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Why Do You Get Dehydrated With Hyperglycemia?

Hyperglycemic Crises

Hyperglycemic Crises

What They Are and How to Avoid Them One type results in about 100,000 hospitalizations a year with a mortality rate of under 5%. The other is thought to cause fewer hospitalizations, yet the mortality rate is about 15%. Severe hyperglycemic conditions, known as diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS), involve very serious imbalances in blood chemistry and usually require that a person be hospitalized until normal blood chemistry is restored. Because they can occur in anyone with diabetes, everyone should know what causes them, how to prevent them, how they are treated, and when to seek medical attention. The body in balance Glucose metabolism is a complex balancing act. In people who don’t have diabetes, a number of interconnected processes help the body to use glucose and keep blood glucose levels in the normal range. The body constantly balances glucose extracted from foods and produced by the liver with glucose utilization by the body’s tissues. When there is ample glucose in the bloodstream, the liver converts some of it into glycogen for storage. When the body needs more energy, such as during a prolonged period of fasting or activity, the liver converts stored glycogen back into glucose so that it can be used by the body’s tissues. The liver also can create glucose from amino acids and fats. Insulin lowers blood glucose levels both by slowing down the liver’s glucose production and by helping the body’s tissues to use glucose for energy. If the blood glucose level goes too low, other hormones, called counterregulatory hormones, work against the action of insulin to raise blood glucose levels. These hormones include glucagon, epinephrine, growth hormone, and cortisol. All work by prodding the liver to release glucose and by Continue reading >>

Dehydration And Diabetes

Dehydration And Diabetes

Tweet People with diabetes have an increased risk of dehydration as high blood glucose levels lead to decreased hydration in the body. Diabetes insipidus, a form of diabetes that is not linked with high blood sugar levels, also carries a higher risk of dehydration. Symptoms of dehydration The symptoms of dehydration include: Thirst Headache Dry mouth and dry eyes Dizziness Tiredness Dark yellow coloured urine Symptoms of severe dehydration Low blood pressure Sunken eyes A weak pulse and/or rapid heartbeat Feeling confused Lethargy Causes and contributory factors of dehydration The following factors can contribute to dehydration. Having more of these factors present at one time can raise the risk of dehydration: Dehydration and blood glucose levels If our blood glucose levels are higher than they should be for prolonged periods of time, our kidneys will attempt to remove some of the excess glucose from the blood and excrete this as urine. Whilst the kidneys filter the blood in this way, water will also be removed from the blood and will need replenishing. This is why we tend to have increased thirst when our blood glucose levels run too high. If we drink water, we can help to rehydrate the blood. The other method the body uses is to draw on other available sources of water from within the body, such as saliva, tears and taking stored water from cells of the body. This is why we may experience a dry mouth and dry eyes when our blood glucose levels are high. If we do not have access to drink water, the body will find it difficult to pass glucose out of the blood via urine and can result in further dehydration as the body seeks to find water from our body's cells. Treating dehydration Dehydration can be treated by taking on board fluids. Water is ideal because it has no add Continue reading >>

Why Does Diabetes Cause Dry Skin?

Why Does Diabetes Cause Dry Skin?

It’s not so much that diabetes itself causes dry skin -- it’s the dehydration that results from poor blood sugar control. When your blood sugar level is high, that causes your body to lose fluid. In turn, that causes you to become dehydrated. The solution, of course, is to keep your blood sugar in check -- which you want to do for many other reasons besides dry skin. So, control your diabetes, and you can control your dry skin! [There are good tips here if you want to add more: Diabetes may dry your skin because having high sugar levels in your blood causes your body to lose fluid, including moisture from your skin. Also, nerve damage caused by diabetes may interfere with your ability to perspire normally, lessening the amount of moisture on your skin. Dry skin can crack and become more prone to infection. To help keep your skin moist, avoid very hot showers and baths, use mild cleansers and apply moisturizer to your skin while it is still damp. Examine your skin daily, and if you notice any signs of infection, such as red or sore spots, see your doctor. Dry skin is a complication of diabetes. It is caused by high blood glucose (high blood sugar) levels in the blood which zap moisture away from the tissues such as the skin. Another cause of dry skin for a diabetic is due to poor circulation. Poor circulation can cause the sweat glands to slow down or even shut down. Without sweat to cool the skin, the skin becomes dry. Continue reading >>

Blood Glucose And Dehydration

Blood Glucose And Dehydration

In the past, I assumed that the only association between diabetes and dehydration was that severe hyperglycemia (high blood glucose) would cause dehydration as one of the symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). However, over the years I’ve noticed the occasional unexpected high blood sugar when I was mildly dehydrated due to exercise without consuming enough water. I figured that was anecdotal and never gave it serious thought as a health issue worth pursuing. When I did consider the possibility, it seemed logical to me that since diabetics are told to drink water to help bring down high blood glucose, perhaps the absence of hydration would cause blood sugar to rise. Maybe? Last week summer came to San Diego in one hot wave We moved to northeast San Diego in April, so this was our first experience of the inland heat in our non-air-conditioned house. We’ve been sweaty and uncomfortable, especially while home most of the weekend. During this stint, I noticed my blood sugars were running high despite healthy eating, normal insulin doses, and plenty of activity. A nagging thought kept occurring to me, "Am I dehydrated?" I tend to be better about drinking water when I’m at work during the week, sitting at my desk. I certainly wasn’t drinking enough to maintain hydration during this hot spell. I got online and goggled, "dehydration and blood sugar" to see if I could locate information to confirm my suspicions. Oh, wonderful internet! I found dozens of articles and posts that explained that, in fact, dehydration can contribute to hyperglycemia. It’s actually pretty straightforward. Basically, when we’re dehydrated (even mildly) there is less liquid in our blood which means that the concentration of glucose (and other nutrients) is higher. As the heat and humidity Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia In Diabetes

Hyperglycemia In Diabetes

Print Overview High blood sugar (hyperglycemia) affects people who have diabetes. Several factors can contribute to hyperglycemia in people with diabetes, including food and physical activity choices, illness, nondiabetes medications, or skipping or not taking enough glucose-lowering medication. It's important to treat hyperglycemia, because if left untreated, hyperglycemia can become severe and lead to serious complications requiring emergency care, such as a diabetic coma. In the long term, persistent hyperglycemia, even if not severe, can lead to complications affecting your eyes, kidneys, nerves and heart. Symptoms Hyperglycemia doesn't cause symptoms until glucose values are significantly elevated — above 200 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL), or 11 millimoles per liter (mmol/L). Symptoms of hyperglycemia develop slowly over several days or weeks. The longer blood sugar levels stay high, the more serious the symptoms become. However, some people who've had type 2 diabetes for a long time may not show any symptoms despite elevated blood sugars. Early signs and symptoms Recognizing early symptoms of hyperglycemia can help you treat the condition promptly. Watch for: Frequent urination Increased thirst Blurred vision Fatigue Headache Later signs and symptoms If hyperglycemia goes untreated, it can cause toxic acids (ketones) to build up in your blood and urine (ketoacidosis). Signs and symptoms include: Fruity-smelling breath Nausea and vomiting Shortness of breath Dry mouth Weakness Confusion Coma Abdominal pain When to see a doctor Call 911 or emergency medical assistance if: You're sick and can't keep any food or fluids down, and Your blood glucose levels are persistently above 240 mg/dL (13 mmol/L) and you have ketones in your urine Make an appointment with your Continue reading >>

Original Article Hyperglycemia With Hyperosmalal Dehydration In Nondiabetic Infants

Original Article Hyperglycemia With Hyperosmalal Dehydration In Nondiabetic Infants

Hypernatremia with simultaneous hyperglycemia resulted in nonketotic hyperosmolal dehydration in 3 nondiabetic infants. Gastroenteritis was the precipitating illness. The hyperglycemia was transient but caused significant osmolal changes. Hyperglycemia was attributed to a stress reaction modified by the hypernatremia. Hydration alone appears to correct the hyperglycemia. Continue reading >>

5 Best Tips To Manage Diabetes When You’re Sick

5 Best Tips To Manage Diabetes When You’re Sick

Whether you are sick or are just getting older, there are times in life when you don’t feel much like eating. If you’re eating fewer calories because you’ve lost your appetite, you’ll probably need to pay closer attention to your blood sugars and adjust your diabetes medications. Here are some tips from the experts to help you manage your diabetes: 1. Stay hydrated You can easily get dehydrated if you have fever, vomiting or diarrhea. Your main risk from dehydration is hyperglycemia (high blood sugar). Taking certain cold medications, skipping diabetes medications and eating food erratically can also sometimes lead to high blood sugar. “When you’re ill, it’s very important to check your blood sugar regularly, continue to take medications on a schedule and drink fluids regularly,” says diabetes specialist Bartolome Burguera, MD. If your blood sugar goes over 250, check your urine for keytones, which are produced when your body has difficulty processing blood sugar, and call your doctor, Dr. Burguera says. 2. Change up your diet When you’re not able to eat as much as normal or don’t have an appetite, meal replacement drinks are often helpful. “Nutritional shakes formulated for people with diabetes have a moderate amount of carbohydrate, which is appropriate,” Dr. Burguera says. You can also make homemade meal-replacement shakes using: Frozen fruit A protein source (e.g., protein powder, Greek yogurt, peanut butter, tofu) Milk, soy milk or almond milk “Noodle soups are also typically well tolerated and the noodles offer carbohydrates, which may help prevent low blood sugars,” he says. 3. Create a sick-day tool kit Dr. Burguera suggests putting together a “sick-day diabetes tool kit” that includes things you can eat or drink when you aren’t Continue reading >>

Dizziness (dizzy)

Dizziness (dizzy)

Dizziness is a symptom that is often applies to a variety of sensations including lightheadedness and vertigo. Vertigo is the sensation of spinning, while lightheadedness is typically described as near fainting, and weakness. Some of the conditions that may cause lightheadedness in a patient include low blood pressure, high blood pressure, dehydration, medications, postural or orthostatic hypotension, diabetes, endocrine disorders, hyperventilation, heart conditions, and vasovagal syncope. Vertigo is most often caused by a problem in the balance centers of the inner ear called the vestibular system and causes the sensation of the room spinning. It may be associated with vomiting. Symptoms often are made worse with position changes. Those with significant symptoms and vomiting may need intravenous medication and hospitalization. Vertigo is also the presenting symptom in patients with Meniere's Disease and acoustic neuroma, conditions that often require referral to an ENT specialist. Vertigo may also be a symptom of stroke. Most often, dizziness or lightheadedness is a temporary situation that resolves spontaneously without a specific diagnosis being made. Introduction to dizziness (feeling dizzy) Dizziness is one of the most common symptoms that will prompt a person to seek medical care. The term dizziness is sometimes difficult to understand since it means different things to different people. It is either the sensation of feeling lightheaded as if the individual is weak and will pass out, or it describes vertigo or the sensation of spinning, as if the affected person just got off a merry-go-round. Lightheadedness is often caused by a decrease in blood supply to the brain, while vertigo may be caused by disturbances of the inner ear and the balance centers of the brain. Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Dehydration: A Dangerous Combination

Diabetes And Dehydration: A Dangerous Combination

When you experience vomiting, nausea, fever, diarrhea, or any form of infection, you should immediately contact your physician. I can’t really emphasize enough the importance of getting treatment and getting it fast. To drive home this point, I’ll share the following experience. Some years ago, I got a call from a woman at about four o’clock on a Sunday afternoon. She wasn’t my patient, but her diabetologist was out of town for the weekend with no backup for emergencies. He had never taught her what I teach my patients — the contents of this chapter. She found my Diabetes Center in the white pages of the phone book. She was alone with her toddler son and had been vomiting continuously since 9:00 a.m. She asked me what she could do. I told her that she must be so dehydrated that her only choice was to get to a hospital emergency room as fast as possible for intravenous fluid replacement. While she dropped off her son with her mother, I called the hospital and told them to expect her. I got a call 5 hours later from an attending physician. He had admitted her to the hospital because the emergency room couldn’t help her. Why not? Her kidneys had failed from dehydration. Fortunately, the hospital had a dialysis center, so they put her on dialysis and gave her intravenous fluids. Had dialysis not been available, she would likely have died. As it turned out, she spent five days in the hospital. Clearly, a dehydrating illness is not something to take lightly, not a reason to assume your doctor is going to think you’re a hypochondriac if you call every time you have one of the problems discussed in this chapter. This is something that could kill you, and you need prompt treatment. Why is it, then, that diabetics have a more serious time with dehydrating illness th Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia - Symptoms, Causes And Treatments

Hyperglycemia - Symptoms, Causes And Treatments

Hyperglycemia is a term referring to high blood glucose levels - the condition that often leads to a diagnosis of diabetes. High blood glucose levels are the defining feature of diabetes, but once the disease is diagnosed, hyperglycemia is a signal of poor control over the condition. Hyperglycemia is defined by certain high levels of blood glucose:1 Fasting levels greater than 7.0 mmol/L (126 mg/dL) Two-hours postprandial (after a meal) levels greater than 11.0 mmol/L (200 mg/dL). Chronic hyperglycemia usually leads to the development of diabetic complications.2 Symptoms of hyperglycemia The most common symptoms of diabetes itself are related to hyperglycemia - the classic symptoms of frequent urination and thirst.2,3 Typical signs and symptoms of hyperglycemia that has been confirmed by blood glucose measurement include:1,3,4 Thirst and hunger Dry mouth Frequent urination, particularly at night Tiredness Recurrent infections, such as thrush Weight loss Vision blurring. Causes of hyperglycemia Hyperglycemia often leads to the diagnosis of diabetes. For people already diagnosed and treated for diabetes, however, poor control over blood sugar levels leads to the condition. Causes of this include:1,3,4 Eating more or exercising less than usual Insufficient amount of insulin treatment (more commonly in cases of type 1 diabetes) Insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes Illness such as the flu Psychological and emotional stress The "dawn phenomenon" or "dawn effect" - an early morning hormone surge. The video below from Diabetes UK explains the dawn phenomenon and offers practical tips. Treatment and prevention of hyperglycemia Prevention of hyperglycemia for people with a diabetes diagnosis is a matter of good self-monitoring and management of blood glucose levels, including ad Continue reading >>

Diabetic Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Syndrome

Diabetic Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Syndrome

What is diabetic hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome? Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome (HHS) is a potentially life-threatening condition involving extremely high blood sugar, or glucose, levels. Any illness that causes dehydration or reduced insulin activity can lead to HHS. It’s most commonly a result of uncontrolled or undiagnosed diabetes. An illness or infection can trigger HHS. Failure to monitor and control blood glucose levels can also lead to HHS. When your blood sugar gets too high, the kidneys try to compensate by removing some of the excess glucose through urination. If you don’t drink enough fluids to replace the fluid you’re losing, your blood sugar levels spike. Your blood also becomes more concentrated. This can also occur if you drink too many sugary beverages. This condition is called hyperosmolarity. Blood that’s too concentrated begins to draw water out of other organs, including the brain. Some possible symptoms are excessive thirst, increased urination, and fever. Symptoms may develop slowly and increase over a period of days or weeks. Treatment involves reversing or preventing dehydration and getting blood glucose levels under control. Prompt treatment can relieve symptoms within a few hours. Untreated HHS can lead to life-threatening complications, including dehydration, shock, or coma. Go to an emergency room or call 911 if you have symptoms of HHS. This is a medical emergency. HHS can happen to anyone. It’s more common in older people who have type 2 diabetes. Symptoms may begin gradually and worsen over a few days or weeks. A high blood sugar level is a warning sign of HHS. The symptoms include: excessive thirst high urine output dry mouth weakness sleepiness a fever warm skin that doesn’t perspire nausea vomiting weight loss leg Continue reading >>

Nondiabetic Hyperglycemia

Nondiabetic Hyperglycemia

WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW: What is nondiabetic hyperglycemia? Nondiabetic hyperglycemia means your blood glucose (sugar) level is high even though you do not have diabetes. Hyperglycemia may happen suddenly during a major illness or injury. Instead, hyperglycemia may happen over a longer period of time and be caused by a chronic disease. Why is it important to manage hyperglycemia? Hyperglycemia can increase your risk for infections, prevent healing, and it make it hard to manage your condition. It is important to treat hyperglycemia to prevent these problems. Hyperglycemia that is not treated can damage your nerves, blood vessels, tissues, and organs. Damage to arteries may increase your risk for heart attack and stroke. Nerve damage may also lead to other heart, stomach, and nerve problems. What increases my risk for nondiabetic hyperglycemia? A medical condition such as Cushing syndrome or polycystic ovarian syndrome Surgery or trauma, such as a burn or injury Infections, such as pneumonia or a urinary tract infection Certain medicines, such as steroids or diuretics Nutrition given through a feeding tube or IV A family history of diabetes or gestational diabetes Obesity or a lack of physical activity What are the signs and symptoms of hyperglycemia? You may not have any signs or symptoms, or you may have any of the following: More thirst than usual Frequent urination Blurred vision Nausea and vomiting Abdominal pain How is nondiabetic hyperglycemia diagnosed and treated? Your healthcare provider will measure your blood sugar level with a blood test. You may be given insulin or other medicines to decrease your blood sugar level. How can I help prevent hyperglycemia? Exercise can help lower your blood sugar when it is high. It also can keep your blood sugar levels steady o Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia

Hyperglycemia

Instructor: Veronika Polozkova Masters in International Health. Lesson development experience on different levels from basic alimentary school to academic master level. Languages: English, Dutch, Russian Dehydration and hyperglycemia have an interesting cause and consequence relationship in which dehydration is both the contributor to and the symptom of hyperglycemia. Learn more about it and how to deal with this. Hyperglycemia is a health condition that can be characterized by high glucose levels in the blood. We also call it ''high blood sugar''. It can occur by itself, but in many cases hyperglycemia is a symptom of poorly managed diabetes. However, diabetes and hyperglycemia are not the same thing. Diabetes is a health condition that is diagnosed if several symptoms including hyperglycemia are available. Hyperglycemia is a health condition that can occur together with or independent from diabetes. Dehydration Dehydration is a condition in which the body shows symptoms of severely low fluid content. Low water intake is the most obvious cause of dehydration. But it can also have many other reasons, like underlying health conditions, exercise, and environmental factors. Dehydration can be treated with oral or injection fluids supply, depending on the severity of patients condition. Relationship between dehydration and hyperglycemia Dehydration in people with hypoglycemia deserves special attention, because it is one of the symptoms of hyperglycemia. As a reaction to over-saturated blood with glucose, our body requires more fluids to balance out the concentration and to flush out the excess glucose. That is why hyperglycemia often goes hand-in-hand with thirst. If severe dehydration occurs in people with hyperglycemia, a life threatening condition called hyperosmolar hy Continue reading >>

Diabetes With Coma In Dogs

Diabetes With Coma In Dogs

Diabetes Mellitus with Hyperosmolar Coma in Dogs The pancreas is an organ located in the abdomen, near the stomach. Under normal circumstances, the pancreas makes insulin, a polypeptide hormone that helps to control blood sugar (glucose) levels in the body. When a dog eats food, its blood sugar rises in accordance with the sugars in the food (whether they are natural sugars or not). The pancreas then makes insulin to lower the blood sugar levels to a healthy level. In this way, the other organs in the body are able to absorb and use this sugar for energy. In the case of diabetes mellitus, the pancreas is not capable of making enough insulin. When this happens, the blood sugar level remains too high, a condition defined as hyperglycemia. A dog's body responds to high blood sugar in several ways. First, extra urine is produced , causing the dog to urinate more frequently than usual. Because it is urinating a lot more, it will drink a lot more water, too. Eventually, your dog will be at risk for becoming dehydrated because of the excess urination. Because insulin helps the body to use sugar for energy, lack of insulin also means that the body’s organs will not receive enough energy. This will make your dog feel hungry all the time, and though it will be eating a lot more food, it will not gain weight. If the diabetic condition is not treated early, your dog's blood sugar level will go higher and higher. Because of the excessively elevated glucose level, even more urine will be made and the dog will become dehydrated due to the loss of fluid. This combination of very high blood sugar and dehydration will eventually affect the brain's ability to function normally, leading to depression, seizures and coma. It is rare, however, since symptoms will often warrant a visit to th Continue reading >>

Why Does Diabetes Cause Excessive Thirst?

Why Does Diabetes Cause Excessive Thirst?

7 0 We’ve written before about the signs and symptoms of diabetes. While there are a lot of sources about what symptoms diabetes causes, and even some good information about why they’re bad for you, what you don’t often get are the “whys”. And while the “whys” aren’t necessarily critical for your long-term health, they can help you to understand what’s going on with your body and why it acts the way it does. That, in turn, can help with acceptance and understanding of how to better treat the symptoms, which in turn can help you stay on a good diabetes management regimen. In short, you don’t NEED to know why diabetes causes excessive thirst, but knowing the mechanism behind it can make your blood glucose control regimen make more sense and help you stick to it. So why DOES diabetes cause thirst? First, we’d like to start by saying that excessive thirst is not a good indicator of diabetes. For many people, the symptom creeps up so slowly that it’s almost impossible to determine if your thirst has noticeably increased (unless you keep a spreadsheet of how much water you drink, in which case you also probably get tested pretty regularly anyway). It’s also a common enough symptom that a sudden increase in thirst can mean almost anything. Some conditions that cause thirst increases include allergies, the flu, the common cold, almost anything that causes a fever, and dehydration caused by vomiting or diarrhea. So while excessive thirst is one of those diabetes symptoms that happens, and needs to be addressed, it’s not always a great sign that you should immediately go out and get an A1C test. Why does diabetes cause thirst? Excessive thirst, when linked to another condition as a symptom or comorbidity, is called polydipsia. It’s usually one of the Continue reading >>

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