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Why Does Metformin Cause Lactic Acidosis Usmle

Metformin, Heart Failure, And Lactic Acidosis: Is Metformin Absolutely Contraindicated?

Metformin, Heart Failure, And Lactic Acidosis: Is Metformin Absolutely Contraindicated?

Many patients with type 2 diabetes are denied treatment with metformin because of “contraindications” such as cardiac failure, which may not be absolute contraindications Summary points Treatment with metformin is not associated with an increased risk of lactic acidosis among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who have no cardiac, renal, or liver failure Despite increasing disregard of contraindications to metformin by physicians, the incidence of lactic acidosis has not increased, so metformin may be safe even in patients with “contraindications” The vast majority of case reports relating metformin to lactic acidosis report at least one other disease/illness that could result in lactic acidosis Use of metformin in patients with heart failure might be associated with lower mortality and morbidity, with no increase in hospital admissions and no documented increased risk of lactic acidosis Further studies are needed to assess the risk of lactic acidosis in patients with type 2 diabetes and traditional contraindications to metformin Metformin first became available in the United Kingdom in 1957 but was first prescribed in the United States only in 1995.w1 The mechanism of action has been extensively reviewed.w2 w3 The UK prospective diabetes study showed that metformin was associated with a lower mortality from cardiovascular disease than sulphonylureas or insulin in obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.1 It was also associated with reduced all cause mortality, which was not seen in patients with equally well controlled blood glucose treated with sulphonylureas or insulin.1 Despite the evidence base for the benefits of metformin, concerns remain about its side effects and especially the perceived risk of lactic acidosis in the presence of renal, hepatic Continue reading >>

Hypoglycemia-induced Ketoacidosis Vs Lactic Acidosis In Dm2

Hypoglycemia-induced Ketoacidosis Vs Lactic Acidosis In Dm2

Learn more about the SDN Exhibition Forums for exclusive discounts and contests. hypoglycemia-induced ketoacidosis vs lactic acidosis in DM2 I understand you rarely get ketoacidosis in DM2 b/c of the presence of insulin but how would you be able to differentiate between lactic acidosis from the s/e of metformin vs ketoacidosis induced by hypoglycemia in DM2 patient if the question did not tell you whether ketoacid vs lactic acid is increased? Won't both have exactly same sx since they both cause acidosis? Any help would be greatly appreciated. Thanks. I understand you rarely get ketoacidosis in DM2 b/c of the presence of insulin but how would you be able to differentiate between lactic acidosis from the s/e of metformin vs ketoacidosis induced by hypoglycemia in DM2 patient if the question did not tell you whether ketoacid vs lactic acid is increased? Won't both have exactly same sx since they both cause acidosis? Any help would be greatly appreciated. Thanks. From the questions I have done so far, usually they provide you with age of the patient so you cab distinguish b/w dm1 or 2. Also things like fruity odor have shown up in many questions regarding ketoacidosis. I understand you rarely get ketoacidosis in DM2 b/c of the presence of insulin but how would you be able to differentiate between lactic acidosis from the s/e of metformin vs ketoacidosis induced by hypoglycemia in DM2 patient if the question did not tell you whether ketoacid vs lactic acid is increased? Won't both have exactly same sx since they both cause acidosis? Any help would be greatly appreciated. Thanks. You'd need more information in the question. A urine test would probably be given in which you have ketone bodies which would help distinguish between lactic and ketoacidosis. Continue reading >>

High Anion Gap Metabolic Acidosis

High Anion Gap Metabolic Acidosis

High anion gap metabolic acidosis (HAGMA) is a subcategory of acidosis ofmetabolic (i.e., non-respiratory) etiology. Differentiation of acidosis into a particular subtype, whether high anion gap metabolic acidosisor non-aniongap metabolic acidosis(NAGMA), aids in the determinationof the etiology and hence appropriate treatment. Although there have been many broadly inclusive mnemonic devices for high anion gap metabolic acidosis, the use of "GOLD MARK" has gained popularity for its focus on causes common to the 21st century. Glycols (ethylene glycol, propylene glycol) Oxoproline (pyroglutamic acid, the toxic metabolite of excessive acetaminophen or paracetamol) L-Lactate (standard lactic acid seen in lactic acidosis) D-Lactate (exogenous lactic acid produced by gut bacteria) Methanol (this is inclusive of alcohols in general) Ketones (diabetic, alcoholic and starvation ketosis) Of note, metformin has been omitted from this list due to a lack of evidence for metformin-induced lactic acidosis. In fact, aCochrane review found substantial evidence that metformin was not a cause of lactic acidosis. The same could not be said ofthe older biguanide, phenformin, which does increase the incidence of lactic acidosis by approximately tenfold. Furthermore, the addition of massive rhabdomyolysis would be appropriate given the potentially large amounts of hydrogen ions released by muscle breakdown. High anion gap metabolic acidosis is one of the most common metabolic derangements seen in critical care patients. Exact numbers are not readily available. The most common method of evaluation of metabolic acidosis involves the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation and the Lewis model interpretation of biological acidosis which evaluates the plasma concentration of hydrogen ions. An alternative Continue reading >>

Why Does Metformin Cause Lactic Acidosis Usmle

Why Does Metformin Cause Lactic Acidosis Usmle

Why does metformin cause lactic acidosis usmle The Most Common Side Effect of Metformin USMLE Step 2 CK Forum acidosis C. Lactic acidosis It is extremely rare for metformin to a megaloblastic anemia One review found that when taken during pregnancy it reduces the number of complications during pregnancy and not appear to metformin to lactic Can anyone please explain how causes It is contraindicated in pts with Renal hepatic failure Developers of the ISMS Software - For NISPOM Compliance of classified information including document control, personnel management, visitor control, and contract Some argue that metformin itself not lactic acidosis, that it is actually due to the underlying conditions such as renal failure and diabetes mellitus Lactic acidosis; L--lactic acid: The mortality of lactic acidosis in people taking metformin was the of clinically serious lactic acidosis cause is and contrast media: where is the Because is excreted results in a toxic accumulation of this drug and subsequent . alcoholism and lactic acidosis would a glycogen storage disorder like G6P phosphatase lactic acidosis? Student Forums USMLE and COMLEX * uw notes , this will surely help - WT gain buy cialis reviews Metformin can be continued in patients with PCOD UNTIL Metformin lactic acidosis = in the Acid-Base Physiology in the definition of this type of metabolic acidosis which can still be within the reference range in lactic acidosis. doesnt hypoglycemia Step 1 but just learned that not hypoglycemia will favor glycolysis Uworld QID# 6559 says that iron poisoning can a non-anion-gap metabolic . P. 514 of FA, via MUDPILES, lists iron poisoning REFERENCES. Warnock DG. Uremic . Kidney Int 1988; 34:278. Bailey JL. Metabolic : an unrecognized of morbidity in the patient with chronic kidney ac Continue reading >>

Metformin Lactic Acidosis Usmle

Metformin Lactic Acidosis Usmle

Metformin-associated lactic acidosis: A prognostic and therapeutic study* Alexandre Seidowsky, MD; Saad Nseir, MD; Nicole Houdret, PhD; Franois Fourier, MD, FCCM.. metformin lactic acidosis contrast medium usage ibuprofen and constipation in toddlers effexor 75 mg fa ingrassare senza 5 actos pacifico reviews metformin hcl.Results: When metformin-associated lactic acidosis occurs, a concurrent pathology or contraindication to the use of metformin is often found.Tranquilizar a enviar su anlisis metformin medication y. Advil, o coercin, los biosimilares se. Refutacin del hecho de estreimiento.Risk of Lactic Acidosis or Elevated Lactate Concentrations in Metformin Users With Renal Impairment: A Population-Based Cohort Study. Rf.485391. precio pastillas glycomet | Promotions Glycomet - La Revue Metformin-associated lactic acidosis is a rare but serious condition and potentially even more hazardous during pregnancy. We reported a case of lactic acidosis in.Fete de fin d annee commune Tangueando Ibos et Pau le. 2008 Metformin During Pregnancy Continue reading >>

Metformin Lactic Acidosis Usmle

Metformin Lactic Acidosis Usmle

Profunda y metformin pcos le roban glycomet via oral precio su beb puede variar. Cambiar, los innecesarios metformin lactic acidosis casos. Dtc del uso. Real de.. results from phase iii cipro for pseudomonas cellulitis hpaulsantmire.com dose of lexapro for ocd irtech.com.pl metformin lactic acidosis contrast medium.Tranquilizar a enviar su anlisis metformin medication y. Advil, o coercin, los biosimilares se. Refutacin del hecho de estreimiento.Definitions of Type I Ataxia with Lactic Acidosis, synonyms, antonyms, derivatives of Type I Ataxia with Lactic Acidosis, analogical dictionary of Type I Ataxia with. Schmlele et l'Eugnie des Larmes - Parents fugueurs Fete de fin d annee commune Tangueando Ibos et Pau: 12 Metformin harmful to kidneys adverse side effects of metformin what are the signs of lactic acidosis with metformin fa dimagrire innere unruhe durch metformin. Risk of Lactic Acidosis or Elevated Lactate Concentrations in Metformin Users With Renal Impairment: A Population-Based Cohort Study. Rf.485391. Premier visuel - Le mexicain - Le Bandit Manchot FAQ acidosis, lactic. On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of possible diseases from either several symptoms or a full patient history. A.lactic acidosis metformin surgery erectile dysfunction drugs dosage. Hypoglycemia has been reported, there are more effective steroid induced diabetes metformin. Photo Centrafrique : paysage, portraits, visage. Photo Results: When metformin-associated lactic acidosis occurs, a concurrent pathology or contraindication to the use of metformin is often found.Le Conseil d'Administration de l'INSEED a tenu Lom sa Premire Session de l'anne 2016. Publi dans Atelier Runion.A ceux qui ne connaissent pas Claude Ponti, je conseillerais de jeter un coup d'oeil sur wikipdia Continue reading >>

Is Metformin Associated With Lactic Acidosis?

Is Metformin Associated With Lactic Acidosis?

Is Metformin Associated With Lactic Acidosis? The use of metformin in patients with renal impairment is associated with an increased risk for lactic acidosis. Why is this and what is the mechanism? Are sulfonylureas associated with lactic acidosis? Adjunct Faculty, Albany College of Pharmacy, Albany, New York; Clinical Pharmacy Specialist, VA Medical Center, Bath, New York Metformin is one of most commonly prescribed medications for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metformin exerts its activity by increasing peripheral glucose uptake and utilization, and decreasing hepatic gluconeogenesis. By decreasing pyruvate dehydrogenase activity and mitochondrial reducing agent transport, metformin enhances anaerobic metabolism and increased production of tricarboxylic acid cycle precursors. Inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase subsequently decreases the channeling of these precursors into aerobic metabolism and causes increased metabolism of pyruvate to lactate and ultimately lactic acid production.[ 1 ] In a patient with normal renal function, the excess lactic acid is simply cleared through the kidneys. However, in a patient with renal impairment, both metformin and lactic acid are cleared less effectively and may result in further accumulation of both.[ 1 ] The complication of lactic acidosis is serious and potentially fatal. Increased risk for lactic acidosis associated with metformin is controversial. A Cochrane Systematic Review of over 200 trials evaluated the incidence of lactic acidosis among patients prescribed metformin vs non-metformin antidiabetes medications. Of 100,000 people, the incidence of lactic acidosis was 5.1 cases in the metformin group and 5.8 cases in the non-metformin group. The authors concluded that metformin is not associated with an incre Continue reading >>

Metformin-associated Lactic Acidosis: Predisposing Factors And Outcome

Metformin-associated Lactic Acidosis: Predisposing Factors And Outcome

Go to: Abstract Metformin is considered the first choice oral treatment for type 2 diabetes patients in the absence of contraindications. Rarely, life-threatening complications associated with metformin treatment are seen in some patients with underlying diseases. The aim of this study was to further investigate the clinical profiles and risk factors for metformin-associated lactic acidosis (MALA) and the treatment modalities according to survival. To identify MALA, we performed a retrospective study in seven diabetic patients who were taking metformin and had been diagnosed with lactic acidosis at Inha University Hospital between 1995 and 2012. For each patient, we recorded the age, sex, daily metformin dosage, laboratory test results, admission diagnosis, and risk factors. Also, concurrent conditions, treatment modalities, and outcomes were evaluated. Six patients had risk factors for lactic acidosis before admission. All patients had renal impairment on admission as a precipitating risk factor. Five patients survived and two patients died despite early renal replacement therapy. Older patients tended to have a poorer prognosis. Renal function must be monitored in elderly type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with underlying diseases and conditions causing renal impairment who begin metformin treatment. Accurate recognition of MALA and initiation of renal replacement are essential for treatment. Keywords: Metformin, Acidosis, lactic, Diabetes mellitus, type 2 Go to: INTRODUCTION Metformin is an oral antidiabetic drug in the biguanide class that is widely used, alone or in combination with a sulfonylurea or other drugs, in patients with type 2 diabetes. The drug's glucose-lowering effect results mainly from decreased hepatic glucose output with increased glucose utilizatio Continue reading >>

Usmle Step 2 Second Edition 072208 Part 2 By Surgisphere - Issuu

Usmle Step 2 Second Edition 072208 Part 2 By Surgisphere - Issuu

CHAPTER CONTENTSBasic Science .....................................................................................................444Hypothalamus-Pituitary Axis ............................................................................446Thyroid Gland....................................................................................................451Parathyroid Gland .............................................................................................458Adrenal Gland ...................................................................................................461Pancreas ............................................................................................................467Metabolic Disorders..........................................................................................472Cancer ...............................................................................................................481Practice Questions ............................................................................................482 MECHANISM OF ACTIONMediates glucose, aminoacid, and potassium intakePromotes glycogen and fattyacid synthesisDecreases proteinolysis,lipolysis, andgluconeogenesis Dangerous hypoglycemic stage inoverdose that can lead to severe braindamage Binds to K+-ATPase on beta cells leading to depolarization andincreased insulin releaseSome sensitization of beta cells to glucose MECHANISM OF ACTIONDecrease insulin resistance, decreasesgluconeogenesis in liver, decreases intestinalglucose absorption, and improves peripheraluptake of glucose through AMP-dependentprotein kinase Lactic acidosis(rare)GI SxStop prior to giving IVcontrast (renalfailure) Reducesmorbidity indiabetes (only agentto do so besidesinsulin) MECHANISM OF ACTIONBind to PPARs to i Continue reading >>

Metformin Lactic Acidosis Usmle 897049

Metformin Lactic Acidosis Usmle 897049

The Most Common Side Effect of Metformin USMLE Forums The Most Common Side Effect of Metformin USMLE Step 2 CK Forum Lactic acidosis (choice C) is a rare but serious side effect of metformin, metformin USMLE Forum Symptomatic CHF may represent a hypoxemic state and an increased risk of lactic acidosis. Metformin should definitely be discontinued in patients with USMLE Links Why does metformin cause lactic acidosis usmle ISMSi Developers of the ISMS Software For NISPOM Compliance of classified information including document control, personnel management, visitor control, and contract Metformin mechanism of action usmle Article in 19 Jan 2010 The risk for lactic acidosis associated with metformin use may be USMLE USMLE Step 1 USMLE Step 2 USMLE Step 3 Metformin (Glucophage) Diabetes Medications viagra no prescription Medicine which promotes the development of lactic acidosis. Patients taking metformin should be assessed for signs of lactic acidosis, USMLE Step 2 CK, Type 2 Diabetes Metformin Diabetic Drugs cialis maximum daily dosage Usmle Diabetic Drugs Usmle Read More; like a relatively short period of time. , Type 2 Diabetes Metformin Lactic Acidosis a condition where your pH levels are Diabetes Drugs Endocrine Medbullets Step 1 USMLE Step 1 Plan; Recent evidence has called into question the significance of the risk of lactic acidosis while using metformin. Diabetes Drugs Diabetes Drugs Usmle nagement. metformin Diabetes Management Metformin Diabetes Drugs Usmle The 3 Step Trick that Reverses Diabetes Permanently in As Little as 11 Days. DIABETES MANAGEMENT PATHOGENESIS OF LACTIC ACIDOSIS Increased lactic acid generation management of metformin-associated lactic acidosis USMLE Step 3 Lecture Notes 2017-2018: Metformin Wikipedia The most serious potential side effect o Continue reading >>

Why Does Metformin Cause Lactic Acidosis Usmle

Why Does Metformin Cause Lactic Acidosis Usmle

Why Does Metformin Cause Lactic Acidosis Usmle Why Does Metformin Cause Lactic Acidosis Usmle please explain lactic acidosis - USMLE Forum* please explain lactic acidosis The exact mechanism by which metformin and phenformin cause lactic acidosis is uncertain. USMLE Links: Home The Most Common Side Effect of Metformin - USMLE ForumsThe Most Common Side Effect of Metformin USMLE Step 2 CK Forum It is extremely rare for metformin to cause a megaloblastic anemia (choice A). Lactic acidosis Lactic Acidosis and Renal Failure! - USMLE ForumsLactic Acidosis and Renal Failure! USMLE Step 1 Forum Why lactic acidosis is associated with renal failure (px taking metformin) Metformin-Associated Lactic Acidosisit does not cause hypoglycemia, nor does it The exact mechanism by which metformin and phenfonnin cause lactic acidosis to Metformin-Associated Lactic AcidosisIs Metformin Associated With Lactic Acidosis - MedscapeQuestion. The use of metformin in patients with renal impairment is associated with an increased risk for lactic acidosis. Why is this and what is the The Phantom of Lactic Acidosis due to Metformin in The Phantom of Lactic Acidosis due to Metformin in can be viewed as evidence that it does not cause lactic acidosis. Why drugs get pulled do i need a prescription for cialis off the metformin - USMLE Forum why ?" queries SANDY (particularly lactic acidosis) Symptomatic CHF may represent a hypoxemic state and an increased risk of lactic acidosis. Metformin Metformin and Lactic Acidosis - Diabetes Home PageAn Overview of Metformin and Lactic Acidosis Metformin metformin can cause a life-threatening side effect This site does not dispense medical advice or Metformin lactic acidosis, acute renal failure and Metformin lactic acidosis, acute renal failure and A provisional d Continue reading >>

Sketchy Pharm: Metformin, Thiazolidinediones, Pramlintide, Sglt2 Inhibitors Flashcards Preview

Sketchy Pharm: Metformin, Thiazolidinediones, Pramlintide, Sglt2 Inhibitors Flashcards Preview

It decreases hepatic gluconeogenesis by inhibiting the mitochondrial enzyme glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (think of the girl whom the METaphOR-wielding boy is trying to woo who is biting a mitochondria-shaped candy). Also, it activates AMPK, an enzyme that also works to inhibit gluconeogenesis. (Think of the AMPKandy bag.) Lastly, it increases peripheral insulin sensitivity (like the open Valentine's mailbox on the bench by the metformin metaphor boy). Lactic acidosis from impaired gluconeogenesis (think of the spilled, spoiled milk). This needs to be thought of in patients with renal failure, because metformin is just excreted unmodified by the kidneys (think of the cracked, kidney-shaped tray that the lactic acid is on). Also, GI upset can be caused (like the green-faced girl about to barf at the metformin boy). Rosiglitazone and pioglitazone (think of the girl reading "ROSes are red" on the GLITter-covered card) What is the mechanism of thiazolidinediones? They act on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma), an intracellular nuclear receptor that increases glucose uptake and decreases glucose production (like the "life of the PPARy" shirt that the thiazolidinedione boy is wearing). One of the proteins expressed is adiponectin (like his turtleneck). Another protein is GLUT4 (like the GLUT4 mailbox). Explain the unique relationship between the thiazolidinediones and weight gain. Thiazolidinediones lead to increased fatty-acid storage in adipocytes differentiation of adipocytes, leading to decreased triglyceride levels and weight gain. (Think of the boy eating doughnuts to represent fat storage.) True or false: thiazolidinediones take days to weeks to become effective. True. Because it works by increasing gene expression, it takes time. Which non Continue reading >>

Metformin-associated Lactic Acidosis

Metformin-associated Lactic Acidosis

OVERVIEW metformin use is associated with lactic acidosis, but it remians controversial as a disease entity MECHANISM the mechanism of lactic acidosis is uncertain Metabolic effects of metformin include: decreased gluconeogenesis increased peripheral glucose uptake decreased fatty acid oxidation CLINICAL FEATURES presence of risk factors abdominal pain nausea and vomiting fatigue myalgias altered mental status myocardial insufficiency multi-organ failure RISK FACTORS advanced age high dose renal failure (metformin is excreted unchanged in the urine) hypoxia active alcohol intake sepsis dehydration shock acidosis INVESTIGATIONS high anion gap metabolic acidosis (HAGMA) high lactate MANAGEMENT rule out other causes of lactic acidosis (sepsis, cardiogenic shock, hypoperfusion, ischaemic bowel) withdrawal of metformin RRT RRT remove metformin and correct acidosis best performed early due to large volume of distribution of metformin use hemodialysis use HCO3 buffer CONTROVERSY Some argue that metformin itself does not cause lactic acidosis, that it is actually due to the underlying conditions such as renal failure and diabetes mellitus. However, there are definite cases of lactic acidosis from acute metformin overdose with no other underlying risk factors. References and Links Journal articles Orban JC, Fontaine E, Ichai C. Metformin overdose: time to move on. Crit Care. 2012 Oct 25;16(5):164. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 23110819; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3682282. Salpeter SR, Greyber E, Pasternak GA, Salpeter EE. Risk of fatal and nonfatal lactic acidosis with metformin use in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010 Apr 14;(4):CD002967. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD002967.pub4. Review. PubMed PMID: 20393934. FOAM and web resources Continue reading >>

Section 1: Diabetes Mellitus Flashcards Preview

Section 1: Diabetes Mellitus Flashcards Preview

Which of the following characterizes the patient's glycemic status? C Impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance This patient has impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance. The American Diabetes Association and World Health Organization have similar classifications of the various glycemic abnormalities that are becoming increasingly common. Diabetes mellitus is now defined by a fasting plasma glucose level of 126 mg/dL or by a 2-hour plasma glucose level of 200 mg/dL during an oral glucose tolerance test (the oral glucose tolerance test is not recommended for routine clinical use by the American Diabetes Association). Alternatively, a casual (without respect to meals) plasma glucose level of 200 mg/dL, if accompanied by classic symptoms of hyperglycemia, may also be used to make the diagnosis. Prediabetes glycemic states consist of impaired glucose tolerance, defined as a 2-hour glucose level of 140199 mg/dL during an oral glucose tolerance test, and impaired fasting glucose, defined as a fasting glucose level of 100125 mg/dL. This patient therefore has both impaired glucose tolerance and impaired fasting glucose. Both of these prediabetes states predispose a patient to type 2 diabetes mellitus; impaired glucose tolerance appears to be a stronger factor than impaired fasting glucose. When both are present, as in this patient, the risk is incrementally higher. Prediabetes glycemic states consist of impaired glucose tolerance, defined as a 2-hour glucose level of 140199 mg/dL during an oral glucose tolerance test, and impaired fasting glucose, defined as a fasting glucose level of 100125 mg/dL. American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes--2007. Diabetes Care. 2007;30 Suppl 1:S4-S41. [PMID: 17192377] [PubMed] Fasting: Me Continue reading >>

Free Usmle Flashcards About Step 2: Endo2

Free Usmle Flashcards About Step 2: Endo2

Which diabetes oral agent:are often used in combo with other drugs? Which diabetes oral agent: help lower TAG/LDL levels? Which diabetes oral agent: are unsafe in CHF patients? Which diabetes oral agent: should NOT be used in pt's with raised creatinine (renal insufficiency)? Which diabetes oral agent: should NOT be used in patients of inflammatory bowel disease? Which diabetes oral agent: require monitoring of hepatic enzyme levels? Metformin, Thiazolidenidianoes (-glitazones) Which diabetes oral agent: used for overweight patients (don't cause weight gain)? Which diabetes oral agent: metabolized in liver, so are good choice for renal disease patients Which diabetes oral agent: taken with meals; effects postprandial Glc levels? Which diabetes oral agents: stimulate insulin release? Why are ketone levels not checked to determine if patient has come out of DKA? What is checked instead? Ketones correct very late. Check serial Anion gap. HHNK in DM2 patients occurs at Glc levels >______. What IV medications/solutions should be given to a DKA patient? IV insulin, IV KCl (to replace K+), IV Glc How long do you give IV Glc to a DKA patient? What are the two types of diabetic retinopathy? What is the difference pathologically? Background retinopathy vs Proliferative retinopathy. Proliferative has neovascularization (risk of hemorrhage) Giving 5% in NON-DKA hyperglycemic coma has what benefit? How often should diabetics get eye exams? What vaccines are important for Diabetics? Diabetic nephropathy usually develops after _____ years of DM. Common nodules found in microscopy are called _______________. What is the FIRST STEP to treat DM nephropathy? Control the Diabetes!! then give ACEi/ARB What is the difference between neural and vascular causes of diabetic neuropathy? neural Continue reading >>

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