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Why Does Ketoacidosis Cause Rapid Breathing

Diabetes With Ketone Bodies In Cats

Diabetes With Ketone Bodies In Cats

Diabetes Mellitus with Ketoacidosis in Cats The term “ketoacidosis” refers to a condition in which levels of acid abnormally increased in the blood due to presence of “ketone bodies.” Meanwhile, diabetes is a medical condition in which the body cannot absorb sufficient glucose, thus causing a rise the blood sugar levels. In diabetes with ketoacidosis, ketoacidosis immediately follows diabetes. It should be considered a dire emergency, one in which immediate treatment is required to save the life of the animal. Typically, the type of condition affects older cats; in addition, female cats are more prone diabetes with ketoacidosis than males. Symptoms and Types Weakness Lethargy Depression Lack of appetite (anorexia) Muscle wasting Rough hair coat Dehydration Dandruff Sweet breath odor Causes Although the ketoacidosis is ultimately brought on by the cat's insulin dependency due to diabetes mellitus, underlying factors include stress, surgery, and infections of the skin, respiratory, and urinary tract systems. Concurrent diseases such as heart failure, kidney failure, asthma, cancer may also lead to this type of condition. Diagnosis You will need to give a thorough history of your cat’s health, including the onset and nature of the symptoms, to your veterinarian. He or she will then perform a complete physical examination, as well as a biochemistry profile and complete blood count (CBC). The most consistent finding in patients with diabetes is higher than normal levels of glucose in the blood. If infection is present, white blood cell count will also high. Other findings may include: high liver enzymes, high blood cholesterol levels, accumulation in the blood of nitrogenous waste products (urea) that are usually excreted in the urine (azotemia), low sodium levels Continue reading >>

Rapid Shallow Breathing

Rapid Shallow Breathing

The average person takes between 12 to 20 breaths per minute. Rapid, shallow breathing, also called tachypnea, occurs when you take more breaths than normal in a given minute. When a person breathes rapidly, it’s sometimes known as hyperventilation. Either term applies to this condition. Rapid, shallow breathing can be the result of anything from a lung infection to heart failure. You should always report this symptom to your doctor and get prompt treatment to prevent complications. When to Seek Medical Attention You should always treat tachypnea as a medical emergency, particularly the first time you experience it. Call 911 if you experience any of the following: a bluish/gray tint to your skin, nails, lips, or gums lightheadedness chest pain chest that caves in with each breath rapid breathing that gets worse fever Tachypnea can be the result of many different conditions. A proper diagnosis from your doctor will help determine a cause. This means that you should report any instance of tachypnea to your doctor. What Causes Rapid, Shallow Breathing? Rapid, shallow breathing can be caused by infections, choking, blood clots, diabetic ketoacidosis, heart failure, or asthma. Infections Infections that affect the lungs, such as pneumonia or bronchiolitis, can cause difficulty breathing. This may translate to shorter and more rapid breaths. If these infections worsen, the lungs could fill with fluid. Fluid in the lungs makes it difficult to take in deep breaths. In rare cases, untreated infections can be fatal. Choking When you choke, an object partially or completely blocks your airway. If you can breathe at all, the breaths will not be deep or relaxed. In cases of choking, immediate medical attention is crucial. Blood Clots A pulmonary embolism is a blood clot in the lun Continue reading >>

Symptoms

Symptoms

Most children with bronchiolitis have mild symptoms and recover within two to three weeks, but it's important to look out for signs of more serious problems , such as breathing difficulties. Early symptoms of bronchiolitis tend to appear within a few days of becoming infected. They're usually similar to those of a common cold, such as a blocked or runny nose, a cough and a slightly high temperature (fever). The symptoms usually get worse during the next few days, before gradually improving. During this time, your child may develop some of the following symptoms: a rasping and persistent dry cough rapid or noisy breathing (wheezing) brief pauses in their breathing feeding less and having fewer wet nappies vomiting after feeding being irritable Most cases of bronchiolitis aren't serious, but the symptoms can be very worrying. Symptoms are usually at their worst between day three and day five. The cough usually gets better within three weeks. When to seek medical advice If your child only has mild cold-like symptoms and is recovering well, there's usually no need to seek medical advice. You can usually care for your child at home. Contact your GP if you're worried about your child, or if they develop any of the following symptoms: struggling to breathe poor feeding (your child has taken less than half their usual amount during the last two or three feeds) they've had no wet nappy for 12 hours or more a breathing rate of 50-60 breaths per minute a high temperature of 38C (100.4F) or above they seem very tired or irritable It's particularly important to seek medical advice if your baby is under 12 weeks old, or they have an underlying health condition, such as a congenital (present from birth) heart or lung condition. When to call 999 While it's unusual for children to need Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka) - Topic Overview

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka) - Topic Overview

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a life-threatening condition that develops when cells in the body are unable to get the sugar (glucose) they need for energy because there is not enough insulin. When the sugar cannot get into the cells, it stays in the blood. The kidneys filter some of the sugar from the blood and remove it from the body through urine. Because the cells cannot receive sugar for energy, the body begins to break down fat and muscle for energy. When this happens, ketones, or fatty acids, are produced and enter the bloodstream, causing the chemical imbalance (metabolic acidosis) called diabetic ketoacidosis. Ketoacidosis can be caused by not getting enough insulin, having a severe infection or other illness, becoming severely dehydrated, or some combination of these things. It can occur in people who have little or no insulin in their bodies (mostly people with type 1 diabetes but it can happen with type 2 diabetes, especially children) when their blood sugar levels are high. Your blood sugar may be quite high before you notice symptoms, which include: Flushed, hot, dry skin. Feeling thirsty and urinating a lot. Drowsiness or difficulty waking up. Young children may lack interest in their normal activities. Rapid, deep breathing. A strong, fruity breath odor. Loss of appetite, belly pain, and vomiting. Confusion. Laboratory tests, including blood and urine tests, are used to confirm a diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis. Tests for ketones are available for home use. Keep some test strips nearby in case your blood sugar level becomes high. When ketoacidosis is severe, it must be treated in the hospital, often in an intensive care unit. Treatment involves giving insulin and fluids through your vein and closely watching certain chemicals in your blood (electrolyt Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Print Overview Diabetic ketoacidosis is a serious complication of diabetes that occurs when your body produces high levels of blood acids called ketones. The condition develops when your body can't produce enough insulin. Insulin normally plays a key role in helping sugar (glucose) — a major source of energy for your muscles and other tissues — enter your cells. Without enough insulin, your body begins to break down fat as fuel. This process produces a buildup of acids in the bloodstream called ketones, eventually leading to diabetic ketoacidosis if untreated. If you have diabetes or you're at risk of diabetes, learn the warning signs of diabetic ketoacidosis — and know when to seek emergency care. Symptoms Diabetic ketoacidosis signs and symptoms often develop quickly, sometimes within 24 hours. For some, these signs and symptoms may be the first indication of having diabetes. You may notice: Excessive thirst Frequent urination Nausea and vomiting Abdominal pain Weakness or fatigue Shortness of breath Fruity-scented breath Confusion More-specific signs of diabetic ketoacidosis — which can be detected through home blood and urine testing kits — include: High blood sugar level (hyperglycemia) High ketone levels in your urine When to see a doctor If you feel ill or stressed or you've had a recent illness or injury, check your blood sugar level often. You might also try an over-the-counter urine ketones testing kit. Contact your doctor immediately if: You're vomiting and unable to tolerate food or liquid Your blood sugar level is higher than your target range and doesn't respond to home treatment Your urine ketone level is moderate or high Seek emergency care if: Your blood sugar level is consistently higher than 300 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL), or 16.7 mill Continue reading >>

Breathing Difficulties In Dogs

Breathing Difficulties In Dogs

Dyspnea, Tachypnea, and Panting in Dogs The respiratory system has many parts, including the nose, mouth, throat (pharynx and larynx), windpipe (trachea), and lungs. Air is pulled in through the nose or mouth and is then carried down into the lungs, through a process referred to as inspiration. In the lungs, oxygen is transferred to the red blood cells. The red blood cells then carry oxygen to other organs in the body. While oxygen is being transferred to the red blood cells, carbon dioxide is transferred from the red blood cells to the air within the lungs. It is then pushed out through the nose or mouth through a process referred to as expiration. Diseases in any part of the respiratory system and even in other parts of the body can lead to breathing difficulties in dogs. The problem can affect all breeds and ages and can quickly become life threatening. If your dog is having problems with breathing, he should be seen by a veterinarian as soon as possible. Respiration and Respiratory Rate for Dogs Differentiating between a dog who is breathing normally and one who is having difficulty breathing is not always as simple as it might seem. At rest, healthy dogs should have a respiratory rate of between 20 and 34 breaths per minute and they should not appear to be putting much effort into breathing. Of course, dogs may breathe more rapidly and/or more deeply in response to normal factors such as warm temperatures, exercise, stress, and excitement. Owners should get a feel for what is normal for their dogs before any health problems develop. How does your dog breathe when he is at rest? While going for a walk? After vigorous play? With this knowledge in hand, you will be able to pick up subtle changes in your dog’s respiratory rate and effort before a crisis develops. Sym Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

As fat is broken down, acids called ketones build up in the blood and urine. In high levels, ketones are poisonous. This condition is known as ketoacidosis. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is sometimes the first sign of type 1 diabetes in people who have not yet been diagnosed. It can also occur in someone who has already been diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. Infection, injury, a serious illness, missing doses of insulin shots, or surgery can lead to DKA in people with type 1 diabetes. People with type 2 diabetes can also develop DKA, but it is less common. It is usually triggered by uncontrolled blood sugar, missing doses of medicines, or a severe illness. Continue reading >>

What Are The Causes Of Rapid Breathing In An Infant?

What Are The Causes Of Rapid Breathing In An Infant?

Rapid breathing, often described as panting, is quite common in newborns. When no other symptoms are present--and rapid breathing comes and goes and the baby appears otherwise healthy and comfortable--there's usually no cause for concern. However, other causes of rapid breathing in an infant require careful monitoring and treatment. Parents should be educated about these signs and symptoms to determine whether to consult a pediatrician. Video of the Day Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome Caused by immature lungs lacking in protective surfactant that helps the lungs inflate, Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome or RDS makes breathing difficult, according to the National Institutes of Health and National Library of Medicine website MedlinePlus. RDS is most common in premature infants, although a family history of RDS, a rapid or cesarean delivery or maternal diabetes can increase the risk of developing it. Symptoms usually appear shortly after birth. Besides rapid and shallow breathing, they include bluish skin tint, nostril flaring, puffy limbs and even apnea where breathing briefly stops. When rapid, labored breathing occurs in infants without wheezing or croup sounds, it may be a sign of pneumonia. According to AskDrSears.com, the most important indicators of pneumonia include labored or rapid breathing together with cough and fever. Transient Tachypnea of the Newborn Often called “wet lungs,” transient tachypnea of the newborn or TTN appears hours after birth. TTN occurs when a newborn’s lungs remain filled with fetal fluid that usually clears when a baby passes through the birth canal and takes in his first breaths of air. Babies delivered by cesarean--who are born on the small side--and whose mothers have asthma or diabetes are at higher risk for TTN, ac Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)

Diabetic ketoacidosis, also called DKA, is a life-threatening complication occurring with undiagnosed and/or untreated Type 1 diabetes in adults and children. DKA symptoms often remain undiagnosed because they can look like (mimic) influenza, a stomach bug, strep infections, and other common illnesses and conditions. However, someone may actually have a common illness and DKA at the same time, causing the common illness symptoms to hide (mask) the underlying DKA symptoms. Either way, untreated Type 1 diabetes and DKA are 100% fatal. ​IMPORTANT: Diabetic ketoacidosis is LIFE-THREATENING and can progress quickly–often within 24 hours! If you or a loved one have any of the following symptoms with VOMITING AND LETHARGY COMBINED WITH LABORED BREATHING, do not consume sugar and seek emergency medical care immediately. Insist medical personnel Test One Drop of blood or urine for glucose (sugar) levels. DKA can be fatal! ​ SYMPTOMS OF DKA: excessive thirst frequent urination or bedwetting increased appetite or sugar cravings abdominal pain irritability, grouchiness, or mood changes headaches and/or vision changes itchy skin/genitals (yeast or thrush) sudden weight loss flushed, hot, dry skin nausea and vomiting* fruity/acetone scented breath* lethargy, drowsiness, or fatigue* labored, rapid, and/or deep breathing* confusion, stupor, or unconsciousness* *A combination of any of these symptoms can be life-threatening. Seek EMERGENCY CARE. When new onset Type 1 diabetes remains undiagnosed and untreated the shortage of insulin causes blood glucose (sugar) levels to climb above the normal range. Without adequate insulin to regulate levels of glucose in the blood, high levels of acids called ketones build up in the body causing diabetic ketoacidosis. Ketones are toxic and if l Continue reading >>

Kussmaul Breathing

Kussmaul Breathing

Not to be confused with Kussmaul's sign. Graph showing the Kussmaul breathing and other pathological breathing patterns. Kussmaul breathing is a deep and labored breathing pattern often associated with severe metabolic acidosis, particularly diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) but also kidney failure. It is a form of hyperventilation, which is any breathing pattern that reduces carbon dioxide in the blood due to increased rate or depth of respiration. In metabolic acidosis, breathing is first rapid and shallow[1] but as acidosis worsens, breathing gradually becomes deep, labored and gasping. It is this latter type of breathing pattern that is referred to as Kussmaul breathing. Terminology[edit] Adolph Kussmaul, who introduced the term, referred to breathing when metabolic acidosis was sufficiently severe for the respiratory rate to be abnormal or reduced.[2] This definition is also followed by several other sources,[3][4] including for instance Merriam-Webster, which defines Kussmaul breathing as "abnormally slow deep respiration characteristic of air hunger and occurring especially in acidotic states".[5] Other sources, however, use the term Kussmaul respiration also when acidosis is less severe, in which case breathing is rapid.[4][6] Note that Kussmaul breathing occurs only in advanced stages of acidosis, and is fairly rarely reached. In less severe cases of acidosis, rapid, shallow breathing is seen. Kussmaul breathing is a kind of very deep, gasping, desperate breathing. Occasionally, medical literature refers to any abnormal breathing pattern in acidosis as Kussmaul breathing; however, this is inaccurate. History[edit] Kussmaul breathing is named for Adolph Kussmaul,[2] the 19th century German doctor who first noted it among patients with advanced diabetes mellitus. Kussm Continue reading >>

What Causes Heavy Breathing?

What Causes Heavy Breathing?

The respiratory system consists of the lungs, airways and muscles that assist in breathing. This system of organs and tissues controls how an individual inhales oxygen and exhales carbon dioxide. When heavy breathing occurs, it usually manifests from overexertion or as a symptom of a health problem such as asthma. Those who experience heavy breathing may have heaviness in the chest and bouts of breathlessness. A healthcare provider may assist in diagnosing and treating the cause of heavy breathing. Video of the Day Anxiety commonly involves feelings of apprehension and nervousness. However, for some people, anxiety can become disabling and cause excessive fear. The National Institute of Mental Health notes that anxiety disorders affect approximately 40 million Americans aged 18 years and older in a given year. Those with anxiety disorders may experience rapid breathing, sweating, trembling, fatigue and increased heart rate. Hyperventilation is a common sign of severe anxiety that causes a decreased amount of oxygen in the blood and rapid or deep breathing. Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the lungs. The condition involves swelling and inflammation of the airways that carry air in and out of the lungs. Those with asthma experience breathing problems because of narrowed airways that cause the lungs to receive less air. Approximately 20 million people in the U.S. have asthma, and nearly 6 million of these people are children, according to the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute. During an asthma flare-up, symptoms may range from minor to severe. The most common symptoms of asthma include wheezing and heavy breathing, shortness of breath, chest tightness and coughing. Emphysema is a chronic and progressive disorder of the lungs. The disorder is a type of chro Continue reading >>

> Hyperglycemia And Diabetic Ketoacidosis

> Hyperglycemia And Diabetic Ketoacidosis

When blood glucose levels (also called blood sugar levels) are too high, it's called hyperglycemia. Glucose is a sugar that comes from foods, and is formed and stored inside the body. It's the main source of energy for the body's cells and is carried to each through the bloodstream. But even though we need glucose for energy, too much glucose in the blood can be unhealthy. Hyperglycemia is the hallmark of diabetes — it happens when the body either can't make insulin (type 1 diabetes) or can't respond to insulin properly (type 2 diabetes). The body needs insulin so glucose in the blood can enter the cells to be used for energy. In people who have developed diabetes, glucose builds up in the blood, resulting in hyperglycemia. If it's not treated, hyperglycemia can cause serious health problems. Too much sugar in the bloodstream for long periods of time can damage the vessels that supply blood to vital organs. And, too much sugar in the bloodstream can cause other types of damage to body tissues, which can increase the risk of heart disease and stroke, kidney disease, vision problems, and nerve problems in people with diabetes. These problems don't usually show up in kids or teens with diabetes who have had the disease for only a few years. However, they can happen in adulthood in some people, particularly if they haven't managed or controlled their diabetes properly. Blood sugar levels are considered high when they're above someone's target range. The diabetes health care team will let you know what your child's target blood sugar levels are, which will vary based on factors like your child's age. A major goal in controlling diabetes is to keep blood sugar levels as close to the desired range as possible. It's a three-way balancing act of: diabetes medicines (such as in Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic acidosis is a life-threatening condition that can occur in people with type 1 diabetes. Less commonly, it can also occur with type 2 diabetes. Term watch Ketones: breakdown products from the use of fat stores for energy. Ketoacidosis: another name for diabetic acidosis. It happens when a lack of insulin leads to: Diabetic acidosis requires immediate hospitalisation for urgent treatment with fluids and intravenous insulin. It can usually be avoided through proper treatment of Type 1 diabetes. However, ketoacidosis can also occur with well-controlled diabetes if you get a severe infection or other serious illness, such as a heart attack or stroke, which can cause vomiting and resistance to the normal dose of injected insulin. What causes diabetic acidosis? The condition is caused by a lack of insulin, most commonly when doses are missed. While insulin's main function is to lower the blood sugar level, it also reduces the burning of body fat. If the insulin level drops significantly, the body will start burning fat uncontrollably while blood sugar levels rise. Glucose will then begin to show up in your urine, along with ketone bodies from fat breakdown that turn the body acidic. The body attempts to reduce the level of acid by increasing the rate and depth of breathing. This blows off carbon dioxide in the breath, which tends to correct the acidosis temporarily (known as acidotic breathing). At the same time, the high secretion of glucose into the urine causes large quantities of water and salts to be lost, putting the body at serious risk of dehydration. Eventually, over-breathing becomes inadequate to control the acidosis. What are the symptoms? Since diabetic acidosis is most often linked with high blood sugar levels, symptoms are the same as those for diabetes Continue reading >>

Why Does Fever Cause A Fast Heart Beat And Rapid Breathing?

Why Does Fever Cause A Fast Heart Beat And Rapid Breathing?

Have you freaked out about a high fever and fast breathing or rapid heart rate only to find a dose of Tylenol turns a floppy mess of a toddler back into her usual playful self? You check on your little darling and find she is burning up with fever, breathing really fast and looks simply terrible. If you haven’t rushed off to see a doctor under such circumstances, the thought certainly has crossed your mind. Usually sometime around midnight on my overnight shifts in the pediatric ER parents arrive with their feverish children worried about their fast heart rate and difficulty breathing only to find their child looks great an hour later. Kids have a unique physiology that fools parents into thinking they are sicker than they really are. Are we witnessing an evolutionary adaptation to make parents pay closer attention when their offspring are ill? Perhaps, but we can’t prove it. Even when they are healthy kids have faster heart rates and breathe more rapidly than adults. And kids seem to be more sensitive to factors that raise these rates, such as temperature, pain, fear and anxiety. When a child has fever, they breathe faster and their heart beats faster for many reasons that are not entirely understood. What we do know is that it is a normal response to fever and is caused in part by blood vessels opening up making the heart pump harder to circulate more blood. Fever also increases the metabolic rate making every process in the body work harder. In the early 1900s scientists discovered there is a linear relationship between pulse and body temperature. Our pulse increases 4-17 beats per minute for every 1°C (1.8°F) increase in temperature depending on age and a few other individual factors. Among kids, the data from many modern studies show that the general rule of Continue reading >>

Diabetes Update: Acute Complications

Diabetes Update: Acute Complications

"Diabetes update: Acute complications" CE credit is no longer available for this article. Originally posted April 2001 MARJORIE CYPRESS, MS, C-ANP, CDE MARJORIE CYPRESS is a nurse practitioner and certified diabetes educator for Lovelace Health Systems, Albuquerque, N.M. Series Editor: Carolyn Robertson, RN, MSN, CDE KEY WORDS: acute complications, hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, ketosis Critically high or low blood sugar in a patient with diabetes is a medical emergency. You'll need to be able to quickly identify and know how to manage the acute complications of diabetes to help a patient avoid a tragic outcome. Here's how. Jump to: Choose article section... Emergency treatment of acute complications of diabetes demands quick recognition of the problem and immediate intervention. High blood sugar can progress to diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in Type 1 diabetics, and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) in those with Type 2. But every diabetic patient taking a hypoglycemic agent is at risk for hypoglycemia, the most common—and most feared—complication. Here we'll review the pathophysiology behind DKA, HHS, and hypoglycemia; provide assessments that help distinguish one complication from another; and discuss emergency treatments and nursing strategies that can prevent a potentially fatal outcome. Too much sugar, too little insulin DKA, often referred to as diabetic coma, occurs when there's a profound lack of insulin in the body. Without insulin, the body can't use glucose for fuel. Cells starve as sugar accumulates. The blood becomes thick with sugar, which promotes osmotic diuresis. As the body loses water, the excess sugar spills into the urine, taking important electrolytes with it. Patients become thirsty and Continue reading >>

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