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Why Do You Vomit In Dka?

Ketoacidosis In Cats – Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

Ketoacidosis In Cats – Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

Ketoacidosis in cats at a glance Ketoacidosis is a serious complication of diabetes in which ketones and blood sugar levels build up in the body due to insufficient levels of insulin which is required to move glucose into the cells for energy. As a result, the body uses fat as an alternate energy source which produces ketones causing the blood to become too acidic. Common causes include uncontrolled diabetes, missed or insufficient insulin, surgery, infection, stress and obesity. Symptoms of ketoacidosis include increased urination and thirst, dehydration, nausea, diarrhea, confusion, rapid breathing which may later change to laboured breathing. What is diabetic ketoacidosis? Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a life-threatening complication of diabetes characterised by metabolic acidosis (increased acids in the blood), hyperglycemia (high blood glucose) and ketonuria (ketones in the urine). It is caused by a lack of or insufficient amounts of insulin which is required to move glucose from the bloodstream and into the cells to be used for energy. When this occurs, the body begins to search for alternate sources of energy and begins to break down fat. When fat is broken down (metabolised) into fatty acids, waste products known as ketones (acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, acetone) are released from the liver and accumulate in the bloodstream (known as ketonemia). This causes the blood to become too acidic (metabolic acidosis). As well as metabolic acidosis, ketones also cause central nervous depression.The body will try to get rid of the ketones by excreting them out of the body via the urine, increased urine output leads to dehydration, making the problem worse. Meanwhile, the unused glucose remains in the bloodstream, resulting in hyperglycemia (high blood sugar).Insulin Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

As fat is broken down, acids called ketones build up in the blood and urine. In high levels, ketones are poisonous. This condition is known as ketoacidosis. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is sometimes the first sign of type 1 diabetes in people who have not yet been diagnosed. It can also occur in someone who has already been diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. Infection, injury, a serious illness, missing doses of insulin shots, or surgery can lead to DKA in people with type 1 diabetes. People with type 2 diabetes can also develop DKA, but it is less common. It is usually triggered by uncontrolled blood sugar, missing doses of medicines, or a severe illness. Continue reading >>

Feline Diabetes

Feline Diabetes

Insulin injections are the preferred method of managing diabetes in cats. Figure 1: To administer an injection, pull the loose skin between the shoulder blades with one hand. With the other hand, insert the needle directly into the indentation made by holding up the skin, draw back on the plunger slightly, and if no blood appears in the syringe, inject gently. Tips for Treatment 1. You can do it! Treating your cat may sound difficult, but for most owners it soon becomes routine. 2. Work very closely with your veterinarian to get the best results for your cat. 3. Once your cat has been diagnosed, it's best to start insulin therapy as soon as possible. 4. Home glucose monitoring can be very helpful. 5. Tracking your cat's water intake, activity level, appetite, and weight can be beneficial. 6. A low carbohydrate diet helps diabetic cats maintain proper glucose levels. 7. With careful treatment, your cat's diabetes may well go into remission. 8. If your cat shows signs of hypoglycemia (lethargy, weakness, tremors, seizures, vomiting) apply honey, a glucose solution, or dextrose gel to the gums and immediately contact a veterinarian. Possible Complications Insulin therapy lowers blood glucose, possibly to dangerously low levels. Signs of hypoglycemia include weakness, lethargy, vomiting, lack of coordination, seizures, and coma. Hypoglycemia can be fatal if left untreated, so any diabetic cat that shows any of these signs should be offered its regular food immediately. If the cat does not eat voluntarily, it should be given oral glucose in the form of honey, corn syrup, or proprietary dextrose gels (available at most pharmacies) and brought to a veterinarian immediately. It is important, however, that owners not attempt to force fingers, food, or fluids into the mouth of a Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) occurs when the body does not have enough insulin. Insulin is what breaks down sugar into energy. When insulin is not present to break down sugars, our body begins to break down fat. Fat break down produces ketones which spill into the urine and cause glucose build up in the blood, thus acidifying the body. Because sugar is not entering into our body’s cells for energy breakdown, the sugar is being processed by the kidneys and excreted through the urine; as a result, we become dehydrated and our blood becomes even more acidic. This leads to sickness and hospitalization if not treated. If a person’s blood sugar is over 240, they should start checking their blood for ketones. If you have diabetes, or love someone who does, being aware of warning signs of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) can help save a life. Early Symptoms of DKA: High blood glucose level, usually > 300 High volume to ketones present in blood or urine Frequent urination or thirst that lasts for a day or more Dry skin and mouth Rapid shallow breathing Abdominal pain (especially in children) Muscle stiffness or aches Flushed face As DKA Worsens: Decreases alertness, confusion – brain is dehydrating Deep, labored, and gasping breathing Headache Breath that smells fruity or like fingernail polish remover Nausea and/or vomiting Abdomen may be tender and hurt if touched Decreased consciousness, coma, death If you think you might have DKA, test for ketones. If ketones are present, call your health care provider right away. To treat high blood sugar, hydrate with water or sugar free, caffeine free drinks. Sugar free popsicles and snacks are also good alternatives. Always call the doctor if vomiting goes on for more than two hours. Symptoms can go from mild Continue reading >>

Five Things To Know About Ketones

Five Things To Know About Ketones

If you live with diabetes, you have probably heard that ketones are something to watch out for. That they have something to do with the dreaded diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). But do you really understand what ketones are and why they happen? It’s scary to think about, sure. But it’s also very important to be in the know about ketones and to be prepared. 1) What are ketones? If there isn’t enough insulin in your system, you can’t turn glucose into energy. So your body starts breaking down body fat. Ketones are a chemical by-product of this process. This can occur when people with type 1 diabetes don’t take insulin for long periods of time, when insulin pumps fail to deliver insulin and the wearer does not monitor blood glucose, or during serious illness (in type 1 or type 2) when insulin doses are missed or not increased appropriately for the stress of illness. Ketones can happen to anyone with diabetes, but the condition is more common in people with type 1. 2) Why are ketones dangerous? Ketones upset the chemical balance of your blood and, if left untreated, can poison the body. Your body cannot tolerate large amounts of ketones and will try to get rid of them through the urine. Eventually they build up in the blood. The presence of ketones could be a sign that you are experiencing, or will soon develop, diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)—a life-threatening medical emergency. 3) When should I test for ketones, and how? There are several situations in which it is a good idea to check for ketones, usually every four to six hours. Talk to your doctor to know what makes the most sense for you and your diabetes management plan. Your blood glucose is more than 300 mg/dl (or a level recommended by your doctor) You feel nauseated, are vomiting or have abdominal pain You are Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

What Is It? Diabetic ketoacidosis is a potentially fatal complication of diabetes that occurs when you have much less insulin than your body needs. This problem causes the blood to become acidic and the body to become dangerously dehydrated. Diabetic ketoacidosis can occur when diabetes is not treated adequately, or it can occur during times of serious sickness. To understand this illness, you need to understand the way your body powers itself with sugar and other fuels. Foods we eat are broken down by the body, and much of what we eat becomes glucose (a type of sugar), which enters the bloodstream. Insulin helps glucose to pass from the bloodstream into body cells, where it is used for energy. Insulin normally is made by the pancreas, but people with type 1 diabetes (insulin-dependent diabetes) don't produce enough insulin and must inject it daily. Your body needs a constant source of energy. When you have plenty of insulin, your body cells can get all the energy they need from glucose. If you don't have enough insulin in your blood, your liver is programmed to manufacture emergency fuels. These fuels, made from fat, are called ketones (or keto acids). In a pinch, ketones can give you energy. However, if your body stays dependent on ketones for energy for too long, you soon will become ill. Ketones are acidic chemicals that are toxic at high concentrations. In diabetic ketoacidosis, ketones build up in the blood, seriously altering the normal chemistry of the blood and interfering with the function of multiple organs. They make the blood acidic, which causes vomiting and abdominal pain. If the acid level of the blood becomes extreme, ketoacidosis can cause falling blood pressure, coma and death. Ketoacidosis is always accompanied by dehydration, which is caused by high Continue reading >>

Symptoms And Detection Of Ketoacidosis

Symptoms And Detection Of Ketoacidosis

Symptoms These symptoms are due to the ketone poisoning and should never be ignored. As soon as a person begins to vomit or has difficulty breathing, immediate treatment in an emergency room is required to prevent coma and possible death. Early Signs, Symptoms: Late Signs, Symptoms: very tired and sleepy weakness great thirst frequent urination dry skin and tongue leg cramps fruity odor to the breath* upset stomach* nausea* vomiting* shortness of breath sunken eyeballs very high blood sugars rapid pulse rapid breathing low blood pressure unresponsiveness, coma * these are more specific for ketoacidosis than hyperosmolar syndrome Everyone with diabetes needs to know how to recognize and treat ketoacidosis. Ketones travel from the blood into the urine and can be detected in the urine with ketone test strips available at any pharmacy. Ketone strips should always be kept on hand, but stored in a dry area and replaced as soon as they become outdated. Measurement of Ketones in the urine is very important for diabetics with infections or on insulin pump therapy due to the fact it gives more information than glucose tests alone. Check the urine for ketones whenever a blood sugar reading is 300 mg/dl or higher, if a fruity odor is detected in the breath, if abdominal pain is present, if nausea or vomiting is occurring, or if you are breathing rapidly and short of breath. If a moderate or large amount of ketones are detected on the test strip, ketoacidosis is present and immediate treatment is required. Symptoms for hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome are linked to dehydration rather than acidosis, so a fruity odor to the breath and stomach upset are less likely. How To Detect Ketones During any illness, especially when it is severe and any time the stomach becomes upset, ketone Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious problem that can occur in people with diabetes if their body starts to run out of insulin. This causes harmful substances called ketones to build up in the body, which can be life-threatening if not spotted and treated quickly. DKA mainly affects people with type 1 diabetes, but can sometimes occur in people with type 2 diabetes. If you have diabetes, it's important to be aware of the risk and know what to do if DKA occurs. Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis Signs of DKA include: needing to pee more than usual being sick breath that smells fruity (like pear drop sweets or nail varnish) deep or fast breathing feeling very tired or sleepy passing out DKA can also cause high blood sugar (hyperglycaemia) and a high level of ketones in your blood or urine, which you can check for using home-testing kits. Symptoms usually develop over 24 hours, but can come on faster. Check your blood sugar and ketone levels Check your blood sugar level if you have symptoms of DKA. If your blood sugar is 11mmol/L or over and you have a blood or urine ketone testing kit, check your ketone level. If you do a blood ketone test: lower than 0.6mmol/L is a normal reading 0.6 to 1.5mmol/L means you're at a slightly increased risk of DKA and should test again in a couple of hours 1.6 to 2.9mmol/L means you're at an increased risk of DKA and should contact your diabetes team or GP as soon as possible 3mmol/L or over means you have a very high risk of DKA and should get medical help immediately If you do a urine ketone test, a result of more than 2+ means there's a high chance you have DKA. When to get medical help Go to your nearest accident and emergency (A&E) department straight away if you think you have DKA, especially if you have a high level of ketones in Continue reading >>

The Emedicinehealth Doctors Ask About Diabetic Ketoacidosis:

The Emedicinehealth Doctors Ask About Diabetic Ketoacidosis:

A A A Diabetic Ketoacidosis (cont.) A person developing diabetic ketoacidosis may have one or more of these symptoms: excessive thirst or drinking lots of fluid, frequent urination, general weakness, vomiting, loss of appetite, confusion, abdominal pain, shortness of breath, a generally ill appearance, increased heart rate, low blood pressure, increased rate of breathing, and a distinctive fruity odor on the breath. If you have any form of diabetes, contact your doctor when you have very high blood sugars (generally more than 350 mg) or moderate elevations that do not respond to home treatment. At initial diagnosis your doctor should have provided you with specific rules for dosing your medication(s) and for checking your urinary ketone level whenever you become ill. If not, ask your health care practitioner to provide such "sick day rules." If you have diabetes and start vomiting, seek immediate medical attention. If you have diabetes and develop a fever, contact your health care practitioner. If you feel sick, check your urinary ketone levels with home test strips. If your urinary ketones are moderate or higher, contact your health care practitioner. People with diabetes should be taken to a hospital's emergency department if they appear significantly ill, dehydrated, confused, or very weak. Other reasons to seek immediate medical treatment include shortness of breath, chest pain, severe abdominal pain with vomiting, or high fever (above 101 F or 38.3 C). Continue Reading A A A Diabetic Ketoacidosis (cont.) The diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis is typically made after the health care practitioner obtains a history, performs a physical examination, and reviews the laboratory tests. Blood tests will be ordered to document the levels of sugar, potassium, sodium, and oth Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

DKA; Ketoacidosis; Diabetes - ketoacidosis Diabetic ketoacidosis is a life-threatening problem that affects people with diabetes. It occurs when the body cannot use sugar (glucose) as a fuel source because there is no insulin or not enough insulin. Fat is used for fuel instead. When fat is broken down to fuel the body, chemicals called ketones build up in the body. Causes As fat is broken down, acids called ketones build up in the blood and urine. In high levels, ketones are poisonous. This condition is known as ketoacidosis. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is sometimes the first sign of type 1 diabetes in people who have not yet been diagnosed. It can also occur in someone who has already been diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. Infection, injury, a serious illness, missing doses of insulin shots, or surgery can lead to DKA in people with type 1 diabetes. People with type 2 diabetes can also develop DKA, but it is less common. It is usually triggered by uncontrolled blood sugar, missing doses of medicines, or a severe illness. Symptoms Common symptoms can include: Dry skin and mouth Flushed face Fruity-smelling breath Headache Exams and Tests Ketone testing may be used in type 1 diabetes to screen for early ketoacidosis. The ketones test is usually done using a urine sample or a blood sample. Ketone testing is usually done when DKA is suspected: Most often, urine testing is done first. If the urine is positive for ketones, most often beta-hydroxybutyrate is measured in the blood. This is the most common ketone measured. Other tests for ketoacidosis include: Basic metabolic panel, (a group of blood tests that measure your sodium and potassium levels, kidney function, and other chemicals and functions) Blood glucose test Blood pressure measurement Treatment The goal of treatment Continue reading >>

Why Dka & Nutritional Ketosis Are Not The Same

Why Dka & Nutritional Ketosis Are Not The Same

There’s a very common misconception and general misunderstanding around ketones. Specifically, the misunderstandings lie in the areas of: ketones that are produced in low-carb diets of generally less than 50 grams of carbs per day, which is low enough to put a person in a state of “nutritional ketosis” ketones that are produced when a diabetic is in a state of “diabetic ketoacidosis” (DKA) and lastly, there are “starvation ketones” and “illness-induced ketones” The fact is they are very different. DKA is a dangerous state of ketosis that can easily land a diabetic in the hospital and is life-threatening. Meanwhile, “nutritional ketosis” is the result of a nutritional approach that both non-diabetics and diabetics can safely achieve through low-carb nutrition. Diabetic Ketoacidosis vs. Nutritional Ketosis Ryan Attar (soon to be Ryan Attar, ND) helps explain the science and actual human physiology behind these different types of ketone production. Ryan is currently studying to become a Doctor of Naturopathic Medicine in Connecticut and also pursuing a Masters Degree in Human Nutrition. He has interned under the supervision of the very well-known diabetes doc, Dr. Bernstein. Ryan explains: Diabetic Ketoacidosis: “Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA), is a very dangerous state where an individual with uncontrolled diabetes is effectively starving due to lack of insulin. Insulin brings glucose into our cells and without it the body switches to ketones. Our brain can function off either glucose or fat and ketones. Ketones are a breakdown of fat and amino acids that can travel through the blood to various tissues to be utilized for fuel.” “In normal individuals, or those with well controlled diabetes, insulin acts to cancel the feedback loop and slow and sto Continue reading >>

Diabetes With Ketone Bodies In Dogs

Diabetes With Ketone Bodies In Dogs

Studies show that female dogs (particularly non-spayed) are more prone to DKA, as are older canines. Diabetic ketoacidosis is best classified through the presence of ketones that exist in the liver, which are directly correlated to the lack of insulin being produced in the body. This is a very serious complication, requiring immediate veterinary intervention. Although a number of dogs can be affected mildly, the majority are very ill. Some dogs will not recover despite treatment, and concurrent disease has been documented in 70% of canines diagnosed with DKA. Diabetes with ketone bodies is also described in veterinary terms as diabetic ketoacidosis or DKA. It is a severe complication of diabetes mellitus. Excess ketone bodies result in acidosis and electrolyte abnormalities, which can lead to a crisis situation for your dog. If left in an untreated state, this condition can and will be fatal. Some dogs who are suffering from diabetic ketoacidosis may present as systemically well. Others will show severe illness. Symptoms may be seen as listed below: Change in appetite (either increase or decrease) Increased thirst Frequent urination Vomiting Abdominal pain Mental dullness Coughing Fatigue or weakness Weight loss Sometimes sweet smelling breath is evident Slow, deep respiration. There may also be other symptoms present that accompany diseases that can trigger DKA, such as hypothyroidism or Cushing’s disease. While some dogs may live fairly normal lives with this condition before it is diagnosed, most canines who become sick will do so within a week of the start of the illness. There are four influences that can bring on DKA: Fasting Insulin deficiency as a result of unknown and untreated diabetes, or insulin deficiency due to an underlying disease that in turn exacerba Continue reading >>

Ketones & Insulin Pumps

Ketones & Insulin Pumps

Check for ketones if you have the following: There is a higher risk for developing ketones on pump therapy. This is because long-acting insulins are not used, and rapid-acting insulin is delivered in extremely small amounts. If this basal insulin delivery is interrupted for more than an hour, check your blood sugar and ketones. If you continue to not get insulin, blood glucose and ketone levels may increase into a dangerous range. See also Acute: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Insulin pump-related ketone buildup may be caused by: Site problem Air in tubing (resulting in missed insulin) Extended pump suspension or disconnection (for more than one to two hours) Pump malfunction Insulin leakage (at insertion site or infusion set connection site) Illness or infection Vomiting or dehydration Severe emotional stress “Spoiled” insulin Ketones checklist The presence of ketones while using an insulin pump can indicate a serious medical emergency. Check for ketones if you have: An unexplained elevation in your blood sugar Persistently elevated blood sugars Symptoms of nausea or vomiting This is because you want to be sure you are not developing diabetic ketoacidosis. Remember that ketoacidosis occurs more commonly in pump users. Here’s what you should do. Use the mnemonic KISS. K – Check for Ketones I – Give Insulin by Injection (using an insulin pen or syringe – not through the pump) S – Change the infusion Set S – Check blood Sugar If ketones are positive, you need to obtain emergency medical care. Treating ketones If you have elevated ketones, insulin replacement must be delivered via an injection with an insulin pen or insulin syringe instead of the pump because the pump or infusion set may be malfunctioning and causing ketones to develop. Remember! Ketoacidosis Continue reading >>

68..............................................................................................................................................................................navc Clinician’s Brief / April 2011 / Diagnostic Tree

68..............................................................................................................................................................................navc Clinician’s Brief / April 2011 / Diagnostic Tree

1. IV Isotonic Crystalloid Therapy • Shock fluid therapy is warranted if cardiovascular instability is present: Full shock dose of fluids is 90 mL/kg; start with ¼ to 1/3 dose and reassess until stable • Correct dehydration, provide maintenance needs, and replace ongoing losses over 6 to 24 hours: - % dehydration × body weight (kg) × 1000 plus - 20 mL/kg/day (insensible losses) plus - 20 to 40 mL/kg/day (maintenance sensible losses) plus - Account for vomiting, diarrhea, & polyuria (ongoing sensible losses) Alice Huang, VMD, & J. Catharine Scott-Moncrieff, Vet MB, MS, MA, Diplomate ACVIM & ECVIM Purdue University Canine Diabetic Ketoacidosis D i a gno s t i c Tre e / ENDOCRINOLOGY Peer Reviewed Physical Examination • Polyuria • Weight loss • Polydipsia • Vomiting • Polyphagia • Lethargy Patient may have only 1 or more of these signs. Laboratory Results • Blood glucose (BG): Hyperglycemia (> 200 mg/dL) • Blood gas (venous or arterial): Metabolic acidosis • Urine dipstick: Glucosuria; ketonuria or ketonemia Serum ketones can be measured if urine is unavailable. Diabetic Ketoacidosis Treatment 2. Electrolyte Supplementation (see Table 1, page 70) • Monitor serum potassium Q 4–6 H until within reference interval and stable; then Q 12–24 H • Monitor serum phosphorus Q 4–6 H until > 1.5; then Q 6–24 H • When supplementing potassium and phosphorus concurrently, take into account the amount of potassium contained in the potassium phosphate • Consider magnesium supplementation in instances of refractory hypokalemia 3. Regular Insulin • Continuous rate infusion (CRI) protocol:1 - Add 2.2 U/kg of regular insulin to 250 mL of 0.9% saline - Allow 50 Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis As First Presentation Of Latent Autoimmune Diabetes In Adult

Diabetic Ketoacidosis As First Presentation Of Latent Autoimmune Diabetes In Adult

Case Reports in Medicine Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 821397, 3 pages Internal Medicine Department, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Amarillo, TX 79106, USA Academic Editor: Christos D. Lionis Copyright © 2015 Omar Nadhem et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. A 54-year-old white female with hypothyroidism presented with abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. She was found to have diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and admitted to our hospital for treatment. Laboratory workup revealed positive antiglutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies and subsequently she was diagnosed with latent onset autoimmune diabetes in adult (LADA). She was successfully treated with insulin with clinical and laboratory improvement. Diagnosis of LADA has been based on three criteria as given by The Immunology of Diabetes Society: (1) adult age of onset (>30 years of age); (2) presence of at least one circulating autoantibody (GADA/ICA/IAA/IA-2); and (3) initial insulin independence for the first six months. The importance of this case is the unlikely presentation of LADA. We believe that more research is needed to determine the exact proportion of LADA patients who first present with DKA, since similar cases have only been seen in case reports. Adult patients who are obese and have high blood sugar may deserve screening for LADA, especially in the presence of other autoimmune diseases. Those patients once diagnosed with LADA need extensive diabetic education including potentially serious events such as diabetic ketoacidosis. 1. Introduction Latent autoimmune diabetes in adult (LADA) is an autoimm Continue reading >>

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