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Why Does Potassium Concentration Rise In Patients With Acidosis?

Hyperkalemia

Hyperkalemia

JOYCE C. HOLLANDER-RODRIGUEZ, M.D., and JAMES F. CALVERT, JR., M.D., Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon Am Fam Physician. 2006 Jan 15;73(2):283-290. Hyperkalemia is a potentially life-threatening metabolic problem caused by inability of the kidneys to excrete potassium, impairment of the mechanisms that move potassium from the circulation into the cells, or a combination of these factors. Acute episodes of hyperkalemia commonly are triggered by the introduction of a medication affecting potassium homeostasis; illness or dehydration also can be triggers. In patients with diabetic nephropathy, hyperkalemia may be caused by the syndrome of hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism. The presence of typical electrocardiographic changes or a rapid rise in serum potassium indicates that hyperkalemia is potentially life threatening. Urine potassium, creatinine, and osmolarity should be obtained as a first step in determining the cause of hyperkalemia, which directs long-term treatment. Intravenous calcium is effective in reversing electrocardiographic changes and reducing the risk of arrhythmias but does not lower serum potassium. Serum potassium levels can be lowered acutely by using intravenous insulin and glucose, nebulized beta2 agonists, or both. Sodium polystyrene therapy, sometimes with intravenous furosemide and saline, is then initiated to lower total body potassium levels. The prevalence of hyperkalemia in hospitalized patients is between 1 and 10 percent.1 Although the exact prevalence of hyperkalemia in community-based medical practice is unknown, potassium elevation is a common, potentially life-threatening problem most often occuring in patients with chronic renal failure or other illnesses that reduce renal potassium excretion (Table 12,3). In these patie Continue reading >>

Why Does Potassium Concentration Rise In Patients With Acidosis? What Is This Called? What Its Effects?

Why Does Potassium Concentration Rise In Patients With Acidosis? What Is This Called? What Its Effects?

Why does potassium concentration rise in patients with acidosis? What is this called? What its effects? Are you sure you want to delete this answer? Best Answer: H+/K+ antiporter in your blood cells. Not sure if this has a specific name. It occurs by passive transport. When serum [H+] rises, you increase the concentration gradient between the extracellular and intracellular spaces. H+ goes into the cells and K+ is exchanged out of the cells into serum. The biggest worry about hyperkalemia is development of a cardiac arrhythmia. Remember that this is all about movement of K+ between compartments. Total body K+ hasn't changed by this mechanism. As the acidosis is corrected, serum [K+] will fall. Often you may find that the patient will become hypokalemic, because while his serum [K+] was temporarily high, he had increased urinary losses of K+. I think this question violates the Community Guidelines Chat or rant, adult content, spam, insulting other members, show more I think this question violates the Terms of Service Harm to minors, violence or threats, harassment or privacy invasion, impersonation or misrepresentation, fraud or phishing, show more If you believe your intellectual property has been infringed and would like to file a complaint, please see our Copyright/IP Policy I think this answer violates the Community Guidelines Chat or rant, adult content, spam, insulting other members, show more I think this answer violates the Terms of Service Harm to minors, violence or threats, harassment or privacy invasion, impersonation or misrepresentation, fraud or phishing, show more If you believe your intellectual property has been infringed and would like to file a complaint, please see our Copyright/IP Policy I think this comment violates the Community Guidelines Chat o Continue reading >>

On The Relationship Between Potassium And Acid-base Balance

On The Relationship Between Potassium And Acid-base Balance

The notion that acid-base and potassium homeostasis are linked is well known. Students of laboratory medicine will learn that in general acidemia (reduced blood pH) is associated with increased plasma potassium concentration (hyperkalemia), whilst alkalemia (increased blood pH) is associated with reduced plasma potassium concentration (hypokalemia). A frequently cited mechanism for these findings is that acidosis causes potassium to move from cells to extracellular fluid (plasma) in exchange for hydrogen ions, and alkalosis causes the reverse movement of potassium and hydrogen ions. As a recently published review makes clear, all the above may well be true, but it represents a gross oversimplification of the complex ways in which disorders of acid-base affect potassium metabolism and disorders of potassium affect acid-base balance. The review begins with an account of potassium homeostasis with particular detailed attention to the renal handling of potassium and regulation of potassium excretion in urine. This discussion includes detail of the many cellular mechanisms of potassium reabsorption and secretion throughout the renal tubule and collecting duct that ensure, despite significant variation in dietary intake, that plasma potassium remains within narrow, normal limits. There follows discussion of the ways in which acid-base disturbances affect these renal cellular mechanisms of potassium handling. For example, it is revealed that acidosis decreases potassium secretion in the distal renal tubule directly by effect on potassium secretory channels and indirectly by increasing ammonia production. The clinical consequences of the physiological relation between acid-base and potassium homeostasis are addressed under three headings: Hyperkalemia in Acidosis; Hypokalemia w Continue reading >>

Overview Of Disorders Of Potassium Concentration

Overview Of Disorders Of Potassium Concentration

(Video) Overview of the Role of the Kidneys in Acid-Base Balance Overview of Disorders of Potassium Concentration By James L. Lewis, III, MD, Attending Physician, Brookwood Baptist Health and Saint Vincents Ascension Health, Birmingham Potassium is the most abundant intracellular cation, but only about 2% of total body potassium is extracellular. Because most intracellular potassium is contained within muscle cells, total body potassium is roughly proportional to lean body mass. An average 70-kg adult has about 3500 mEq of potassium. Potassium is a major determinant of intracellular osmolality. The ratio between potassium concentration in the ICF and concentration in the ECF strongly influences cell membrane polarization, which in turn influences important cell processes, such as the conduction of nerve impulses and muscle (including myocardial) cell contraction. Thus, relatively small alterations in serum potassium concentration can have significant clinical manifestations. Total serum potassium concentration may be Clinical manifestations of disorders of potassium concentration can involve muscle weakness and cardiac arrhythmias. In the absence of factors that shift potassium in or out of cells, the serum potassium concentration correlates closely with total body potassium content. Once intracellular and extracellular concentrations are stable, a decrease in serum potassium concentration of about 1 mEq/L indicates a total potassium deficit of about 200 to 400 mEq. Patients with stable potassium concentration < 3 mEq/L typically have a significant potassium deficit. A decrease in serum potassium concentration of about 1 mEq/L indicates a total potassium deficit of about 200 to 400 mEq. Insulin moves potassium into cells; high concentrations of insulin thus lower serum Continue reading >>

Disorders Of Potassium Balance

Disorders Of Potassium Balance

Potassium disorders may take the form of hyperkalemia (high serum potassium) or hypokalemia (low serum potassium). The most common cause of hyperkalemia is decreased kidney function. It may also be caused by endocrinological disturbances (e.g., hypoaldosteronism , hypocortisolism ) or drugs such as potassium-sparing diuretics , angiotensin-converting enzyme ( ACE ) inhibitors, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs ( NSAIDs ), and digoxin . Low serum potassium levels, on the other hand, can be caused by gastrointestinal losses (e.g., due to vomiting, diarrhea ) or drugs such as non- potassium-sparing diuretics and laxatives . To determine the cause of a potassium disorder, it is essential to review the patient's medications and test for aldosterone and cortisol disturbances. Acute changes in serum potassium are very dangerous, as they influence the resting membrane potential and thus the electrical excitability of cells. These changes can lead to malignant cardiac arrhythmias . The management of hypokalemia and hyperkalemia includes dietary changes, medications, and, in the case of hyperkalemia , dialysis. The potassium serum concentration should be monitored closely until it is corrected. Hypokalemic periodic paralysis: potassium chloride , acetazolamide (an episode of hypokalemic periodic paralysis can be lethal!) Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis: calcium gluconate 1. Lederer E. Hyperkalemia. In: Batuman V. Hyperkalemia. New York, NY: WebMD. . Updated January 11, 2016. Accessed February 9, 2017. 2. Mount DB. Causes and evaluation of hyperkalemia in adults. In: Post TW, ed. UpToDate. Waltham, MA: UpToDate. . Last updated October 15, 2014. Accessed February 9, 2017. 3. Velzquez H, Perazella MA, Wright FS, Ellison DH. Renal mechanism of trimethoprim-induced hyperkalemia. A Continue reading >>

Sodium Bicarbonate Therapy In Patients With Metabolic Acidosis

Sodium Bicarbonate Therapy In Patients With Metabolic Acidosis

The Scientific World Journal Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 627673, 13 pages Nephrology Division, Hospital General Juan Cardona, Avenida Pardo Bazán, s/n, Ferrol, 15406 A Coruña, Spain Academic Editor: Biagio R. Di Iorio Copyright © 2014 María M. Adeva-Andany et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract Metabolic acidosis occurs when a relative accumulation of plasma anions in excess of cations reduces plasma pH. Replacement of sodium bicarbonate to patients with sodium bicarbonate loss due to diarrhea or renal proximal tubular acidosis is useful, but there is no definite evidence that sodium bicarbonate administration to patients with acute metabolic acidosis, including diabetic ketoacidosis, lactic acidosis, septic shock, intraoperative metabolic acidosis, or cardiac arrest, is beneficial regarding clinical outcomes or mortality rate. Patients with advanced chronic kidney disease usually show metabolic acidosis due to increased unmeasured anions and hyperchloremia. It has been suggested that metabolic acidosis might have a negative impact on progression of kidney dysfunction and that sodium bicarbonate administration might attenuate this effect, but further evaluation is required to validate such a renoprotective strategy. Sodium bicarbonate is the predominant buffer used in dialysis fluids and patients on maintenance dialysis are subjected to a load of sodium bicarbonate during the sessions, suffering a transient metabolic alkalosis of variable severity. Side effects associated with sodium bicarbonate therapy include hypercapnia, hypokalemia, ionized hypocalcemia, and QTc inter Continue reading >>

What Is The Connection Between Potassium And Acidosis?

What Is The Connection Between Potassium And Acidosis?

What Is the Connection between Potassium and Acidosis? Top 10 amazing movie makeup transformations Acidosis can affect the amount of potassium in a patients blood serum, causing it to become unusually high or low. Patients develop acidosis when the acid and base balance of the body is disrupted because the lungs or kidneys are not functioning properly. Normally they regulate internal pH by oxygenating the body and excreting unnecessary compounds in urine. People can develop acidosis because of respiratory problems, kidney disease , endocrine disorders, and other issues that interrupt normal metabolism . One connection between potassium and acidosis is the tendency for serum potassium levels to reflect the type of acidosis the patient has. A technician can draw a sample of the patients blood to determine how much potassium is floating freely through the system, circulating to cells. This sample can also be used to measure other compounds in the blood which may provide more information about the patients condition. Some forms cause potassium to rise in the blood serum. This occurs because of a net movement from cells to the bloodstream in an attempt to maintain stable pH. It is also possible to see the reverse with potassium and acidosis, where the blood becomes hypokalemic; this means that there is not enough potassium in circulation. This occurs with failing kidneys that excrete potassium instead of conserving it. In cases where a patient appears to have acidosis, an awareness of the link between potassium and acidosis can be important. This can help the care provider decide which tests to order and how to read the results. The best treatment option can depend on why the patients blood chemistry is abnormal; the patient might need respiratory support to boost oxygenati Continue reading >>

When The Ph Rises Above 745 A State Of Exists 54 A Apotheosis B Alkalosis C

When The Ph Rises Above 745 A State Of Exists 54 A Apotheosis B Alkalosis C

When the pH rises above 745 a state of exists 54 A apotheosis B alkalosis C When the ph rises above 745 a state of exists 54 a 86% (51) 44 out of 51 people found this document helpful This preview shows page 7 - 10 out of 10 pages. 54)When the pH rises above 7.45, a state of ________ exists.54)A)apotheosisB)alkalosisC)hydrosisD)acidosisE)ptosis7 55)________ will raise blood pH.55)56)Hypercapnia refers to elevated levels of56)57)Administration of a medication in the elderly can result in a much higher dosage than the clinicianmight intend because57)58)Which of the following statements isfalseregarding fluid and electrolyte balance?58)A)Aging correlates with problems in various organ systems, which can enhance acid-baseimbalance problems.B)Older people tend to become more dehydrated.C)Kidney functions tend to decrease as one ages.D)Fluctuations in diet will affect babies less because they have so much water content.E)A fetus obtains water and electrolytes from the maternal bloodstream.ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.59)The maintenance of normal volume and composition of extracellular and intracellular fluids is vital to life. Listand briefly describe the kinds of homeostasis involved.SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question.60)Fred has chronic emphysema. Blood tests show that his pH is low but almost normal buthis bicarbonate levels are elevated significantly. How can this be? What would urinalysisshow?60)ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.61)Why does potassium concentration rise in patients with acidosis? What is this called? What effects does it have?8 Answer KeyTestname: UNTITLED21)C2)D3)A4)B5)A6)A7)E8)C9)B10)E11)B12)A13)A Continue reading >>

Acidosis

Acidosis

For acidosis referring to acidity of the urine, see renal tubular acidosis. "Acidemia" redirects here. It is not to be confused with Academia. Acidosis is a process causing increased acidity in the blood and other body tissues (i.e., an increased hydrogen ion concentration). If not further qualified, it usually refers to acidity of the blood plasma. The term acidemia describes the state of low blood pH, while acidosis is used to describe the processes leading to these states. Nevertheless, the terms are sometimes used interchangeably. The distinction may be relevant where a patient has factors causing both acidosis and alkalosis, wherein the relative severity of both determines whether the result is a high, low, or normal pH. Acidosis is said to occur when arterial pH falls below 7.35 (except in the fetus – see below), while its counterpart (alkalosis) occurs at a pH over 7.45. Arterial blood gas analysis and other tests are required to separate the main causes. The rate of cellular metabolic activity affects and, at the same time, is affected by the pH of the body fluids. In mammals, the normal pH of arterial blood lies between 7.35 and 7.50 depending on the species (e.g., healthy human-arterial blood pH varies between 7.35 and 7.45). Blood pH values compatible with life in mammals are limited to a pH range between 6.8 and 7.8. Changes in the pH of arterial blood (and therefore the extracellular fluid) outside this range result in irreversible cell damage.[1] Signs and symptoms[edit] General symptoms of acidosis.[2] These usually accompany symptoms of another primary defect (respiratory or metabolic). Nervous system involvement may be seen with acidosis and occurs more often with respiratory acidosis than with metabolic acidosis. Signs and symptoms that may be seen i Continue reading >>

Payperview: Serum Potassium Concentration In Acidemic States - Karger Publishers

Payperview: Serum Potassium Concentration In Acidemic States - Karger Publishers

Serum Potassium Concentration in Acidemic States I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree. It has been generally accepted that acidosis results in hyperkalemia because of shifts of potassium from the intracellular to the extracellular compartment. There is ample clinical and experimental evidence, however, to support the conclusion that uncomplicated organic acidemias do not produce hyperkalemia. In acidosis associated with mineral acids (respiratory acidosis, end-stage uremic acidosis, NH4CI- or CaCl2-induced acidosis), acidemia per se, results in predictable increases in serum potassium concentration. In acidosis associated with nonmineral organic acids (diabetic and alcoholic acidosis, lactic acidosis, methanol and the less common forms of organic acidemias secondary to methylmalonic and isovaleric acids, and ethylene glycol, paraldehyde and salicylate intoxications), serum potassium concentration usually remains within the normal range in uncomplicated cases. A number of factors, however, may be responsible for hyperkalemia in some of these patients other than the acidemia per se. These include dehydration and renal hypoperfusion, preexisting renal disease, hypercatabolism, diabetes mellitus, hypoaldosteronism, the status of potassium balance, and therapy. The mechanism(s) of this differing effect of mineral and organic acidemias on transmembrane movement of potassium remains undefined. The prevalent hypothesis, however, favors the free penetrance of the organic anion into cells without creating a gradient for the hydrogen ions and, thus, obviating the efflux of intracellular potassium. The importance of the presence of hyperkalemia in clinical states of organic acidemias is obvious. A search for the complicating factors reviewed above should be undert Continue reading >>

Potassium And Acidosis

Potassium And Acidosis

Balance among electrically charged atoms and molecules is essential to maintaining chemical equilibrium in your body. Potassium is the most abundant, positively charged atom inside your cells. Because acids and potassium both have a positive electrical charge in your body, their concentrations are interdependent. Medical conditions that cause an overabundance of acids in your blood, known as acidosis, may affect your blood potassium level, and vice versa. Video of the Day Metabolic acidosis is an abnormally low blood pH caused by overproduction of acids or failure of your kidneys to rid the body of acids normally. With metabolic acidosis, your blood has an abnormally high level of positively charged hydrogen atoms, or hydrogen ions. To reduce the acidity of your blood, hydrogen ions move from your circulation into your cells in exchange for potassium. The exchange of hydrogen for potassium ions helps relieve the severity of acidosis but may cause an abnormally high level of blood potassium, or hyperkalemia. Drs. Kimberley Evans and Arthur Greenberg reported in a September 2005 article published in the "Journal of Intensive Care Medicine" that there is a 0.3 to 1.3 mmol/L increase in blood potassium for every 0.1 decrease in pH with metabolic acidosis. Metabolic Acidosis Recovery Correction of the underlying medical problem responsible for metabolic acidosis typically leads to normalization of your blood pH. Although blood potassium is typically elevated with metabolic acidosis, a substantial amount of your total body potassium stores can be lost through the kidneys, causing a total body deficit. As your blood pH returns to normal, potassium moves from your bloodstream back into your cells. If your total body potassium stores have been depleted, your blood concentration Continue reading >>

Final Diagnosis -- Case 587

Final Diagnosis -- Case 587

Due to loss of water in the extracellular space from diuretic use. III. PHYSIOLOGY OF BICARBONATE HOMEOSTASIS IN THE BODY Systemic arterial pH is maintained between 7.35 and 7.45 by extracellular and intracellular buffering via respiratory and renal mechanisms [1]. The control of arterial CO2 tension by central nervous system and respiratory system and control of plasma bicarbonate by kidneys stabilize the arterial pH by excretion or retention of acid and alkali. This balance is represented by the Henderson-Hassalbalch equation given by Figure 1. Henderson-Hassalbalch equation. Where HCO3- represents in the plasma bicarbonate concentration and pCO2 is the plasma carbon dioxide tension in the blood. At normal conditions in the body, the CO2 production and excretion are equal and pCO2 is maintained at 40 mm Hg. At steady state, the bicarbonate exists in different forms within the body which is shown as follows. Figure 2. Distribution of various forms of bicarbonate in the body. Species of each form are shown as a total percentage of bicarbonate in the body.Primary changes in pCO2 can cause respiratory acidosis or respiratory alkalosis depending on if the value of pCO2 is above or below 40 mm Hg. Primary alteration of pCO2 due respiratory causes cellular buffering and renal adaptation. At the other end, regulation of the metabolic acidotic and alkalotic balance occurs mainly through bicarbonate excretion and resorption in the kidney. Kidneys regulate plasma HCO3- through 3 main processes [1]. Formation of carbonic acid species in the body fluids and Primary changes in plasma HCO3- due to metabolic or renal factors cause compensatory changes in the ventilation which blunt the changes in the pH. 80-90% of HCO3- produced daily in the body is reabsorbed in the proximal tubule Continue reading >>

Hyperkalemia

Hyperkalemia

Hyperkalemia, also spelled hyperkalaemia, is an elevated level of potassium (K+) in the blood serum.[1] Normal potassium levels are between 3.5 and 5.0 mmol/L (3.5 and 5.0 mEq/L) with levels above 5.5 mmol/L defined as hyperkalemia.[3][4] Typically this results in no symptoms.[1] Occasionally when severe it results in palpitations, muscle pain, muscle weakness, or numbness.[1][2] An abnormal heart rate can occur which can result in cardiac arrest and death.[1][3] Common causes include kidney failure, hypoaldosteronism, and rhabdomyolysis.[1] A number of medications can also cause high blood potassium including spironolactone, NSAIDs, and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors.[1] The severity is divided into mild (5.5-5.9 mmol/L), moderate (6.0-6.4 mmol/L), and severe (>6.5 mmol/L).[3] High levels can also be detected on an electrocardiogram (ECG).[3] Pseudohyperkalemia, due to breakdown of cells during or after taking the blood sample, should be ruled out.[1][2] Initial treatment in those with ECG changes is calcium gluconate.[1][3] Medications that might worsen the condition should be stopped and a low potassium diet should be recommended.[1] Other medications used include dextrose with insulin, salbutamol, and sodium bicarbonate.[1][5] Measures to remove potassium from the body include furosemide, polystyrene sulfonate, and hemodialysis.[1] Hemodialysis is the most effective method.[3] The use of polystyrene sulfonate, while common, is poorly supported by evidence.[6] Hyperkalemia is rare among those who are otherwise healthy.[7] Among those who are in hospital, rates are between 1% and 2.5%.[2] It increases the overall risk of death by at least ten times.[2][7] The word "hyperkalemia" is from hyper- meaning high; kalium meaning potassium; and -emia, meaning "in th Continue reading >>

Effects Of Ph On Potassium: New Explanations For Old Observations

Effects Of Ph On Potassium: New Explanations For Old Observations

Go to: Abstract Maintenance of extracellular K+ concentration within a narrow range is vital for numerous cell functions, particularly electrical excitability of heart and muscle. Potassium homeostasis during intermittent ingestion of K+ involves rapid redistribution of K+ into the intracellular space to minimize increases in extracellular K+ concentration, and ultimate elimination of the K+ load by renal excretion. Recent years have seen great progress in identifying the transporters and channels involved in renal and extrarenal K+ homeostasis. Here we apply these advances in molecular physiology to understand how acid-base disturbances affect serum potassium. The effects of acid-base balance on serum potassium are well known.1 Maintenance of extracellular K+ concentration within a narrow range is vital for numerous cell functions, particularly electrical excitability of heart and muscle.2 However, maintenance of normal extracellular K+ (3.5 to 5 mEq/L) is under two potential threats. First, as illustrated in Figure 1, because some 98% of the total body content of K+ resides within cells, predominantly skeletal muscle, small acute shifts of intracellular K+ into or out of the extracellular space can cause severe, even lethal, derangements of extracellular K+ concentration. As described in Figure 1, many factors in addition to acid-base perturbations modulate internal K+ distribution including insulin, catecholamines, and hypertonicity.3,4 Rapid redistribution of K+ into the intracellular space is essential for minimizing increases in extracellular K+ concentration during acute K+ loads. Second, as also illustrated in Figure 1, in steady state the typical daily K+ ingestion of about 70 mEq/d would be sufficient to cause large changes in extracellular K+ were it not for Continue reading >>

Fluid/electrolyte Balance

Fluid/electrolyte Balance

Content Body Fluids Compartments Composition of Body Fluids Electrolyte Composition of Body Fluids Extracellular and Intracellular Fluids Fluid Movement Among Compartments Fluid Shifts Regulation of Fluids And Electrolytes Water Balance and ECF Osmolality Water Output Regulation of Water Intake Regulation of Water Output Primary Regulatory Hormones Disorders of Water Balance Electrolyte Balance Sodium in Fluid and Electrolyte Balance Sodium balance Regulation of Sodium Balance: Aldosterone Atrial Natriuretic Hormone (ANH) Potassium Balance Regulation of Potassium Balance Regulation of Calcium Regulation of Anions Acid-Base Balance Sources of Hydrogen Ions Hydrogen Ion Regulation Chemical Buffer Systems -- 1. Bicarbonate Buffer System - -2. Phosphate Buffer System -- 3. Protein Buffer System Physiological Buffer Systems Renal Mechanisms of Acid-Base Balance Reabsorption of Bicarbonate Generating New Bicarbonate Ions Hydrogen Ion Excretion Ammonium Ion Excretion Bicarbonate Ion Secretion Respiratory Acidosis and Alkalosis Respiratory Acid-Base Regulation Metabolic pH Imbalance Respiratory/Renal Compensation/Metabolic Acidosis Metabolic Alkalosis Fluid Balance- The amount of water gained each day equals the amount lost Electrolyte Balance - The ions gained each day equals the ions lost Acid-Base Balance - Hydrogen ion (H+) gain is offset by their loss Body Fluids Compartments Intracellular Fluid (ICF) - fluid found in the cells (cytoplasm, nucleoplasm) comprises 60% of all body fluids. Extracellular Fluid (ECF) - all fluids found outside the cells, comprises 40% of all body fluids Interstitial Fluid - 80% of ECF is found in localized areas: lymph, cerebrospinal fluid, synovial fluid, aqueous humor and vitreous body of eyes, between serous and visceral membranes, glomerular Continue reading >>

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