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Why Does Dka Cause Weight Loss

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

The Facts Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a condition that may occur in people who have diabetes, most often in those who have type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes. It involves the buildup of toxic substances called ketones that make the blood too acidic. High ketone levels can be readily managed, but if they aren't detected and treated in time, a person can eventually slip into a fatal coma. DKA can occur in people who are newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes and have had ketones building up in their blood prior to the start of treatment. It can also occur in people already diagnosed with type 1 diabetes that have missed an insulin dose, have an infection, or have suffered a traumatic event or injury. Although much less common, DKA can occasionally occur in people with type 2 diabetes under extreme physiologic stress. Causes With type 1 diabetes, the pancreas is unable to make the hormone insulin, which the body's cells need in order to take in glucose from the blood. In the case of type 2 diabetes, the pancreas is unable to make sufficient amounts of insulin in order to take in glucose from the blood. Glucose, a simple sugar we get from the foods we eat, is necessary for making the energy our cells need to function. People with diabetes can't get glucose into their cells, so their bodies look for alternative energy sources. Meanwhile, glucose builds up in the bloodstream, and by the time DKA occurs, blood glucose levels are often greater than 22 mmol/L (400 mg/dL) while insulin levels are very low. Since glucose isn't available for cells to use, fat from fat cells is broken down for energy instead, releasing ketones. Ketones accumulate in the blood, causing it to become more acidic. As a result, many of the enzymes that control the body's metabolic processes aren't able Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes Complications

Type 1 Diabetes Complications

Type 1 diabetes is complicated—and if you don’t manage it properly, there are complications, both short-term and long-term. “If you don’t manage it properly” is an important if statement: by carefully managing your blood glucose levels, you can stave off or prevent the short- and long-term complications. And if you’ve already developed diabetes complications, controlling your blood glucose levels can help you manage the symptoms and prevent further damage. Diabetes complications are all related to poor blood glucose control, so you must work carefully with your doctor and diabetes team to correctly manage your blood sugar (or your child’s blood sugar). Short-term Diabetes Complications Hypoglycemia: Hypoglycemia is low blood glucose (blood sugar). It develops when there’s too much insulin—meaning that you’ve taken (or given your child) too much insulin or that you haven’t properly planned insulin around meals or exercise. Other possible causes of hypoglycemia include certain medications (aspirin, for example, lowers the blood glucose level if you take a dose of more than 81mg) and alcohol (alcohol keeps the liver from releasing glucose). There are three levels of hypoglycemia, depending on how low the blood glucose level has dropped: mild, moderate, and severe. If you treat hypoglycemia when it’s in the mild or moderate stages, then you can prevent far more serious problems; severe hypoglycemia can cause a coma and even death (although very, very rarely). The signs and symptoms of low blood glucose are usually easy to recognize: Rapid heartbeat Sweating Paleness of skin Anxiety Numbness in fingers, toes, and lips Sleepiness Confusion Headache Slurred speech For more information about hypoglycemia and how to treat it, please read our article on hy Continue reading >>

Why Do People With Diabetes Lose Weight?

Why Do People With Diabetes Lose Weight?

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder where the body does not use energy properly. One of the symptoms of diabetes is sudden and unexplained weight loss. Excessive hunger and thirst are two other symptoms, and patients with untreated diabetes may find themselves losing weight even as they are eating and drinking more than usual. There are several reasons why people with diabetes lose weight, but to better understand why weight loss occurs, you need to explore how diabetes affects the body. Video of the Day Under normal circumstances, your body converts food into sugar during the digestive process. The sugar enters your bloodstream and the pancreas, a small organ behind the liver, release a chemical known as insulin. Insulin tells all the cells in the body to take sugar from the blood and convert it to energy, which the cells use as fuel. Types of Diabetes There are two types of diabetes mellitus -- type 1 and type 2. With type 1 diabetes, the body either does not make insulin, or it does not make enough, and the cells never get the chemical signal to absorb sugar from the blood. With type 2 diabetes, the body makes insulin but the cells do not respond to the chemical signals, or they respond incorrectly. In both instances, the sugar stays in the bloodstream, where the body is unable to use it for energy. When the cells are unable to use sugar for energy, they send a signal to the brain that they need more fuel. The brain then triggers the hunger response to encourage you to eat, hence the excessive hunger that often occurs with diabetes. However, the more you eat, the more sugar ends up in your bloodstream instead of in the cells, where it belongs. You kidneys then have to work overtime to clear the sugar from your blood through the urine. Your kidneys have to use a Continue reading >>

Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State

Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State

Acute hyperglycemia, or high blood glucose, may be either the initial presentation of diabetes mellitus or a complication during the course of a known disease. Inadequate insulin replacement (e.g., noncompliance with treatment) or increased insulin demand (e.g., during times of acute illness, surgery, or stress) may lead to acute hyperglycemia. There are two distinct forms: diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), typically seen in type 1 diabetes, and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS), occurring primarily in type 2 diabetes. In type 1 diabetes, no insulin is available to suppress fat breakdown, and the ketones resulting from subsequent ketogenesis manifest as DKA. This is in contrast to type 2 diabetes, in which patients can still secrete small amounts of insulin to suppress DKA, instead resulting in a hyperglycemic state predominated simply by glucose. The clinical presentation of both DKA and HHS is one of polyuria, polydipsia, nausea and vomiting, volume depletion (e.g., dry oral mucosa, decreased skin turgor), and eventually mental status changes and coma. In patients with altered mental status, fingerstick glucose should always be checked in order to exclude serum glucose abnormalities. Several clinical findings pertaining only to DKA include a fruity odor to the breath, hyperventilation, and abdominal pain. HHS patients, in contrast to those with DKA, will present with more extreme volume depletion. The treatment of both DKA and HHS is primarily IV electrolyte and fluid replacement. Insulin for hyperglycemia may be given with caution and under vigilant monitoring of serum glucose. Other treatment options depend on the severity of symptoms and include bicarbonate and potassium replacement. Osmotic diuresis and hypovolemia Hypovolemia resulting from DKA can lead to acute Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)

Tweet Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a dangerous complication faced by people with diabetes which happens when the body starts running out of insulin. DKA is most commonly associated with type 1 diabetes, however, people with type 2 diabetes that produce very little of their own insulin may also be affected. Ketoacidosis is a serious short term complication which can result in coma or even death if it is not treated quickly. Read about Diabetes and Ketones What is diabetic ketoacidosis? DKA occurs when the body has insufficient insulin to allow enough glucose to enter cells, and so the body switches to burning fatty acids and producing acidic ketone bodies. A high level of ketone bodies in the blood can cause particularly severe illness. Symptoms of DKA Diabetic ketoacidosis may itself be the symptom of undiagnosed type 1 diabetes. Typical symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis include: Vomiting Dehydration An unusual smell on the breath –sometimes compared to the smell of pear drops Deep laboured breathing (called kussmaul breathing) or hyperventilation Rapid heartbeat Confusion and disorientation Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis usually evolve over a 24 hour period if blood glucose levels become and remain too high (hyperglycemia). Causes and risk factors for diabetic ketoacidosis As noted above, DKA is caused by the body having too little insulin to allow cells to take in glucose for energy. This may happen for a number of reasons including: Having blood glucose levels consistently over 15 mmol/l Missing insulin injections If a fault has developed in your insulin pen or insulin pump As a result of illness or infections High or prolonged levels of stress Excessive alcohol consumption DKA may also occur prior to a diagnosis of type 1 diabetes. Ketoacidosis can occasional Continue reading >>

Ketoacidosis Versus Ketosis

Ketoacidosis Versus Ketosis

Some medical professionals confuse ketoacidosis, an extremely abnormal form of ketosis, with the normal benign ketosis associated with ketogenic diets and fasting states in the body. They will then tell you that ketosis is dangerous. Testing Laboratory Microbiology - Air Quality - Mold Asbestos - Environmental - Lead emsl.com Ketosis is NOT Ketoacidosis The difference between the two conditions is a matter of volume and flow rate*: Benign nutritional ketosis is a controlled, insulin regulated process which results in a mild release of fatty acids and ketone body production in response to either a fast from food, or a reduction in carbohydrate intake. Ketoacidosis is driven by a lack of insulin in the body. Without insulin, blood sugar rises to high levels and stored fat streams from fat cells. This excess amount of fat metabolism results in the production of abnormal quantities of ketones. The combination of high blood sugar and high ketone levels can upset the normal acid/base balance in the blood and become dangerous. In order to reach a state of ketoacidosis, insulin levels must be so low that the regulation of blood sugar and fatty acid flow is impaired. *See this reference paper. Here's a table of the actual numbers to show the differences in magnitude: Body Condition Quantity of Ketones Being Produced After a meal: 0.1 mmol/L Overnight Fast: 0.3 mmol/L Ketogenic Diet (Nutritional ketosis): 1-8 mmol/L >20 Days Fasting: 10 mmol/L Uncontrolled Diabetes (Ketoacidosis): >20 mmol/L Here's a more detailed explanation: Fact 1: Every human body maintains the blood and cellular fluids within a very narrow range between being too acidic (low pH) and too basic (high pH). If the blood pH gets out of the normal range, either too low or too high, big problems happen. Fact 2: The Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes: What Are The Symptoms?

Type 1 Diabetes: What Are The Symptoms?

What Is Type 1 Diabetes (Juvenile)? Type 1 diabetes is a chronic condition that usually starts in childhood, but can occur in adults (30 to 40-year-olds). In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas produces very little insulin. Insulin helps cells in the body convert sugar into energy. When the pancreas cannot make enough insulin, sugar starts to build up in the blood, causing life-threatening complications. Individuals with type 1 diabetes must take some form of insulin for the rest of their lives. Unusual Thirst Symptoms Unusual thirst is a very common symptom of type 1 diabetes. This condition causes the kidneys to remove excess sugar in the blood by getting rid of more water. The water is removed through urinating, causing dehydration and dehydration causes you to drink more water. Weight Loss Symptoms Patient with type 1 diabetes develop unintentional weight loss and an increase in appetite because blood sugar levels remain high and the body metabolizes fat for energy. Disrupted glucose metabolism also causes patient to feel a lack of energy and drowsy for extended periods Excess urination also cause weight loss because many calories are leaving the body in urine. Skin Problems Symptoms The disruption in glucose metabolism in patient with type 1 diabetes causes skin changes. Type 1 diabetics are at a higher risk for bacterial infections and fungal infections. Poor blood circulation in the skin may also occur. Patient with type 1 diabetes are often infected with fungal infections caused by the yeast Candida albicans. Common fungal infections include athlete's foot, vaginal yeast infection in women, jock itch, ringworm, and diaper rashes in babies. Diaper rash caused by the yeast Candida albicans can spread to other areas of the body such as the stomach and legs. Other Dangero Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Figure 3. Timeline in DKA management. GCS:Glascow Coma Scale, CBC:Complete Blood Counting, ECG:Electrocardiogram, HR:Heart Rate, BP:Blood Pressure, BUN:Blood Urea Nitrogen, Cr: Creatinine, WBC:White Blood Cell, CRP:C-reactive protein, CE:Cerebral edema (adapted from reference 165) Figure 4. A 15 years old male patient firstly diagnosed T1DM with DKA infected by rhino-orbita-cerebral mucormycozis (Picture from the reference [218]) 1. Introduction A chronic autoimmune destruction of the pancreatic beta cells results in decreasing endogenous insulin secretion and the clinical manifestation of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The clinical onset of the disease is often acute in children and adolescents and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is present in 20-74% of the patients [1-7]. DKA is a serious condition that requiring immediate intervention. Even with appropriate intervention, DKA is associated with significant morbidity and possible mortality in diabetic patients in the pediatric age group [8]. Young age and female sex have been associated with an increased frequency of DKA [3,9]. The triad of uncontrolled hyperglycemia, metabolic acidosis and increased total body ketone concentration characterizes DKA [10]. In addition to possible acute complications, it may also influence the later outcome of diabetes [11]. 2. Epidemiology Worldwide, an estimated 65 000 children under 15 years old develop T1DM each year, and the global incidence in children continues to increase at a rate of 3% a year [12,13]. The current incidence in the UK is around 26/100 000 per year [14]. Patterson et al. were aimed to establish 15-year incidence trends for childhood T1DM in European centres with EURODIAB study. 29 311 new cases of T1DM were diagnosed in children before their 15th birthday during a 1 Continue reading >>

Dropping Insulin To Drop Pounds

Dropping Insulin To Drop Pounds

The practice of withholding insulin as a way to lose weight is a serious eating disorder with devastating consequences. Continue reading >>

Weight Loss And Nausea In A Patient Taking Digoxin

Weight Loss And Nausea In A Patient Taking Digoxin

In August 2007, a 76 year old white woman was referred because of a two week history of worsening lethargy with loss of appetite and nausea. She had ischaemic heart disease and hypertension and had had a pacemaker inserted in February 2007 for atrial fibrillation with sinus pauses. She had lost 9.3 kg in the past 10 months. When she visited her family doctor two days before hospital admission her symptoms were initially thought to be caused by digoxin toxicity (digoxin concentration 5 nmol/L, therapeutic range 0.9-2.6), so her digoxin dose had been reduced, but a random blood glucose measurement was raised at 29.3 mmol/L (reference range 3.3-6.0) and she was referred to hospital. She had been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes in February 2006 on an oral glucose tolerance test (0 min blood glucose 5.1 mmol/L, 2 hour value 12.3 mmol/L) and had been controlled using diet alone. Her glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) value had been 6.4% (4.0-6.1%; 46 mmol/mol, 20-43) in February 2007. She was thin, weighing 45 kg, with a body mass index of 17. Her breath smelled “fruity.” Her blood pressure was 148/89 mm Hg. Urinalysis showed 3+ glucose and 3+ ketones. Arterial pH was 7.241 (7.35-7.45), bicarbonate 12 mmol/L (22-29), sodium 129 mmol/L (133-146), potassium 4.9 mmol/L (3.5-5.3), urea 29.3 mmol/L (2.5-7.8), creatinine 213 µmol/L (60-120), and blood glucose 59.3 mmol/L (3.3-6.0). Haemoglobin was 145 g/L (115-165), white cell count was 12.1×109/L (4.0-11.0), and platelets were 251×109/L (140-400). Continue reading >>

The Signs, Diagnosis & Types Of Diabetes Mellitus In Cats

The Signs, Diagnosis & Types Of Diabetes Mellitus In Cats

There are certain signs or symptoms which are commonly seen in cats with diabetes mellitus. Unfortunately, these signs also occur in other diseases and conditions. Therefore, laboratory tests are necessary to diagnose diabetes mellitus in cats. The following article includes a discussion of how this diagnosis is made and the types of diabetes found in cats. What are the signs of diabetes mellitus in cats and why do they occur? Depending on how severely insulin production is impaired, there may be few signs of disease, or the signs may be severe. Dogs with diabetes often develop cataracts; cats do not. The most common signs of diabetes are: Increased thirst (polydipsia) and urination (polyuria) Change in appetite Weight loss Change in gait (walking) Decreased activity, weakness, depression Vomiting Increased Thirst and Urination: Because the glucose cannot enter the cells, the glucose levels in the blood become abnormally high (hyperglycemia). The glucose is filtered out by the kidneys and is found in the urine (glucosuria). When it is filtered out, it carries water with it. The animal, then, is losing more water through the urine than normal and has to make up for it by drinking more. Inappropriate Elimination: The increased urination may result in the cat not always urinating in the litter box. This inappropriate urination may be one of the first signs of diabetes in cats. In addition, cats with diabetes can often develop urinary tract infections, which may also result in inappropriate elimination. Change in Appetite: Some diabetic cats eat less, because frankly, they do not feel well. Other cats may have voracious appetites and eat a lot (polyphagia) because their hypothalamus keeps telling them they are hungry. Weight Loss: Because the cat cannot use the calories he Continue reading >>

How To Treat Muscle Loss In Diabetics

How To Treat Muscle Loss In Diabetics

Diabetes mellitus has many symptoms, including overactive bladder, excessive thirst and hunger, weight loss, a tingling sensation in the digits, and weakened vision. Another lesser known symptom of diabetes is muscle loss. The diabetic mechanism of muscle loss is multifactorial. In other words, diabetes can contribute to muscle loss in several ways. The three main ways muscle loss may occur in diabetics includes: 1. Muscle contracture and disuse It is common for patients with diabetes to suffer from hardened muscles, or muscles that have contracted as a result of thickening soft tissue. This type of general diabetic muscle contracture can be pervasive, and makes it much harder for a patient to move or use their muscles. Movement becomes limited, and muscle disuse that leads to atrophy is the result. 2. Atherosclerosis While atherosclerosis and diabetes are not directly related, diabetes can promote atherosclerosis, or the thickening of arterial walls. This contributes to restricted blood flow, which can cause cramps, pain, or general discomfort. In severe cases, the lack of oxygenated blood to localized areas of muscle can cause infarction, or tissue death caused by restricted blood flow. Infarctions of the heart can lead to heart attacks. 3. Nerve damage Lastly, infarction can cause the death of motor and sensory neurons that are involved in muscle movement and blood supply. The death of these vital neurons can further contribute to muscle disuse and atrophy, and can lead to muscle twitching and pain. An uncomfortable type of muscle atrophy in which the muscles of the shoulders and hips waste away, known as “limb girdle wasting”, is common in diabetics and often referred to as diabetic amyotrophy. In all three cases, muscle loss occurs slowly, but is pervasive and Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis is a potentially life-threatening complication of diabetes caused by a lack of insulin in the body. It's important to seek medical advice quickly if you think that you or your child is experiencing the condition. Causes of diabetic ketoacidosis Diabetic ketoacidosis is a complication of diabetes that can occur if the body starts to run out of insulin. It's common in people with type 1 diabetes and can very occasionally affect those with type 2 diabetes. It sometimes develops in people who were previously unaware they had diabetes. Children and young adults are most at risk. Insulin enables the body to use blood sugar (glucose). If there is a lack of insulin, or if it can't be used properly, the body will break down fat instead. The breakdown of fat releases harmful, acidic substances called ketones.The lack of insulin in your body leads to high blood glucose levels (hyperglycaemia). The combination of high ketone and blood sugar levels can cause a number of symptoms that can be very serious if the levels aren't corrected quickly. Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis The initial symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis can develop quite suddenly. They will continue to get worse if not treated. Early symptoms In the early stages, the main signs of diabetic ketoacidosis include: passing large amounts of urine severe thirst weight loss feeling sick tiredness You may also develop other symptoms of dehydration, such as a dry mouth. If you have your own device or kit to measure your blood sugar and/or ketone levels, you may notice that the levels of both of these are higher than normal. Advanced symptoms Left untreated, more advanced symptoms can develop, including: rapid heartbeat (tachycardia) rapid breathing, where you breathe in more oxygen than your body actua Continue reading >>

Viewer Comments: Diabetic Ketoacidosis - Symptoms

Viewer Comments: Diabetic Ketoacidosis - Symptoms

I didn't know anything about diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) until I was admitted into the ICU. Learning about DKA now, I've had moderate DKA on and off for years. I thought my vomiting, stomach pain were the result of metformin and switched to Invokana. I experienced extreme weight loss and dehydration but thought these were normal (Invokana shown to help diabetics lose weight). I have been under extreme financial and emotional stress for the past few years as well. What I would want others to know is that it is difficult to identify DKA from medication side effects; until DKA is at the ICU level. I was given so much potassium and other electrolytes. Stress is also a huge factor for me. While in the ICU my ex-husband (knowing I was in the ICU) started more harassment. The nurses documented an over 100 jump in my blood sugar after a phone call to deal with the harassment. I've started tracking stress and my blood sugar. It is impossible to get control of my blood sugar during high stress. If I add more insulin, I have a dangerous crash later. Keeping a calm environment as much as I can helps. I have type 2 diabetes. I gave myself more than 300 shots. My doctor put me on metformin. This takes the place of insulin shots. There are three different doses. What made it for me was 850 mg per meal. I count my carbohydrates, 60 per meal, and take my pill. I have seen here, folks that have 200, 300, 695 mg/dl of glucose. It is tough to manage, but if you keep to it, you will do well. Check the bottoms of your feet daily. If you are ticklish, you are doing fine. Give up cakes, pies, ice cream and other things high in carbohydrates. If you do, you will be fine. By the way, my average glucose reading is less than 120. Set that as your goal. Have good days! I have been having really dif Continue reading >>

Unexplained Sudden Weight Loss, Constant Hunger, And Fatigue

Unexplained Sudden Weight Loss, Constant Hunger, And Fatigue

SHARE RATE★★★★★ Sudden unexplained weight loss is a classic symptom of type 1 diabetes, resulting from insulin deficiency, with a loss of the hormonal action of insulin in inhibiting the breakdown of protein in the body. In type 1 diabetes, weight loss may take the form of muscle wasting and a loss of muscular strength, especially as it occurs in young men. Weight loss in type 1 diabetes may also be accompanied by extreme, constant hunger (polyphagia), as well as fatigue, as the body lacks the ability to use glucose. Additionally, fatigue or lethargy may also be a sign of diabetic ketoacidosis.1 Diabetic ketoacidosis is a dangerous short-term complication of diabetes. It results when chemicals called ketones accumulate in the blood. Because a person with diabetes is unable to use glucose for energy, if they are not being treated properly, their body may burn fat instead to get energy. Burning fat causes the production of ketones, which can be toxic if they build up in the blood. In addition to fatigue or lethargy, weight loss, extreme thirst, frequent urination, stomach ache and nausea, and difficulty thinking clear are signs and symptoms of ketoacidosis. In extreme cases, ketoacidosis can cause a person to go into a coma. So, this complication should be treated as a medical emergency. If you experience any of the symptoms ketoacidosis, you should consult your healthcare provider.2,3 Learn more about diabetic ketoacidosis Sudden weight loss is also less frequently a sign of type 2 diabetes. However, its mechanism is entirely different compared with weight loss associated with type 1 diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, weight loss may result from dietary restriction on the part of an individual who senses a health problem and deliberately attempts to change eating ha Continue reading >>

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