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Why Does Dka Cause Weight Loss

Ketosis Vs. Ketoacidosis: What You Should Know

Ketosis Vs. Ketoacidosis: What You Should Know

Despite the similarity in name, ketosis and ketoacidosis are two different things. Ketoacidosis refers to diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and is a complication of type 1 diabetes mellitus. It’s a life-threatening condition resulting from dangerously high levels of ketones and blood sugar. This combination makes your blood too acidic, which can change the normal functioning of internal organs like your liver and kidneys. It’s critical that you get prompt treatment. DKA can occur very quickly. It may develop in less than 24 hours. It mostly occurs in people with type 1 diabetes whose bodies do not produce any insulin. Several things can lead to DKA, including illness, improper diet, or not taking an adequate dose of insulin. DKA can also occur in individuals with type 2 diabetes who have little or no insulin production. Ketosis is the presence of ketones. It’s not harmful. You can be in ketosis if you’re on a low-carbohydrate diet or fasting, or if you’ve consumed too much alcohol. If you have ketosis, you have a higher than usual level of ketones in your blood or urine, but not high enough to cause acidosis. Ketones are a chemical your body produces when it burns stored fat. Some people choose a low-carb diet to help with weight loss. While there is some controversy over their safety, low-carb diets are generally fine. Talk to your doctor before beginning any extreme diet plan. DKA is the leading cause of death in people under 24 years old who have diabetes. The overall death rate for ketoacidosis is 2 to 5 percent. People under the age of 30 make up 36 percent of DKA cases. Twenty-seven percent of people with DKA are between the ages of 30 and 50, 23 percent are between the ages of 51 and 70, and 14 percent are over the age of 70. Ketosis may cause bad breath. Ket Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes: What Are The Symptoms?

Type 1 Diabetes: What Are The Symptoms?

What Is Type 1 Diabetes (Juvenile)? Type 1 diabetes is a chronic condition that usually starts in childhood, but can occur in adults (30 to 40-year-olds). In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas produces very little insulin. Insulin helps cells in the body convert sugar into energy. When the pancreas cannot make enough insulin, sugar starts to build up in the blood, causing life-threatening complications. Individuals with type 1 diabetes must take some form of insulin for the rest of their lives. Unusual Thirst Symptoms Unusual thirst is a very common symptom of type 1 diabetes. This condition causes the kidneys to remove excess sugar in the blood by getting rid of more water. The water is removed through urinating, causing dehydration and dehydration causes you to drink more water. Weight Loss Symptoms Patient with type 1 diabetes develop unintentional weight loss and an increase in appetite because blood sugar levels remain high and the body metabolizes fat for energy. Disrupted glucose metabolism also causes patient to feel a lack of energy and drowsy for extended periods Excess urination also cause weight loss because many calories are leaving the body in urine. Skin Problems Symptoms The disruption in glucose metabolism in patient with type 1 diabetes causes skin changes. Type 1 diabetics are at a higher risk for bacterial infections and fungal infections. Poor blood circulation in the skin may also occur. Patient with type 1 diabetes are often infected with fungal infections caused by the yeast Candida albicans. Common fungal infections include athlete's foot, vaginal yeast infection in women, jock itch, ringworm, and diaper rashes in babies. Diaper rash caused by the yeast Candida albicans can spread to other areas of the body such as the stomach and legs. Other Dangero Continue reading >>

Take A Look And See For Yourself.

Take A Look And See For Yourself.

SYNJARDY and SYNJARDY XR are prescription medicines that contain 2 diabetes medicines, empagliflozin (JARDIANCE) and metformin. SYNJARDY and SYNJARDY XR can be used along with diet and exercise to improve blood sugar in adults with type 2 diabetes, and can be used in adults with type 2 diabetes who have known cardiovascular disease when both empagliflozin and metformin are appropriate and empagliflozin is needed to reduce the risk of cardiovascular death. SYNJARDY and SYNJARDY XR are not for people with type 1 diabetes, or for people with diabetic ketoacidosis (increased ketones in the blood or urine). IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION What is the most important information I should know about SYNJARDY or SYNJARDY XR? SYNJARDY or SYNJARDY XR can cause serious side effects, including Lactic Acidosis (a build-up of lactic acid in the blood). Metformin, one of the medicines in SYNJARDY and SYNJARDY XR, can cause lactic acidosis, a rare but serious condition that can cause death. Lactic acidosis is a medical emergency and must be treated in a hospital. Call your doctor right away if you get any of the following symptoms of lactic acidosis: cold in your hands or feet; feel dizzy or lightheaded; slow or irregular heartbeat; feel very weak or tired; have unusual muscle pain; have trouble breathing; feel sleepy or drowsy; have stomach pains, nausea, or vomiting. You have a higher chance of getting lactic acidosis with SYNJARDY or SYNJARDY XR if you: have moderate to severe kidney problems or your kidneys are affected by certain x-ray tests that use injectable dye; have liver problems; drink alcohol very often, or drink a lot of alcohol in the short term (“binge” drinking); get dehydrated (lose a large amount of body fluids); have surgery; have a heart attack, severe infection, o Continue reading >>

Understanding And Treating Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Understanding And Treating Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious metabolic disorder that can occur in animals with diabetes mellitus (DM).1,2 Veterinary technicians play an integral role in managing and treating patients with this life-threatening condition. In addition to recognizing the clinical signs of this disorder and evaluating the patient's response to therapy, technicians should understand how this disorder occurs. DM is caused by a relative or absolute lack of insulin production by the pancreatic b-cells or by inactivity or loss of insulin receptors, which are usually found on membranes of skeletal muscle, fat, and liver cells.1,3 In dogs and cats, DM is classified as either insulin-dependent (the body is unable to produce sufficient insulin) or non-insulin-dependent (the body produces insulin, but the tissues in the body are resistant to the insulin).4 Most dogs and cats that develop DKA have an insulin deficiency. Insulin has many functions, including the enhancement of glucose uptake by the cells for energy.1 Without insulin, the cells cannot access glucose, thereby causing them to undergo starvation.2 The unused glucose remains in the circulation, resulting in hyperglycemia. To provide cells with an alternative energy source, the body breaks down adipocytes, releasing free fatty acids (FFAs) into the bloodstream. The liver subsequently converts FFAs to triglycerides and ketone bodies. These ketone bodies (i.e., acetone, acetoacetic acid, b-hydroxybutyric acid) can be used as energy by the tissues when there is a lack of glucose or nutritional intake.1,2 The breakdown of fat, combined with the body's inability to use glucose, causes many pets with diabetes to present with weight loss, despite having a ravenous appetite. If diabetes is undiagnosed or uncontrolled, a series of metab Continue reading >>

What You Should Know About Farxiga

What You Should Know About Farxiga

You and your doctor may have discussed the benefits as well as the possible risks of taking FARXIGA (far-SEE-guh), and how it may help you achieve your treatment goals. Potential benefits of using FARXIGA for adults with type 2 diabetes, in addition to diet and exercise: FARXIGA is a once-daily pill for adults with type 2 diabetes who need improvement in A1C and additionally may benefit from weight and systolic blood pressure reduction. Patients experienced an average 3% weight loss when used with metformin In studies, FARXIGA: Additionally, FARXIGA may help you: FARXIGA is not a weight-loss or blood-pressure drug. Individual results may vary. ‡When used with metformin. Do not take FARXIGA if you: have severe kidney problems or are on dialysis. Your healthcare provider should do blood tests to check how well your kidneys are working before and during your treatment with FARXIGA FARXIGA has been tested in 24 clinical studies that looked at its benefits and safety. The studies had more than 11,000 adults with type 2 diabetes, including more than 6,000 patients treated with FARXIGA. FARXIGA, combined with diet and exercise, was studied alone as well as in combination with other diabetes medicines you may be taking. The other medicines included metformin, glimepiride, pioglitazone, insulin, and sitagliptin. See the What is the most important information I should know about FARXIGA? section. Dehydration (the loss of body water and salt), which may cause you to feel dizzy, faint, lightheaded, or weak, especially when you stand up (orthostatic hypotension). You may be at a higher risk of dehydration if you have low blood pressure; take medicines to lower your blood pressure, including water pills (diuretics); are 65 years of age or older; are on a low salt diet, or have kidn Continue reading >>

Why Does Diabetes Cause Rapid Weight Loss?

Why Does Diabetes Cause Rapid Weight Loss?

So, I’m going to assume that you’re talking about type 1 diabetes. There are two types of diabetes that are distinctly different metabolic disorders. The answer to your question is the effects of insulin in the body. When type 1’s lose their production of insulin, their bodies no longer are able to store fat or even utilize what blood sugar is being produced by the body. This causes the body to basically consume first fat and then even lean muscle mass. If you look at left hand picture of this type 1 before the discovery of insulin you’ll see the emaciated look of someone starving. The picture on the right shows a more normal body weight after insulin injections were started. So, for type 1’s the lack of insulin can cause rapid weight loss. The lack of insulin causes the body to start basically eating itself. Type 2’s can lose weight if their bodies stop producing insulin; however, for most type 2’s things work in reverse. They have a problem of insulin resistance caused by too much insulin in their system. Too much insulin normally causes the type 2’s to store fat and gain weight. That’s the connection between type 2 diabetes and obesity. Continue reading >>

About Diabetes

About Diabetes

formerly known as Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM). characterized by hyperglycemia due to an absolute deficiency of the insulin hormone produced by the pancreas. patients require lifelong insulin injections for survival. usually develops in children and adolescents (although can occur later in life). may present with severe symptoms such as coma or ketoacidosis. patients are usually not obese with this type of diabetes, but obesity is not incompatible with the diagnosis. patients are at increased risk of developing microvascular and macrovascular complications. Etiology usually (but not always) caused by autoimmune destruction of the beta cells of the pancreas, with the presence of certain antibodies in blood. a complex disease caused by mutations in more than one gene, as well as by environmental factors. Symptoms increased urinary frequency (polyuria), thirst (polydipsia), hunger (polyphagia), and unexplained weight loss. numbness in extremities, pain in feet (disesthesias), fatigue, and blurred vision. recurrent or severe infections. loss of consciousness or severe nausea/vomiting (ketoacidosis) or coma. Ketoacidosis more common in T1D than in T2D. Diagnosis diagnosis is made by the presence of classic symptoms of hyperglycemia and an abnormal blood test. a plasma glucose concentration >=7 mmol/L (or 126 mg/dL) or >=11.1mmol/L ( or 200mg/dL) 2 hours after a 75g glucose drink. in a patient without classic symptoms, diagnosis can also be made by two abnormal blood tests on separate days. in most settings (although not always available in resource-poor countries), another test called HbA1C is done to approximate metabolic control over previous 2-3 months and to guide treatment decisions. Treatment overall aim of treatment is symptom relief and prevention or de Continue reading >>

Appropriate Therapy Can Prevent Cerebral Swelling In Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Appropriate Therapy Can Prevent Cerebral Swelling In Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Appropriate therapy can prevent cerebral swelling in diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) In considering the issue posed by the title, there are two aspects of fluid movement in the brain that should be emphasized before we consider the pathophysiology of DKA and its treatment. The first is a generalized response to induced hyperosmolality in the extracellular space (ECF). What are now known as osmolytes, previously called idiogenic osmols, small organic molecules that accumulate in cells. In mammals taurine and myoinositol are the principal (only?) osmolytes. These molecules diffuse out or metabolize very slowly when a return to normal osmolality has occurred. Because the brain is in a rigid box, such cell swelling will lead to increased intracranial pressure when there is continuing hyperosmolality without loss of ECF volume. The second aspect of fluid movement in and out of the brain relevant here is the nature of the capillaries through which water and solute diffuse. The brain capillaries, unlike most capillaries elsewhere in the body, have tight junctions between the cells. This anatomic feature produces the blood brain barrier. Solutes not actively transported across the membrane, which includes sodium and chloride ions, diffuse at a much slower rate than these ions diffuse across other capillaries where movement is nearly instantaneous. In the brain, equilibrium for sodium takes 6 h ( 1 ). On the other hand, diffusion of water is virtually instantaneous in the brain as elsewhere. Consider, then, what happens when an osmotic gradient between the plasma and brain fluid is created. Water moves instantly to equalize the osmotic concentrations while the dominant solutes (Na+ and Cl) move slowly. If the dilution gradient is from plasma to brain ECF, there will be an increase Continue reading >>

The 2-day Diabetes Diet: What To Eat To Lose Weight

The 2-day Diabetes Diet: What To Eat To Lose Weight

For folks with diabetes, weight loss is a natural form of “medication.” Reams of research prove that losing even just a few pounds is an effective way to control blood sugar or reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes in the first place. But in an ironic twist, losing weight may be more difficult if you have type 2 diabetes. And the reason isn’t just a lack of willpower. Too often, diet plans don’t work for people with diabetes because the metabolism changes associated with blood sugar problems may increase appetite, slow down fat burning, and encourage fat storage. Now breakthrough research has revealed a better way for people to lose weight and reduce insulin resistance. The secret is a concept called intermittent fasting. British researchers created this revolutionary new diet, which strictly limits caloric intake for two days of the week but permits larger portions for the remainder. Women who followed the plan lost almost twice as much fat as those who restricted calories every day. Within three months, participants reduced insulin resistance by 25 percent more on nonfast days and inflammation by 8 percent more than people who dieted continuously. Why Does this Particular Diabetes Diet Plan Work? It counteracts the effects of “diabesity,” where blood sugar problems and excess body fat meet. Just a small amount of excess weight and a genetic tendency for metabolism problems can trigger a cascade of health issues, including high cholesterol, high blood pressure, immune system problems, and hormonal imbalances. This constellation of health problems is caused by a modern lifestyle that is out of sync with our genetic inheritance. Researchers theorize that because humans evolved during alternating periods of feast and famine, many of us inherited variou Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious complications of untreated diabetes. In this complication, severely insufficient insulin levels in the body results into high blood sugar that leads to the production and buildup of ketones in the blood. These ketones are slightly acidic, and large amounts of them can lead to ketoacidosis. If remained untreated, the condition leads to diabetic coma and may be fatal. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) gets triggered by a stressful event on the body, such as an illness or severe lack of insulin. DKA is more common in people with type 1 diabetes. In some cases, identification of DKA is the first indication that a person has diabetes. Early Sluggish and extreme tiredness Fruity smell to breath (like acetone) Extreme thirst, despite large fluid intake Constant urination/bedwetting Extreme weight loss Presence of Oral Thrush or yeast infections that fail to go away Muscle wasting Agitation / Irritation / Aggression / Confusion Late At this stage, Diabetic ketoacidosis reaches a life-threatening level: Vomiting. Although this can be a sign of hyperglycemia and isn't always a late-stage sign, it can occur with or without ketoacidosis. Confusion Abdominal pain Loss of appetite Flu-like symptoms Unconsciousness (diabetic coma) Being lethargic and apathetic Extreme weakness Kussmaul breathing (air hunger). In this condition, patients breathe more deeply and/or more rapidly The major risk factors accelerating on set of diabetic ketoacidosis include the following: Diabetes mellitus: Type 1 diabetics are at a higher risk of DKA, because they must rely on outside insulin sources for survival. DKA can occur in patients with type 2, particularly in obese children. Age: DKA may occur at any age, but younger people below 19 years of age are more susceptib Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Patient professional reference Professional Reference articles are written by UK doctors and are based on research evidence, UK and European Guidelines. They are designed for health professionals to use. You may find the Pre-diabetes (Impaired Glucose Tolerance) article more useful, or one of our other health articles. See also the separate Childhood Ketoacidosis article. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a medical emergency with a significant morbidity and mortality. It should be diagnosed promptly and managed intensively. DKA is characterised by hyperglycaemia, acidosis and ketonaemia:[1] Ketonaemia (3 mmol/L and over), or significant ketonuria (more than 2+ on standard urine sticks). Blood glucose over 11 mmol/L or known diabetes mellitus (the degree of hyperglycaemia is not a reliable indicator of DKA and the blood glucose may rarely be normal or only slightly elevated in DKA). Bicarbonate below 15 mmol/L and/or venous pH less than 7.3. However, hyperglycaemia may not always be present and low blood ketone levels (<3 mmol/L) do not always exclude DKA.[2] Epidemiology DKA is normally seen in people with type 1 diabetes. Data from the UK National Diabetes Audit show a crude one-year incidence of 3.6% among people with type 1 diabetes. In the UK nearly 4% of people with type 1 diabetes experience DKA each year. About 6% of cases of DKA occur in adults newly presenting with type 1 diabetes. About 8% of episodes occur in hospital patients who did not primarily present with DKA.[2] However, DKA may also occur in people with type 2 diabetes, although people with type 2 diabetes are much more likely to have a hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state. Ketosis-prone type 2 diabetes tends to be more common in older, overweight, non-white people with type 2 diabetes, and DKA may be their Continue reading >>

> Weight And Diabetes

> Weight And Diabetes

A balanced diet and an active lifestyle can help all kids maintain a healthy weight. For kids with diabetes, diet and exercise are even more important because weight can affect diabetes and diabetes can affect weight. This is true for kids and teens with type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes. In diabetes, the body doesn't use glucose properly. Glucose, a sugar, is the main source of energy for the body. Glucose levels are controlled by a hormone called insulin, which is made in the pancreas. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas does not make enough insulin. Undiagnosed or untreated type 1 diabetes can cause weight loss. Glucose builds up in the bloodstream if insulin isn't available to move it to the muscles. When glucose levels become high, the kidneys work to get rid of it through urine. This causes weight loss due to dehydration and loss of calories from the sugar that wasn't used as energy. Kids who develop type 1 diabetes often lose weight even though they have a normal or increased appetite. Once kids are diagnosed and treated for type 1 diabetes, weight usually returns to normal. Developing type 1 diabetes isn't related to being overweight, but keeping a healthy weight is important. Too much fat tissue can make it hard for insulin to work properly, leading to both higher insulin needs and trouble controlling blood sugar. In type 2 diabetes, the pancreas still makes insulin, but the insulin doesn't work in the body like it should and blood sugar levels get too high. Most kids and teens are overweight when they're diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Being overweight or obese increases the risk for developing type 2 diabetes. Also, weight gain in people with type 2 diabetes makes blood sugar levels even harder to control. People with type 2 diabetes have a condition called ins Continue reading >>

South Beach Diet

South Beach Diet

Definition The South Beach Diet is a popular weight-loss diet created in 2003 by cardiologist Arthur Agatston and first outlined in his best-selling book, "The South Beach Diet: The Delicious, Doctor-Designed, Foolproof Plan for Fast and Healthy Weight Loss." The South Beach Diet is a commercial weight-loss diet. The South Beach Diet, which is named after a glamorous area of Miami, is sometimes called a modified low-carbohydrate diet. The South Beach Diet is lower in carbs (carbohydrates) and higher in protein and healthy fats than is a typical eating plan. But it's not a strict low-carb diet, and you don't have to count carbs. Purpose The purpose of the South Beach Diet is to change the overall balance of the foods you eat to encourage weight loss and a healthy lifestyle. The South Beach Diet says it's a healthy way of eating whether you want to lose weight or not. Why you might follow the South Beach Diet You might choose to follow the South Beach Diet because you: Enjoy the types and amounts of food featured in the diet Want a diet that restricts certain carbs and fats to help you lose weight Want to change your overall eating habits Want a diet you can stick with for life Like the related South Beach Diet products, such as cookbooks and diet foods Check with your doctor or health care provider before starting any weight-loss diet, especially if you have any health concerns. Diet details The South Beach Diet says that its balance of good carbs, lean protein and healthy fats makes it a nutrient-dense, fiber-rich diet that you can follow for a lifetime of healthy eating. The South Beach Diet says that it'll teach you about eliminating so-called "bad" carbs from your diet. It uses the glycemic index and glycemic load to determine which carbs you should avoid. Foods with Continue reading >>

Can Diabetes Kill You?

Can Diabetes Kill You?

Here’s what you need to know about the life-threatening diabetes complication called diabetic ketoacidosis. Diabetic ketoacidosis is one of the most serious complications of diabetes. Symptoms can take you by surprise, coming on in just 24 hours or less. Without diabetic ketoacidosis treatment, you will fall into a coma and die. “Every minute that the person is not treated is [another] minute closer to death,” says Joel Zonszein, MD, professor of medicine at Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York City. Diabetic ketoacidosis occurs when your body doesn’t produce enough insulin. (Diabetic ketoacidosis most often affects people with type 1 diabetes, but there is also type 2 diabetes ketoacidosis.) Without insulin, sugar can’t be stored in your cells to be used as energy and builds up in your blood instead. Your body has to go to a back-up energy system: fat. In the process of breaking down fat for energy, your body releases fatty acids and acids called ketones. Ketones are an alternative form of energy for the body, and just having them in your blood isn’t necessarily harmful. That’s called ketosis, and it can happen when you go on a low-carb diet or even after fasting overnight. “When I put people on a restricted diet, I can get an estimate of how vigorously they’re pursuing it by the presence of ketones in the urine,” says Gerald Bernstein, MD, an endocrinologist and coordinator of the Friedman Diabetes Program at Lenox Hill Hospital in New York City. RELATED: The Ketogenic Diet Might Be the Next Big Weight Loss Trend, But Should You Try It? But too many ketones are a problem. “In individuals with diabetes who have no or low insulin production, there is an overproduction of ketones, and the kidneys can’t get rid of them fast enough,” sa Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Syndrome

Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Syndrome

In Brief Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome (HHS) are two acute complications of diabetes that can result in increased morbidity and mortality if not efficiently and effectively treated. Mortality rates are 2–5% for DKA and 15% for HHS, and mortality is usually a consequence of the underlying precipitating cause(s) rather than a result of the metabolic changes of hyperglycemia. Effective standardized treatment protocols, as well as prompt identification and treatment of the precipitating cause, are important factors affecting outcome. The two most common life-threatening complications of diabetes mellitus include diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome (HHS). Although there are important differences in their pathogenesis, the basic underlying mechanism for both disorders is a reduction in the net effective concentration of circulating insulin coupled with a concomitant elevation of counterregulatory hormones (glucagon, catecholamines, cortisol, and growth hormone). These hyperglycemic emergencies continue to be important causes of morbidity and mortality among patients with diabetes. DKA is reported to be responsible for more than 100,000 hospital admissions per year in the United States1 and accounts for 4–9% of all hospital discharge summaries among patients with diabetes.1 The incidence of HHS is lower than DKA and accounts for <1% of all primary diabetic admissions.1 Most patients with DKA have type 1 diabetes; however, patients with type 2 diabetes are also at risk during the catabolic stress of acute illness.2 Contrary to popular belief, DKA is more common in adults than in children.1 In community-based studies, more than 40% of African-American patients with DKA were >40 years of age and more than 2 Continue reading >>

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