confusion, and occasionally loss of consciousness.[1] A person's breath may develop a specific smell.[1] Onset of symptoms is usually rapid.[1] In some cases people may not realize they previously had diabetes.[1] DKA happens most often in those with type 1 diabetes, but can also occur in those with other types of diabetes under certain circumstances.[1] Triggers may include infection, not taking insulin correctly, stroke, and certain medications such as steroids.[1] DKA results from a shortage of insulin; in response the body switches to burning fatty acids which produces acidic ketone bodies.[3] DKA is typically diagnosed when testing finds high blood sugar, low blood pH, and ketoacids in either the blood or urine.[1] The primary treatment of DKA is with intravenous fluids and insulin.[1] Depending on the severity, insulin may be given intravenously or by injection under the skin.[3] Usually potassium is also needed to prevent the development of low blood potassium.[1] Throughout treatment blood sugar and potassium levels should be regularly checked.[1] Antibiotics may be required in those with an underlying infection.[6] In those with severely low blood pH, sodium bicarbonate may be given; however, its use is of unclear benefit and typically not recommended.[1][6] Rates of DKA vary around the world.[5] In the United Kingdom, about 4% of people with type 1 diabetes develop DKA each year, while in Malaysia the condition affects about 25% a year.[1][5] DKA was first described in 1886 and, until the introduction of insulin therapy in the 1920s, it was almost univ Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis: An Emergency Medicine Simulation Scenario

Diabetic Ketoacidosis: An Emergency Medicine Simulation Scenario

DOI: 10.7759/cureus.1286 Cite this article as: Addison R, Skinner T, Zhou F, et al. (May 29, 2017) Diabetic Ketoacidosis: An Emergency Medicine Simulation Scenario. Cureus 9(5): e1286. doi:10.7759/cureus.1286 Abstract Simulation provides a safe environment where learning is enhanced through the deliberate practice of skills and controlled management of a variety of clinical encounters. This is particularly important for core cases and low-frequency, high-stakes procedures and encounters. Competency-based medical education has seen widespread adoption in the field along with ongoing work in the areas of undergraduate and postgraduate training. Similarly, effective professional development activities stand to benefit greatly from a more stringent integration of simulation and competency-based approaches. This particularly makes sense when considering the goals of patient safety and achievement of optimal clinical outcomes. The current report describes a simulation training session designed to acquaint emergency medicine residents with the presentation and management of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) through the use of simulation. Continue reading >>

Ebm Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Ebm Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Epidemiology New diagnosis of diabetes 10-27%. Infection ~ 35%, inadequate insulin ~ 30%, surgery, trauma, alcohol, cocaine and drugs such as steroids, thiazides, sympathomimetics, pentamidine. No cause in 19-38%, but poor compliance / economic reasons frequent. Mortality 1% in adults, but 5% if over 65 years. Also high 15% in patients with hyperglycaemic, hyperosmolar non-ketotic syndrome (HHNS), when BSL usually > 50 mmol/L, more dehydrated with osmolality is > 320 mosm/L – can calculate latter by (2[NA + K] + glucose). Diagnostic Criteria Raised glucose >11.1 mmol/L Acidosis with arterial / venous pH < 7.3, or venous bicarb < 15 mmol/L Ketonaemia or ketonuria (urinalysis may miss 3-beta hydroxybutyrate early). Management / Complications Hypoperfusion Rapid initial crystalloid, especially for significant circulatory insufficiency, at 15-20 mL/kg in first hour ie. 1-1.5 L. Possible role for bicarbonate is in patients with impending cardiovascular collapse, if pH < 6.9. Dilute 100 mmol 8.4% bicarbonate in 250-1000 mL 0.45% NS, and give over 30-60 minutes with 20 mmol K via infusion pump. (Note there are no prospective data concerning bicarbonate use below pH 6.9, and from 6.9-7.1 morbidity and mortality outcomes are equivocal ie. not proven). Fluid replacement Total body water deficit 100 mL/kg, and sodium deficit 7-10 mmol/kg. Restore normal hydration with 0.9% NS at 4-14 mL/kg/hr, to correct estimated fluid deficit over first 24 hours, without exceeding change in osmolality greater than 3 mOsm/kg per hour. One regime is NS 1000 mL in first hour, 500 mL/hr next 4 hours, then 250 mL/hr next 4 hours ie. around 4 L in first 9 hours. Aim to restore fluid deficits over 24 hours in adults, or up to 48 hours in children. Insulin infusion Insulin infusion at 0.1 units/kg/hr Continue reading >>

Myths In Dka Management

Myths In Dka Management

Anand Swaminathan, MD, MPH (@EMSwami) is an assistant professor and assistant program director at the NYU/Bellevue Department of Emergency Medicine in New York City. Review questions are available at the end of this post. Background Each year, roughly 10,000 patients present to the Emergency Department in diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Prior to the advent of insulin, the mortality rate of DKA was 100% although in recent years, that rate has dropped to approximately 2-5%.1 Despite clinical advances, the mortality rate has remained constant over the last 10 years. With aggressive resuscitative measures and appropriate continued management this trend may change. DKA is defined as: Hyperglycemia (glucose > 250 mg/dl) Acidosis (pH < 7.3) Ketosis In the absence of insulin, serum glucose rises leading to osmotic diuresis. This diuresis leads to loss of electrolytes including sodium, magnesium, calcium and phosphorous. The resultant volume depletion leads to impaired glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and acute renal failure. In patients with DKA, fatty acid breakdown produces 2 different ketone bodies, first acetoacetate, which then further converts to beta-hydroxybutyrate, the latter being the ketone body largely produced in DKA patients. With this background in mind, let’s take a look at four urban legends in the management of DKA and the evidence that dispels these legends. Here’s our case: Although this presentation likely represents DKA, a blood gas is typically obtained to confirm the diagnosis. Often, the question arises as to whether an arterial or venous blood gas is adequate. Urban Legend #1 – An ABG is necessary for the diagnosis and treatment of DKA ABG gets you pH, PaO2, PaCO2, HCO3, Lactate, electrolytes and O2Sat VBG gets all this except for PaO2 (but we have Continue reading >>

What Would Happen To An Astronaut Aboard The Space Station If He/she Suffered A Serious Medical Emergency Such As A Ruptured Appendix Or Stroke?

What Would Happen To An Astronaut Aboard The Space Station If He/she Suffered A Serious Medical Emergency Such As A Ruptured Appendix Or Stroke?

They would almost certainly suffer significantly higher morbidity (complications) than if they were on earth. In a true medical emergency, chances of death would be high. The ISS is not adequately equipped to handle a medical emergency, nor are the crew fully trained in medical resuscitation. While there is an assortment of medications on board (mostly in tablet/capsule form), as well as an ultrasound that can be used with remote guidance, it's not an ER. Someone who is critically ill needs at least one physician, at least one nurse, at least one pharmacist, likely multiple concurrent medications, immediate diagnostics, continuous vital sign monitoring, and possible procedural intervention (such as intubation or central venous catheter placement). At this time, an emergency return to earth from the ISS provides little to none of those, and instead requires the injured/ill crewmember to: fold into the confined 3 cubic meter space of the Soyuz along with 2 other crew members who will be focused on orbital re-entry, not medical care endure a 4-9 G re-entry, violent landing, and post-landing dynamics, all without medical monitoring or resuscitation wait in the vehicle until rescue/paramedic forces arrive experience manual extraction from the capsule undergo helicopter transport to medical facilities in...Kazakhstan? Even in ideal situations, this process would delay care at least a few hours, if not several, further increasing the risk to the astronaut for health complications and/or death. One of the current ongoing areas of active research is how we can expand medical capabilities in space despite the numerous challenges, e.g. cargo size (more equipment = more weight = more expensive to blast into space), pharmaceutical degradation (see Evaluation of Physical and Chemical Continue reading >>

Medical Emergencies: Diagnosing And Treating Insulin Shock And Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Medical Emergencies: Diagnosing And Treating Insulin Shock And Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Excerpt from A Comprehensive Guide to Wilderness & Travel Medicine, 3rd Edition, by Dr. Eric A. Weiss. If a person who has diabetes becomes confused, weak, or unconscious for no apparent reason, he may be suffering from insulin shock (low blood sugar) or diabetic ketoacidosis (high blood sugar). INSULIN SHOCK (LOW BLOOD SUGAR) If a person with diabetes takes too much insulin or fails to eat enough food to match his insulin level or his level of exercise, a rapid drop in blood sugar can occur. Symptoms may come on very rapidly and include an altered level of consciousness, ranging from slurred speech, bizarre behaviour, and loss of coordination, to seizures and unconsciousness. Treatment If still conscious, the victim should be given something containing sugar to drink or eat as rapidly as possible. This can be fruit juice, candy, or a non-diet soft drink. If the victim is unconscious, place sugar granules, cake icing, or Glutose® paste from your first aid kit under his tongue, where it will be rapidly absorbed. DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS (HIGH BLOOD SUGAR) Diabetic ketoacidosis (formerly called diabetic coma) comes on gradually and is the result of insufficient insulin. This eventually leads to a very high sugar level in the victim’s blood. Early symptoms include frequent urination and thirst. Later, the victim will become dehydrated, confused, or comatose, and will develop nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and a rapid breathing rate with a fruity odor to his breath. Treatment The victim needs immediate evacuation to a medical facility. If vomiting is not present and the victim is awake and alert, have him drink small, frequent sips of water. If you are unsure whether the victim is suffering from insulin shock (low blood sugar) or ketoacidosis (high blood sugar), it is al Continue reading >>

More in ketosis