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Why Give Dextrose In Dka

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a potentially life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus.[1] Signs and symptoms may include vomiting, abdominal pain, deep gasping breathing, increased urination, weakness, confusion, and occasionally loss of consciousness.[1] A person's breath may develop a specific smell.[1] Onset of symptoms is usually rapid.[1] In some cases people may not realize they previously had diabetes.[1] DKA happens most often in those with type 1 diabetes, but can also occur in those with other types of diabetes under certain circumstances.[1] Triggers may include infection, not taking insulin correctly, stroke, and certain medications such as steroids.[1] DKA results from a shortage of insulin; in response the body switches to burning fatty acids which produces acidic ketone bodies.[3] DKA is typically diagnosed when testing finds high blood sugar, low blood pH, and ketoacids in either the blood or urine.[1] The primary treatment of DKA is with intravenous fluids and insulin.[1] Depending on the severity, insulin may be given intravenously or by injection under the skin.[3] Usually potassium is also needed to prevent the development of low blood potassium.[1] Throughout treatment blood sugar and potassium levels should be regularly checked.[1] Antibiotics may be required in those with an underlying infection.[6] In those with severely low blood pH, sodium bicarbonate may be given; however, its use is of unclear benefit and typically not recommended.[1][6] Rates of DKA vary around the world.[5] In the United Kingdom, about 4% of people with type 1 diabetes develop DKA each year, while in Malaysia the condition affects about 25% a year.[1][5] DKA was first described in 1886 and, until the introduction of insulin therapy in the 1920s, it was almost univ Continue reading >>

> Hyperglycemia And Diabetic Ketoacidosis

> Hyperglycemia And Diabetic Ketoacidosis

When blood glucose levels (also called blood sugar levels) are too high, it's called hyperglycemia. Glucose is a sugar that comes from foods, and is formed and stored inside the body. It's the main source of energy for the body's cells and is carried to each through the bloodstream. But even though we need glucose for energy, too much glucose in the blood can be unhealthy. Hyperglycemia is the hallmark of diabetes — it happens when the body either can't make insulin (type 1 diabetes) or can't respond to insulin properly (type 2 diabetes). The body needs insulin so glucose in the blood can enter the cells to be used for energy. In people who have developed diabetes, glucose builds up in the blood, resulting in hyperglycemia. If it's not treated, hyperglycemia can cause serious health problems. Too much sugar in the bloodstream for long periods of time can damage the vessels that supply blood to vital organs. And, too much sugar in the bloodstream can cause other types of damage to body tissues, which can increase the risk of heart disease and stroke, kidney disease, vision problems, and nerve problems in people with diabetes. These problems don't usually show up in kids or teens with diabetes who have had the disease for only a few years. However, they can happen in adulthood in some people, particularly if they haven't managed or controlled their diabetes properly. Blood sugar levels are considered high when they're above someone's target range. The diabetes health care team will let you know what your child's target blood sugar levels are, which will vary based on factors like your child's age. A major goal in controlling diabetes is to keep blood sugar levels as close to the desired range as possible. It's a three-way balancing act of: diabetes medicines (such as in Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis Treatment & Management

Diabetic Ketoacidosis Treatment & Management

Approach Considerations Managing diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in an intensive care unit during the first 24-48 hours always is advisable. When treating patients with DKA, the following points must be considered and closely monitored: It is essential to maintain extreme vigilance for any concomitant process, such as infection, cerebrovascular accident, myocardial infarction, sepsis, or deep venous thrombosis. It is important to pay close attention to the correction of fluid and electrolyte loss during the first hour of treatment. This always should be followed by gradual correction of hyperglycemia and acidosis. Correction of fluid loss makes the clinical picture clearer and may be sufficient to correct acidosis. The presence of even mild signs of dehydration indicates that at least 3 L of fluid has already been lost. Patients usually are not discharged from the hospital unless they have been able to switch back to their daily insulin regimen without a recurrence of ketosis. When the condition is stable, pH exceeds 7.3, and bicarbonate is greater than 18 mEq/L, the patient is allowed to eat a meal preceded by a subcutaneous (SC) dose of regular insulin. Insulin infusion can be discontinued 30 minutes later. If the patient is still nauseated and cannot eat, dextrose infusion should be continued and regular or ultra–short-acting insulin should be administered SC every 4 hours, according to blood glucose level, while trying to maintain blood glucose values at 100-180 mg/dL. The 2011 JBDS guideline recommends the intravenous infusion of insulin at a weight-based fixed rate until ketosis has subsided. Should blood glucose fall below 14 mmol/L (250 mg/dL), 10% glucose should be added to allow for the continuation of fixed-rate insulin infusion. [19, 20] In established patient Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Adults

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Adults

Pathophysiology Relative insulin deficiency = ↑Glu, ↓pH and ketonaemia. ↑glucagon, cortisol, catecholamines⇒ ↑ gluconeogenesis ⇒ ↑↑ glucose. ↑ lipolysis ⇒ ↑ FFA - ketogenesis - metab acidosis (3-β-hydroxybutyrate). Dehydration 2°: osmotic diuresis & vomiting = electrolyte (K+⇑ or K+⇓) shifts. Mortality from Children: Cerebral oedema Adults: ⇓K+, ARDS, co-existing sepsis/ AMI etc Aims and principles 1. Replace lost fluid & electrolytes 2. Correction of ketoacidosis Insulin suppression of ketogenesis Insulin stimulated entry of glucose into cells (correct ketonaemia) To achieve this you need to give enough insulin to correct the acidosis. Once the blood glucose falls you will often need to support the insulin with infused dextrose 3. Slow correct hyperglycaemia aim for glucose fall 3-5 mmol/l/hr only allow acidosis to correct as above No bicarb. unless pH < 6.9 If necessary use IL 1.26% solution + 20 mmol KCl 4. Treat cause Resuscitate A, B, C 1L over 1hr 1L over 2hr 1L over 4hr 1L over 8hr When Glu. <12mmol/L change to 5% dextrose When Glu. >12mmol/L change to normal saline If hypoglycaemia consider 10% dextrose Start infusion at 0.1U/Kg/hour Later move to sliding IV infusion rate Cap Glu. (mmol/L) Units / hr (=ml / hr) 0 - 4 0 4.1 - 6 0.5 6.1 - 8 1 8.1 - 10 2 10.1 - 12 3 12.1 - 16 4 16.1 - 20 6 > 20 Call doctor For patients on basal bolus insulin (e.g. Glargine, Detemir) it should be continued where possible. Additional Mx Monitor intake/output Hourly glucose monitoring. Aim for drop 4-5mmol/L/hr. Avoid rapid reduction. Check ketones every 1-2 hour Check K+ every 2-4 hrs (need ECG monitor?) Inform endocrine team of patient Do not use bicarbonate without prior discussion with EM senior/endocrine agreement Common DKA precipitants include infe Continue reading >>

68..............................................................................................................................................................................navc Clinician’s Brief / April 2011 / Diagnostic Tree

68..............................................................................................................................................................................navc Clinician’s Brief / April 2011 / Diagnostic Tree

1. IV Isotonic Crystalloid Therapy • Shock fluid therapy is warranted if cardiovascular instability is present: Full shock dose of fluids is 90 mL/kg; start with ¼ to 1/3 dose and reassess until stable • Correct dehydration, provide maintenance needs, and replace ongoing losses over 6 to 24 hours: - % dehydration × body weight (kg) × 1000 plus - 20 mL/kg/day (insensible losses) plus - 20 to 40 mL/kg/day (maintenance sensible losses) plus - Account for vomiting, diarrhea, & polyuria (ongoing sensible losses) Alice Huang, VMD, & J. Catharine Scott-Moncrieff, Vet MB, MS, MA, Diplomate ACVIM & ECVIM Purdue University Canine Diabetic Ketoacidosis D i a gno s t i c Tre e / ENDOCRINOLOGY Peer Reviewed Physical Examination • Polyuria • Weight loss • Polydipsia • Vomiting • Polyphagia • Lethargy Patient may have only 1 or more of these signs. Laboratory Results • Blood glucose (BG): Hyperglycemia (> 200 mg/dL) • Blood gas (venous or arterial): Metabolic acidosis • Urine dipstick: Glucosuria; ketonuria or ketonemia Serum ketones can be measured if urine is unavailable. Diabetic Ketoacidosis Treatment 2. Electrolyte Supplementation (see Table 1, page 70) • Monitor serum potassium Q 4–6 H until within reference interval and stable; then Q 12–24 H • Monitor serum phosphorus Q 4–6 H until > 1.5; then Q 6–24 H • When supplementing potassium and phosphorus concurrently, take into account the amount of potassium contained in the potassium phosphate • Consider magnesium supplementation in instances of refractory hypokalemia 3. Regular Insulin • Continuous rate infusion (CRI) protocol:1 - Add 2.2 U/kg of regular insulin to 250 mL of 0.9% saline - Allow 50 Continue reading >>

Emergency Management Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Adults

Emergency Management Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Adults

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a potentially fatal metabolic disorder presenting most weeks in most accident and emergency (A&E) departments.1 The disorder can have significant mortality if misdiagnosed or mistreated. Numerous management strategies have been described. Our aim is to describe a regimen that is based, as far as possible, on available evidence but also on our experience in managing patients with DKA in the A&E department and on inpatient wards. A literature search was carried out on Medline and the Cochrane Databases using “diabetic ketoacidosis” as a MeSH heading and as textword. High yield journals were hand searched. Papers identified were appraised in the ways described in the Users’ guide series published in JAMA. We will not be discussing the derangements in intermediary metabolism involved, nor would we suggest extrapolating the proposed regimen to children. Although some of the issues discussed may be considered by some to be outwith the remit of A&E medicine it would seem prudent to ensure that A&E staff were aware of the probable management of such patients in the hours after they leave the A&E department. AETIOLOGY AND DEFINITION DKA may be the first presentation of diabetes. Insulin error (with or without intercurrent illness) is the most common precipitating factor, accounting for nearly two thirds of cases (excluding those where DKA was the first presentation of diabetes mellitus).2 The main features of DKA are hyperglycaemia, metabolic acidosis with a high anion gap and heavy ketonuria (box 1). This contrasts with the other hyperglycaemic diabetic emergency of hyperosmolar non-ketotic hyperglycaemia where there is no acidosis, absent or minimal ketonuria but often very high glucose levels (>33 mM) and very high serum sodium levels (>15 Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus

See also: Background: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is the combination of hyperglycemia, metabolic acidosis, and ketonaemia. It may be the first presentation for a child with previously undiagnosed diabetes. It can also be precipitated by illness, or poor compliance with taking insulin. All patients presenting with a blood glucose level (BGL) ≥ 11.1mmol/l should have blood ketones tested on a capillary sample using a bedside OptiumTM meter. If this test is positive (>0.6 mmol/l), assess for acidosis to determine further management. Urinalysis can be used for initial assessment if blood ketone testing is not available. The biochemical criteria for DKA are: 1. Venous pH < 7.3 or bicarbonate <15 mmol/l 2. Presence of blood or urinary ketones If ketones are negative, or the pH is normal in the presence of ketones, patients can be managed with subcutaneous (s.c.) insulin (see ' new presentation, mildly ill' below). Assessment of children and adolescents with DKA 1. Degree Of Dehydration (often over-estimated) None/Mild ( < 4%): no clinical signs Moderate (4-7%): easily detectable dehydration eg. reduced skin turgor, poor capillary return Severe(>7%): poor perfusion, rapid pulse, reduced blood pressure i.e. shock 3. Investigations Venous blood sample (place an i.v. line if possible as this will be needed if DKA is confirmed) for the following: FBE Blood glucose, urea, electrolytes (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphate) Blood ketones (bedside test) Venous blood gas (including bicarbonate) Investigations for precipitating cause: if clinical signs of infection consider septic work up including blood culture For all newly diagnosed patients: Insulin antibodies, GAD antibodies, coeliac screen (total IgA, anti-gliadin Ab, tissue transglutaminase Ab) and thyroid function Continue reading >>

Understanding And Treating Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Understanding And Treating Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious metabolic disorder that can occur in animals with diabetes mellitus (DM).1,2 Veterinary technicians play an integral role in managing and treating patients with this life-threatening condition. In addition to recognizing the clinical signs of this disorder and evaluating the patient's response to therapy, technicians should understand how this disorder occurs. DM is caused by a relative or absolute lack of insulin production by the pancreatic b-cells or by inactivity or loss of insulin receptors, which are usually found on membranes of skeletal muscle, fat, and liver cells.1,3 In dogs and cats, DM is classified as either insulin-dependent (the body is unable to produce sufficient insulin) or non-insulin-dependent (the body produces insulin, but the tissues in the body are resistant to the insulin).4 Most dogs and cats that develop DKA have an insulin deficiency. Insulin has many functions, including the enhancement of glucose uptake by the cells for energy.1 Without insulin, the cells cannot access glucose, thereby causing them to undergo starvation.2 The unused glucose remains in the circulation, resulting in hyperglycemia. To provide cells with an alternative energy source, the body breaks down adipocytes, releasing free fatty acids (FFAs) into the bloodstream. The liver subsequently converts FFAs to triglycerides and ketone bodies. These ketone bodies (i.e., acetone, acetoacetic acid, b-hydroxybutyric acid) can be used as energy by the tissues when there is a lack of glucose or nutritional intake.1,2 The breakdown of fat, combined with the body's inability to use glucose, causes many pets with diabetes to present with weight loss, despite having a ravenous appetite. If diabetes is undiagnosed or uncontrolled, a series of metab Continue reading >>

Measure Electrolyte And Ketone Levels And Determine Anion Gap In Patients With Diabetes And Normal Sugar Levels

Measure Electrolyte And Ketone Levels And Determine Anion Gap In Patients With Diabetes And Normal Sugar Levels

DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS DX: Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) when the blood glucose is >=250 mg/dL, arterial pH <=7.30, serum bicarbonate <=15 mEq/L, and positive serum ketones. (Hyperglycemia, ketonemia, ketonuria, metabolic acidosis) Screening for Diabetic Ketoacidosis - Consider DKA if hyperglycemia, acidosis, or ketonemia are present. Screen all patients with moderate to severely elevated blood sugars (glucose >350 mg/dL). Measure electrolytes, glucose, ketones, and blood gases to determine whether anion gap metabolic acidosis is present in patients with positive ketones, constitutional symptoms, or suspicion of DKA. in patients with an anion gap metabolic acidosis. Measure serum glucose in patients with metabolic acidosis. in diabetes patients with infection, CVA, MI, or other illness. Measure serum glucose and if glucose >250 mg/dL, check the patient's electrolyte and ketone levels and anion gap. in diabetic patients with symptoms of nausea and vomiting (with polyuria, polydipsia), even if blood glucose is <250 mg/dL. if symptoms suggest DKA despite normal blood sugar levels. in patients on atypical antipsychotics who present with hyperglycemia. Measure anion gap and ketones in patients on atypical antipsychotics who present with moderate to severe hyperglycemia. SX: Dehydration with hypotension, hyperventilation with fruity "acetone" odor, polyphagia, polydipsia, polyuria, altered mental status, N&V. History and Physical Examination Elements for Diabetic Ketoacidosis History Type 1 diabetes - DKA is a frequent complication of type 1 diabetes Constitutional symptoms - DKA may show vague symptoms of lethargy, diminished appetite, and headache Polyuria, polydipsia - May precede the development of DKA by 1 or 2 days, especially if intercurrent illness (infection) is present Continue reading >>

Fluid Replacement Give Sodium Chloride 0.9% Intravenously As Follows:

Fluid Replacement Give Sodium Chloride 0.9% Intravenously As Follows:

Diabetic emergencies: guidelines for the management of diabetic ketoacidosis and management of hyperosmolar non-ketotic diabetic coma The following guideline is approved only for use at University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust. It is provided as supporting information for the UCLH Injectable Medicines Administration Guide. Neither UCLH nor Wiley accept liability for errors or omissions within the guideline. Wherever possible, users of the Guide should refer to locally produced practice guidelines. UCLH’s guidelines represent the expert opinion of the clinicians within the hospital and may not be applicable to patients outside the Trust. Adapted from UCLH Guidelines for the management of common medical emergencies and for the use of antimicrobial drugs Reviewed by: Dr Stephanie Baldeweg, Consultant Endocrinologist, UCLH and Mrs Sejal Rabone, Pharmacist, MES Directorate, UCLH January 2006 Management of diabetic ketoacidosis and management of hyperosmolar The principal problems are dehydration and acidosis. Diabetic ketoacidosis is a medical emergency. Aim of treatment: Correct acidosis with IV fluids and insulin, and restore electrolyte balance. Criteria for diagnosis: • Blood glucose > 10 mmol/L and • Positive urine ketones test and • Acidosis (pH ≤ 7.3 or bicarbonate ≤ 15 mmol/L) Also look for thirst and polyuria, hyperventilation (Kussmaul), abdominal pain, vomiting. Immediate admission to critical care must take priority over all except lifesaving interventions. Refer the patient to the DMR immediately whilst continuing management in A&E. Contact a member of the diabetic team (registrar bleep MX109); it is better to seek advice early than late. Urgent Investigations • Blood glucose. This is accurate up to abou Continue reading >>

Ask An Expert: Is It Really Ok To Treat Hyperglycemia With Glucose?

Ask An Expert: Is It Really Ok To Treat Hyperglycemia With Glucose?

Article Content Q: Why would I give I.V. glucose to a patient being treated for hyperglycemia?-D.L., Conn. Figure. No caption available. A: Although this seems like a contradiction, it can be appropriate. The primary reason is to prevent hypoglycemia once the blood glucose level begins to return to normal. Patients suffering from diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), for example, can benefit from intravenous (I.V.) glucose. We'll explain why later, but first let's talk more about DKA. On admission, patients with DKA usually have blood glucose levels between 250 mg/dl and 800 mg/dl. Because normal blood glucose is 70 to 120 mg/dl premeal, the blood glucose level is way too high. To accurately diagnose a patient with DKA, we need to consider more than his blood glucose level. As the term DKA indicates, plasma or urine ketones must also be present. Ketones are weak acids, and when they accumulate, the blood pH drops to an average of 7.15. The normal blood pH range is from 7.35 to 7.45. As the pH falls, the plasma bicarbonate level drops as it tries to buffer the acids and restore a normal blood pH. An absence of ketosis or acidosis usually excludes a DKA diagnosis. Put simply, the diagnostic parameters for DKA are: arterial pH of less than 7.2, plasma bicarbonate level less than 15 mg/dl, blood glucose level of greater than 250 mg/dl, and presence of serum and urine ketones. Because patients with DKA have an absence of insulin, their cells can't use glucose properly. These patients usually have Type 1 diabetes. Treatment goals include fluids (fluids alone will help decrease the glucose concentrations), adequate insulin to restore normal glucose metabolism, and correction of the precipitating factor. The most effective way to deliver the required insulin is through a continuous I.V. Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Patient professional reference Professional Reference articles are written by UK doctors and are based on research evidence, UK and European Guidelines. They are designed for health professionals to use. You may find the Pre-diabetes (Impaired Glucose Tolerance) article more useful, or one of our other health articles. See also the separate Childhood Ketoacidosis article. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a medical emergency with a significant morbidity and mortality. It should be diagnosed promptly and managed intensively. DKA is characterised by hyperglycaemia, acidosis and ketonaemia:[1] Ketonaemia (3 mmol/L and over), or significant ketonuria (more than 2+ on standard urine sticks). Blood glucose over 11 mmol/L or known diabetes mellitus (the degree of hyperglycaemia is not a reliable indicator of DKA and the blood glucose may rarely be normal or only slightly elevated in DKA). Bicarbonate below 15 mmol/L and/or venous pH less than 7.3. However, hyperglycaemia may not always be present and low blood ketone levels (<3 mmol/L) do not always exclude DKA.[2] Epidemiology DKA is normally seen in people with type 1 diabetes. Data from the UK National Diabetes Audit show a crude one-year incidence of 3.6% among people with type 1 diabetes. In the UK nearly 4% of people with type 1 diabetes experience DKA each year. About 6% of cases of DKA occur in adults newly presenting with type 1 diabetes. About 8% of episodes occur in hospital patients who did not primarily present with DKA.[2] However, DKA may also occur in people with type 2 diabetes, although people with type 2 diabetes are much more likely to have a hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state. Ketosis-prone type 2 diabetes tends to be more common in older, overweight, non-white people with type 2 diabetes, and DKA may be their Continue reading >>

Fluid Management In Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Fluid Management In Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Young people with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus are three times more likely to die in childhood than the general population.1 Despite advances in management over the past 20 years, the incidence of mortality associated with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) remains unchanged. Cerebral oedema is the predominant cause of this mortality; young children are particularly at risk, with an incidence of 0.7–1% of episodes of DKA.2,3 The mortality appears to be greatest among patients at first presentation,1,3,4 if there has been a long history of symptoms prior to admission,3 and during the first 24 hours of treatment.4 In a recently published retrospective multicentre analysis of children with DKA, low pco2 levels and high serum sodium concentration at presentation were identified as particular risk factors for the development of cerebral oedema, together with bicarbonate therapy.5 However, in the accompanying editorial, Dunger and Edge point out that this may simply be revealing an association between severe DKA and dehydration and the risk of cerebral oedema.6 The pathogenesis of cerebral oedema remains poorly understood but there may be many contributing factors.7 The aim of management of DKA is to restore metabolic homoeostasis while minimising the risks of complications including hypoglycaemia, hypokalaemia, cardiac failure, and in children the development of cerebral oedema. How best to achieve this remains contentious, with particular controversy centred on optimal fluid management. The most appropriate volume, type, and rate of fluid to be given have all been the subject of debate. A survey in 1994 of UK paediatricians found a threefold variation in the amount of fluid recommended within the first 12 hours.8 Since then national guidelines have been developed by the B Continue reading >>

Management Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Other Hyperglycemic Emergencies

Management Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Other Hyperglycemic Emergencies

Understand the management of patients with diabetic ketoacidosis and other hyperglycemic emergencies. ​ The acute onset of hyperglycemia with attendant metabolic derangements is a common presentation in all forms of diabetes mellitus. The most current data from the National Diabetes Surveillance Program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimate that during 2005-2006, at least 120,000 hospital discharges for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) occurred in the United States,(1) with an unknown number of discharges related to hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS). The clinical presentations of DKA and HHS can overlap, but they are usually separately characterized by the presence of ketoacidosis and the degree of hyperglycemia and hyperosmolarity, though HHS will occasionally have some mild degree of ketosis. DKA is defined by a plasma glucose level >250 mg/dL, arterial pH <7.3, the presence of serum ketones, a serum bicarbonate measure <18 mEq/L, and a high anion gap metabolic acidosis. The level of normal anion gap may vary slightly by individual institutional standards. The anion gap also needs to be corrected in the presence of hypoalbuminemia, a common condition in the critically ill. Adjusted anion gap = observed anion gap + 0.25 * ([normal albumin]-[observed albumin]), where the given albumin concentrations are in g/L; if given in g/dL, the correction factor is 2.5.(3) HHS is defined by a plasma glucose level >600 mg/dL, with an effective serum osmolality >320 mOsm/kg. HHS was originally named hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic coma; however, this name was changed because relatively few patients exhibit coma-like symptoms. Effective serum osmolality = 2*([Na] + [K]) + glucose (mg/dL)/18.(2) Urea is freely diffusible across cell membranes, thus it will Continue reading >>

Too Much Of A Good Thing

Too Much Of A Good Thing

A healthy 19-year-old man presents to your emergency department complaining of weakness and lethargy for the past 2 weeks. He sleeps 10 hours a day, yet remains tired. His appetite has been poor and he constantly feels thirsty. He voids frequently with no dysuria or hematuria. For the past 24 hours, he has been experiencing moderately severe and diffuse abdominal pain; he vomited 4 times in the past 2 hours. He has lost 10 kg over the past 2 weeks. He denies other symptoms or using drugs or medications, and he drinks alcohol only socially. His personal and family medical histories are not relevant. An examination reveals blood pressure of 115/60 mm Hg, heart rate of 135 beats per minute, temperature of 36.9°C, respiration rate of 24 breaths per minute, and oxygen saturation of 100% on room air. The patient is alert and appears uncomfortable, retching repeatedly. The mucosae are dry and the abdomen soft but diffusely tender, with normal bowel sounds and no peritoneal signs. There is no costovertebral angle tenderness. Findings from the remainder of the examination are noncontributory. A bedside glucometer displays “High-High-High.” Laboratory investigations reveal a white blood cell count of 14.2 × 109/L, a hemoglobin level of 143 g/L, a platelet count of 365 × 109/L, a sodium level of 133 mmol/L, a potassium level of 2.9 mmol/L, a chloride level of 103 mmol/L, a blood urea nitrogen level of 17 mmol/L, a creatinine level of 144 μmol/L, a glucose level of 29.7 mmol/L, an arterial pH of 7.10, a Pco2 of 23 mm Hg, a Po2 of 95 mm Hg, a bicarbonate level of 11 mmol/L, and an oxygen saturation of 95%. Urinalysis results are positive for high levels of ketones and glucose. How would you approach this patient? Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) occurs in 4.6 to 8 of 1000 diabeti Continue reading >>

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