Why Does Potassium Concentration Rise In Patients With Acidosis?

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Sodium Bicarbonate Therapy In Patients With Metabolic Acidosis

The Scientific World Journal Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 627673, 13 pages Nephrology Division, Hospital General Juan Cardona, Avenida Pardo Bazán, s/n, Ferrol, 15406 A Coruña, Spain Academic Editor: Biagio R. Di Iorio Copyright © 2014 María M. Adeva-Andany et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract Metabolic acidosis occurs when a relative accumulation of plasma anions in excess of cations reduces plasma pH. Replacement of sodium bicarbonate to patients with sodium bicarbonate loss due to diarrhea or renal proximal tubular acidosis is useful, but there is no definite evidence that sodium bicarbonate administration to patients with acute metabolic acidosis, including diabetic ketoacidosis, lactic acidosis, septic shock, intraoperative metabolic acidosis, or cardiac arrest, is beneficial regarding clinical outcomes or mortality rate. Patients with advanced chronic kidney disease usually show metabolic acidosis due to increased unmeasured anions and hyperchloremia. It has been suggested tha Continue reading >>

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  1. Scrunchii

    Ok, ok I know...don't fast while breastfeeding!
    Problem is, I breastfeed my kids a long time and I've been either preggo or breastfeeding for 6.5 years (I have two kids, 5 and 2). I spontaneously IF and eat in a 6-10 window depending on when I get hungry. I need to lose some weight because of some back pain and was wanting to do some short (1-2 days) fasts.
    So, has anyone here fasted while breastfeeding? What happened to your milk? What are the arguments against breastfeeding and fasting? Thank you for any info.

  2. Chellb

    I have no personal experience with fasting and breastfeeding, but I understand what you mean about the "Just wait until you're done breastfeeding" advice, since I too measured my breastfeeding time in years, not months. So, no real advice, just commiseration. For solid breastfeeding advice, Kellymom is always a good place to start: http://kellymom.com/nutrition/mothers-diet/fasting/

    It looks like it's mostly about religious fasting. Oh, and I should mention that my kids are now Loonnngg past the bfing stage.

  3. Scrunchii

    Thanks for the link. I'll check it out.
    Since my baby is two years old now I was thinking about some fasting experiments.

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4 Signs of a Potassium Deficiency - How to Avoid Potassium Deficiency Both cramps and fatigue can be clear indicators of a potassium deficiency. Add foods that contain this mineral to your diet to avoid major health problems. Potassium deficiency can affect your nerves and their interaction with your muscle cells in your digestive tract, the heart, and other bodily systems. Most of the potassium in your body is found in your cells. When you have a balanced daily diet you keep your potassium levels stable with ease. If your diet is very poor, on the other hand, choosing unhealthy products or missing some key sources, youll have a deficiency in potassium. But how do you know if you have a potassium deficiency? In todays article well explain the signs. Pay attention to see if you have any of them. 1. You feel potassium deficiency: youre tired and weak The first symptoms of a potassium deficiency are usually muscle aches, cramps, and abnormal weakness. This weakness will not just affect your arms and legs, but also your respiratory and gastrointestinal muscles. Low potassium levels prevent your muscle cells from rapidly recharging their energy stores. This causes them to have difficulty contracting. Weakness, muscle spasms, and tingling or numbness in the muscles could indicate that your potassium deficiency is getting worse. If you already have any of these symptoms, we recommend that you go the doctor immediately for an evaluation. 2. You have an irregular heartbeat A prolonged lack of potassium in the body can affect your heart by altering its normal function. The first symptom of this will be an irregular heartbeat with no apparent cause. Its normal for this to happen if you run too hard when youre not prepared, for example. Whats not normal is for it to occur when youre simply following your normal routine. If you have a prolonged potassium deficiency, you can eventually develop structural and functional changes in your kidneys. A lack of potassium can also slow down your heart rate and cause dizziness, as a result. There are different types of arrhythmia. Some cause the heart to beat too fast, while others make it work more slowly. In the most severe cases, your heart could begin skipping beats. All types of arrhythmias can cause a variety of symptoms, ranging from dizziness to fainting. An irregular heartbeat due to any cause can be accompanied by shortness of breath, chest pain, and sweating. 3. High blood pressure There are many factors that influence your blood pressure, including family history, being overweight, and your consumption of salt. A deficiency of potassium can also be a cause. In fact, both too much and too little potassium can trigger changes in your blood pressure. According to several studies, eating too much salty food and too few fruits and vegetables can lead to high blood pressure. 4. Cramping The activity and resting states of your muscles depend on potassium. Relaxation can be voluntary or involuntary, depending on the type of muscle you are working. When you have a deficit of potassium, the muscle is kept in a contracted state that causes cramping. If youre familiar with frequent muscle spasms in your legs, for example, it could be due to a lack of potassium. This is very common in athletes who train a lot. If this is the case for you, its a good idea to consume sports drinks that are rich in electrolytes and potassium from time to time. Foods that are rich in potassium Whenever we talk about potassium, people always think that bananas are the best source of it. Although its true that this fruit does have a good concentration of potassium, its not your only option. Among the foods that can naturally help you get the amount of potassium you need, youll find: Chard This vegetable is easy to grow at home and everyone should try it. Just 100 grams provides 380 mg of potassium. You can consume it in salads or smoothies. Bananas Its well-known that bananas are rich in potassium, providing 370 mg per 100 grams of flesh. Just remember that if youre diabetic, you shouldnt consume too much of this fruit. Potatoes If youre the type of person who enjoys some good mashed potatoes, youve probably never experienced any of the above symptoms. Potatoes pack 418 mg of potassium in every 100 grams. To keep from losing this mineral, its best to consume potatoes that have been baked, grilled, or steamed. Remember to avoid fried potato dishes. Cabbage This is another seasonal vegetable that provides 450 mg of potassium per 100 grams. Our favorite options for this vegetable are in salads or baked dishes. Avocado The avocado provides 487 mg of potassium per 100 grams. You can enjoy it in guacamole, on top of a salad, or in a sandwich. Spinach Spinach is an excellent vegetable that you can add to a variety of dishes, which provides 554 mg of potassium per 100 grams. 4 Signs of a Potassium Deficiency - How to Avoid Potassium Deficiency

Potassium - An Overview | Sciencedirect Topics

Potassium is the most abundant cation in living cells and plays a major role in maintaining an electrical potential between the inside and outside of cells, and as such, is critical to cellular excitability of muscle cells and neurons with particular relevance to motor, cardiovascular, and nervous systems function. In Clinical Veterinary Advisor: The Horse , 2012 Potassium is critical for many biochemical cellular reactions. It is ingested daily and renal excretion is regulated by aldosterone. Potassium is also lost in feces and sweat. Most of the body's potassium is found intracellularly. Serum (extracellular) potassium is less than 2% of the whole body potassium. Shift from intracellular fluid (ICF) to extracellular fluid (ECF): Metabolic acidosis, hyperkalemic periodic paralysis (HYPP) in Quarter Horses, vigorous exercise, muscle damage, severe cellular damage/tissue necrosis, intravascular hemolysis, and diabetes mellitus Decreased excretion: Renal insufficiency or failure, uroperitoneum, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, Trimethoprim, hypoaldosteronism, hypoadrenocorticism Increased absorption: Administration of potassium-rich fluids Next Diagnostic Step to Cons Continue reading >>

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  1. ls737100

    How about some science to it. Your liver will store about 500 calories of glycogen first, then muscles will store about 2,000 calories of glycogen. Interesting thing is once glycogen is in the muscle there's no way to pull it back into the bloodstream. If you eat a ton of carbs in one sitting you'll overload your muscles and liver and it'll get converted to fat. So seems like the max stored calories is about 2,500. Your brain uses about 600 calories a day, so, in 24 hours it should burn through everything in the liver and switch to ketones. So, seems like the max would be 24 hours before your brain was on ketones, might take longer for some muscles to be depleted and switch. Oh, and btw, there are only about 5 grams of glucose in the blood stream, so negligible.

  2. Naonin

    If you eat a ton of carbs in one sitting you'll overload your muscles and liver and it'll get converted to fat.
    De Novo Lipogensis (DNL) rarely seems to happen with short term overfeeding of fat free, fructose free carbs. http://caloriesproper.com/are-carbs-stored-as-fat/
    But yes, you're correct, it's about 24-36 hours without eating that puts a human into ketosis, which I believe we enter ketosis faster than any other animal. http://caloriesproper.com/ketosis-in-an-evolutionary-context/

  3. illogic_bomb

    So, would it be your opinion that fasting for 48 or 72 hours would bring you into Ketosis instead of 2-3 weeks that has been reported by Dr. Tim Noakes?

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Explanation of the association between potassium and Acid base balance in the body.

On The Relationship Between Potassium And Acid-base Balance

The notion that acid-base and potassium homeostasis are linked is well known. Students of laboratory medicine will learn that in general acidemia (reduced blood pH) is associated with increased plasma potassium concentration (hyperkalemia), whilst alkalemia (increased blood pH) is associated with reduced plasma potassium concentration (hypokalemia). A frequently cited mechanism for these findings is that acidosis causes potassium to move from cells to extracellular fluid (plasma) in exchange for hydrogen ions, and alkalosis causes the reverse movement of potassium and hydrogen ions. As a recently published review makes clear, all the above may well be true, but it represents a gross oversimplification of the complex ways in which disorders of acid-base affect potassium metabolism and disorders of potassium affect acid-base balance. The review begins with an account of potassium homeostasis with particular detailed attention to the renal handling of potassium and regulation of potassium excretion in urine. This discussion includes detail of the many cellular mechanisms of potassium reabsorption and secretion throughout the renal tubule and collecting duct that ensure, despite signif Continue reading >>

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  1. Rania

    Wondering if anyone can tell me how quickly carbs effect the results on ketostix? I have been using ketostix to test out a few different foods and see how they effect me and ketosis. But I am never sure if I should test an hour after I have eaten it or the next morning or what!
    And then there have been times when I have thought I have not eaten anything that should take me out of ketosis and yet the result is not pink anymore! How do I work out approx how long ago I ingested whatever took me out of ketosis to try and pin point it?

  2. Sherrie

    Just test out one food at a time that way you'll always know which one is the culprit.
    Within 1-2 hours after eating you should see a change but it is always possible for a food to only take you out temporarily.
    If your in ketosis the following morning then it never took you out, just delayed the fat burning for a bit.
    Make sense?

  3. Rania

    Yup Thanks, I thought that was the case but I was just not sure.

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