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Why Do Cows Get Ketosis

Ketosis

Ketosis

Not to be confused with Ketoacidosis. Ketosis is a metabolic state in which some of the body's energy supply comes from ketone bodies in the blood, in contrast to a state of glycolysis in which blood glucose provides energy. Ketosis is a result of metabolizing fat to provide energy. Ketosis is a nutritional process characterised by serum concentrations of ketone bodies over 0.5 mM, with low and stable levels of insulin and blood glucose.[1][2] It is almost always generalized with hyperketonemia, that is, an elevated level of ketone bodies in the blood throughout the body. Ketone bodies are formed by ketogenesis when liver glycogen stores are depleted (or from metabolising medium-chain triglycerides[3]). The main ketone bodies used for energy are acetoacetate and β-hydroxybutyrate,[4] and the levels of ketone bodies are regulated mainly by insulin and glucagon.[5] Most cells in the body can use both glucose and ketone bodies for fuel, and during ketosis, free fatty acids and glucose synthesis (gluconeogenesis) fuel the remainder. Longer-term ketosis may result from fasting or staying on a low-carbohydrate diet (ketogenic diet), and deliberately induced ketosis serves as a medical intervention for various conditions, such as intractable epilepsy, and the various types of diabetes.[6] In glycolysis, higher levels of insulin promote storage of body fat and block release of fat from adipose tissues, while in ketosis, fat reserves are readily released and consumed.[5][7] For this reason, ketosis is sometimes referred to as the body's "fat burning" mode.[8] Ketosis and ketoacidosis are similar, but ketoacidosis is an acute life-threatening state requiring prompt medical intervention while ketosis can be physiological. However, there are situations (such as treatment-resistant Continue reading >>

Test For, Treat Ketosis Early In Dairy Cattle

Test For, Treat Ketosis Early In Dairy Cattle

Years ago, I would lean over the feed bunk and smell the breath of a ketosis-suspect dairy cow. It convinced me that it had either bad breath or glue (acetone) breathing ketosis. Since then, I’ve come a long way. Dairy nutritionists like myself and dairy producers now have access to modern BHB (Beta-hydroxybutyrate) milk tests through regular Canwest DHI testing or from on-farm keto-testing kits. By detecting ketosis in problematic cows and implementing strong transition cow-feeding and management programs, we should be able to reduce early lactation ketosis, which is detrimental to long-term dairy cow health and performance. Don’t ignore it Ignoring a ketosis cow doesn’t solve the problem, either. Untreated clinical ketosis include a rapid drop in body condition, loss of appetite, decreased milk production, and yes, acetone-smelling breath. Most veterinarians will tell us that such clinical ketosis is relatively rare in dairy cows with the majority of ketosis symptoms in afflicted cows being hidden or subclinical in nature. Rather, these latter cows will suffer from a higher incidence of displaced abomasums, retained placentas, mastitis, or weaken immune system. Subclinical ketosis has also been linked to milk fever and reproductive problems. Cows with subclinical ketosis lose about 25 per cent of their potential milk production per lactation. Early lactation cows are the most vulnerable to either type of ketosis because, by nature, they cannot meet all their energy requirements of maintenance and high milk production from just their diet. Therefore they are drawn into a state of “negative energy balance” (NEB) for about five to six weeks after calving. Even well-transitioned cows experience a period of NEB, but they tend to have good post-partum dry matter i Continue reading >>

Happy Cows ~ Quality Milk ~ Healthy People

Happy Cows ~ Quality Milk ~ Healthy People

Ketosis is an elevated level of ketones in the blood associated with a negative energy balance that occurs in most cows during the early stages of their lactation (2-6 weeks into lactation, most cows get ketosis around week 3 after freshening) and occasionally mid-late lactation cows. What to look for with ketosis: Signs of ketosis include a decreased intake of dry matter, loss of body condition, decreased milk production, the cow acting nervous, and breath that smells sickly sweet like acetone. Why is ketosis bad? Ketosis can kill a cow by essentially poisoning her body if not treated. Less dramatic problems include long-term decreased production, unhealthy quality of milk, inability to maintain and store vital nutrients to her body for long term health, and can cause reproductive issues. Ketosis can create fatty liver syndrome which causes a number of problems such as decreased fertility, decreased liver function, and sometimes death. Testing for ketosis: To know if your cow has ketosis, you can buy Ketostix strips. Collect a small sample of urine into a sterile cup and dip a strip into the urine. Read package directions to determine if your cow tests positive for ketosis. A blood test can also be done and is more accurate, but the strips provide a quick easy test. If a cow tests positive, ask your vet about getting a milk test done, as a positive test in the milk would indicate enough problem to warrant treatment. An elevated temperature would indicate another problem, as ketosis alone should not change body temperature. What causes ketosis? Consumption of silage that contains butyric acid can cross the rumen wall to the liver. Production of ketones in the liver. Milk production requires a large amount of glucose. By the second day after calving, a cow’s requiremen Continue reading >>

Farming: Why Are Most Cows Fed Corn Instead Of Grass?

Farming: Why Are Most Cows Fed Corn Instead Of Grass?

Most cows are not fed corn. As a matter of fact most cattle aren't even on a high-grain diet for most, if not all, of their lives. Most cattle are actually grass-fed. Just not grass-finished. There's around 89 million beef cattle in the US, 9.3 million dairy cattle and 12.1 million cattle currently in the feedlot being finished (that according to USDA statistics from July 1, 2015). The 89 million beef cattle are breeding cattle: Beef cows, replacement heifers, and bulls. The 9.3 million dairy cattle are primarily dairy cows used in milk production. And the 12.1 million cattle and calves in the feedlot are both beef and dairy of various ages. Now, look at the 89 million number again. That's 95% of the total cattle herd inventory of the United States (which is currently sitting at 93.4 million cattle). That equates to "most cows/cattle." And what most people don't know (nor have most acknowledged here, except for one) is that those 89 million cattle are grass or forage-fed. That means that those cattle are on pasture or range from spring until fall and fed hay in the winter. They are being fed and eating grass and forbs on either an extensive or intensive (all depending on grazing management, most operations choose an extensive to a happy medium between extensive and intensive) grazing system. Corn or other grains are optional, and only fed when and if the animals need it if feed supplies are low and straw is only to be fed (cattle can do quite well on straw if supplemented with grain for added carbohydrate and protein) but never as a main constituent of their diet. Certainly not like finisher or dairy cattle. The other interesting thing most people miss is that cattle in the feedlot have not been raised in the feedlot. Most cattle, which are largely beef with only maybe Continue reading >>

Sudden Drops In Milk Production

Sudden Drops In Milk Production

This page contains information about conditions that may cause sudden drop in milk production. Many conditions affecting sudden drop in milk production do not have obvious clinical signs. Continue reading >>

Ketosis (acetonaemia)

Ketosis (acetonaemia)

General information Ketosis in cattle is associated with an inadequate supply of the nutrients necessary for the normal carbohydrate and fat metabolism that is seen mainly in times of high milk production in early lactation. The excessive ketone bodies in the bloodstream come from the breakdown of fat when the animal is forced to draw on its bodily reserves for energy. Although the metabolism of body fat provides energy for cows, the nervous system is dependent on glucose, and the ketones produced as a result of excessive fat metabolism can have toxic effects. The excess ketone bodies are eliminated in the urine, milk and breath of the animal. Overview Cause Ketosis may develop from poor diet or periods of stress such as cold, wet weather. It may also affect apparently well-fed cows producing very large volumes of milk. In pasture-fed cows the condition is usually seen when the grass is drying off and green feed is scarce. The disease is relatively common in lactating cows in Australia but often goes unnoticed in its mild forms. The mortality rate in affected cattle is low and spontaneous recoveries occur in many cases. The disease is usually seen in early lactation (within the first 2 months after calving) and may cause significant production losses. Five types of the disease are recognised: Primary underfeeding or starvation ketosis - feed quality inadequate. Secondary underfeeding ketosis - inadequate feed intake due to another disease or condition. Ketogenic or alimentary ketosis - from feeds high in ketogenic material. Ketosis due to a specific nutritional deficiency - cobalt and possibly phosphorus deficiency have been suspected as causes. Spontaneous ketosis - where causes are not able to be established. Predisposing factors Age - cows of any age may be affected Continue reading >>

Ketosis And Fatty Liver

Ketosis And Fatty Liver

Mary Beth de Ondarza, Ph.D., Technical Services Nutritionist F.A.R.M.E. Institute, Homer, NY What Is Ketosis? Ketosis is caused by the incomplete metabolism of body fat which has been mobilized to supply energy demands. The characteristics of ketosis include: reduced milk yield, loss of body weight, loss of appetite, and occasionally, signs of nervousness. Sometimes these signs are clearly recognized (clinical) but, often, they are not easily seen (subclinical). By nature of their high energy demands, most of today's high-producing dairy cows experience some sub-clinical ketosis during the first 5 to 7 weeks of their lactation. In general, fatter cows (BCS > 3.75) will experience more ketosis. A Little Biochemistry...... In the rumen, grains are generally broken down by the microbes to form propionate. Fiber is mostly converted to acetate or butyrate. All three of these volatile fatty acids are absorbed through the rumen wall and transported to the liver. Propionate is used by the liver to make glucose. Glucose is used by the cow to make lactose, the sugar in milk. For this reason, total milk production is very closely related to the total glucose supply at the udder. Propionate's second function involves the cow's fat metabolism. When the cow's energy demands for milk production exceed the amount of energy she is eating, she begins to break down some of her body fat stores. Fats are first broken down into smaller pieces, called non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA's), and carried to the liver. At the liver, they are broken down to form acetate and through this process, energy is generated. Acetate must then be broken down to carbon dioxide and water to yield more energy, however, this process requires some propionate. If there is not enough propionate available (which is o Continue reading >>

Ketosis

Ketosis

Ketosis is a metabolic disease that occurs when the cow is in severe state of negative energy balance. In this state, the cow mobilises large quantities of body fat but cannot convert this to energy through the usual pathways. Instead, ketone bodies are produced which in small amounts can be used by the cow for energy. However, when ketone production is high, the cow cannot use all the ketone bodies for energy and ketone levels increase in the blood. When this occurs the cow may suffer from ketosis. Types of Ketosis Type 1 ketosis is a result of a sudden drop in energy intake. This can be due to underfeeding or adverse weather events (e.g. snow storms) that prevent the cows from eating sufficient amounts of dry matter. Type 2 ketosis generally occurs post-calving, when the cow is mobilising excess body fat to meet the demands of milk production. Cows that are too fat at calving (BCS > 5) or cows that have been overfed pre-calving are particularly at risk. Silage ketosis is due to cows ingesting poor quality silage. The silage undergoes a secondary fermentation and when ingested will increase the risk of ketosis. Symptoms Ketosis can be displayed in two ways: Wasting form Lethargy (head down, lack of energy) Decreased dry matter intake Decreased milk production Often a sweet smell on the breath (acetone) Nervous form Excitable, uncoordinated and can become aggressive Strange behaviour such as eating soil, licking fence posts and gates, walking in circles, or standing with heads raised up and pushed into a corner etc. If a cow shows signs of ketosis seek advice from your veterinarian Prevention It is important to prevent ketosis from occurring, rather than treating cases as they appear. Prevention depends on adequate feeding and management of body condition score (BCS). E Continue reading >>

Preventive Strategies For Ketosis

Preventive Strategies For Ketosis

Parturition and the onset of lactation challenges calcium and energy homeostasis in dairy cows predisposing them to periparturient disorders that affect health, production and reproductive performance says Carlos Risco, DVM, Dipl. ACT, University of Florida. Dairy cattle experience a negative carbohydrate balance, from -3 weeks and + 3 weeks from calving and are at risk to develop ketosis, Risco explained at the 2010 Western Veterinary Conference. Milk production, in particular, drives the high requirements for glucose because other fuels cannot substitute for lactose in milk. To counteract this, the cow mobilizes body fat and protein stores in the form of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and amino acids. This promotes gluconeogenesis and occurs under the influence of low serum concentrations of insulin. Volatile fatty acids (acetate, propionate, butyrate [BHBA]) produced in the rumen are also presented to the liver as fuels. Acetate and butyrate are ketogenic, and propionate is glycogenic. The key to prevention of ketosis is to maximize dry matter intake before and after calving to prevent excessive NEFA mobilization. Preventing ketosis in the first place is key to avoid some post-partum issues. Risco outlined some preventive strategies: The transition ration. To prevent ketosis the transition ration should maximize DMI, provide adequate energy density, and minimize ketogenic precursors. Silage with a high butyric acid content should not be fed. Introduce ration changes gradually. Manage transition cows to maximize DMI, e.g., provide adequate bunk space. Avoid over-conditioning of cows in late lactation and the early dry period. Niacin (nicotinic acid) fed in transition rations at 6–12 g /d may help reduce blood ketone levels. Propylene glycol may be administered pr Continue reading >>

Ketosis: Understanding The Biology

Ketosis: Understanding The Biology

The transition to lactation period is the most challenging period in the dairy cow life cycle, specifically in terms of metabolic disorders. Cows with ketosis produce less milk, are more likely to develop a displaced abomasum, and are more likely to be culled from the herd. As with many disorders, ketosis has been historically separated into either clinical ketosis (hyperketonemia with clinical signs) or sub-clinical ketosis (hyperketonemia without clinical signs). Incidence of sub-clinical ketosis ranges from 40 to 60% of cows while clinical ketosis occurs in 2 to 15% of cows. It has been demonstrated that sub-clinical ketosis is just as costly and detrimental to animal health as clinical ketosis, largely because it can go undetected without active testing and management protocols. Each case of hyperketonemia costs approximately $361 and 247 for first calf heifers and cows, respectively. Treatment and Detection Methods Intravenous Dextrose Historically, ketosis has been most commonly treated with intravenous dextrose. However, this treatment may not be ideal. The dose of glucose typically administered (500 mL of 50% dextrose) increases blood glucose concentrations 8 times the normal concentration immediately after administration; blood glucose then returns to pretreatment concentrations within 2 h (Sakai et al., 1996). This elevation in blood glucose initiates a regulatory cascade that begins with a 12-fold increase in insulin concentration and ends with downregulation of liver glucose production, decreased mobilization of fat stores, and decreased oxidation of mobilized NEFA within the liver. Glucose not transported into the cell during this insulin peak is excreted through the kidneys adding a risk of electrolyte imbalance. High glucose concentrations have also been Continue reading >>

Identification Of Novel Pathways In Pathogenesis Of Ketosis In Dairy Cows Via Itraq/ms

Identification Of Novel Pathways In Pathogenesis Of Ketosis In Dairy Cows Via Itraq/ms

Introduction: To identify novel pathways involved in the pathogenesis of ketosis, an isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation/mass spectrometry was used to define differences in protein expression profiles between healthy dairy cows and those with clinical or subclinical ketosis. Material and Methods: To define the novel pathways of ketosis in cattle, the differences in protein expression were analysed by bioinformatics. Go Ontology and Pathway analysis were carried out for enrich the role and pathway of the different expression proteins between healthy dairy cows and those with clinical or subclinical ketosis. Results: Differences were identified in 19 proteins, 16 of which were relatively up-regulated while the remaining 3 were relatively down-regulated. Sorbitol dehydrogenase (SORD) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PD) were up-regulated in cattle with ketosis. SORD and G3PD promoted glycolysis. These mechanisms lead to pyruvic acid production increase and ketone body accumulation. Conclusion: The novel pathways of glycolysis provided new evidence for the research of ketosis. Continue reading >>

6;91.4 A 4:4'

6;91.4 A 4:4'

OIEGON sure tt.,. HIM .'"., OW. Coml. aad the U S. Cyan.. 1.4516),Nn Ketosis in Dairy Cows Prepared by D. E. ANDERSON and H. P. EWALT Extension Dairy Specialists, Oregon State University, Corvallis Ketosis, or acetonemia, might well be called a prob- lem of high production since prevention and control is more difficult with high milk production. Few animals are challenged to meet the metabolic demands that a high- producing dairy cow must adapt to during the early part of lactation. Common observations and experimental evidence show that cows may be in a negative balance for both protein and energy shortly after calving and for about the first 60 days of lactation. The following data on ketosis are taken from a summary of recent research published in the July 1968 issue of the Journal of Dairy Science. What Is Ketosis? Ketosis is a metabolic disorder in which something goes wrong with the normal body processes and the cow becomes sick. There are no inflammatory organisms involved and the condition is not contagious. There seems to be a situation where the cow is temporarily pro- ducing more milk and thus requiring more feed nutrients than her feed intake provides. Nature may attempt to correct this situation by using body reserves of fat. When this occurs, some intermediary products of fat metabolism, called "ketone bodies," may build up in the system. These can be detected in the milk and urine and are indications of how serious the condition may be. Ketosis may even develop in average-producing animals when the energy needs exceed the energy intake. Ketosis usually occurs more often in winter feed- ing, and three weeks after calving seems to be a very critical period for high-producing cows. Symptoms The first symptom of ketosis is a loss of appetite first for grain a Continue reading >>

Ketosis

Ketosis

Ketosis (Acetonemia, Ketonemia) is a common multifactorial disease resulting in downer cow syndrome in adult cattle worldwide[1]. Causes which predisposed to ketosis include: Ketosis is a common disease of dairy cows in early lactation caused by a negative energy balance that results in high concentrations of circulating nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) (acetone, acetoacetate, and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB)). This disease is usually associated with fatty liver. Clinical signs Clinically affected cattle shows signs of anorexia, reduced milk yield and may present as downer cows. Neurological signs of restlessness and ataxia may sometimes be noted. A sweet breath may be observed by an observant farmer or veterinarian. Diagnosis is based on presenting clinical signs supported by laboratory tests such as urinalysis and milk detection of ketones. During the first month of lactation, ratios of glycerophosphocholine:phosphocholine less than 2.5 in the milk indicate a high risk for developing ketosis[2]. Blood tests showing elevated NEFAs can assist diagnosis in more valuable cattle[3]. Bolus IV administration of 500 mL of 50% dextrose solution is a common therapy[4]. Glucocorticoids including dexamethasone or isoflupredone acetate at 5–20 mg/dose, IM, generally results in a more sustained response. Oral propylene glycol (250–400 g) may be effective as ketosis therapy[5]. Continue reading >>

Ketosis In Cattle Symptoms And Treatments

Ketosis In Cattle Symptoms And Treatments

Ketosis is a fairly common disease among adult cattle, although usually it occurs in dairy cattle.Ketosis typically occurs the first six weeks of parturition.It occurs in dairy cattle because of their inability to intake enough nutrients to meet their energy needs.This can lead to hypoglycemia which is a pathologic state produced by a lower than normal level of glucose.That in turn leads to the formation of ketone bodies from the body and fat stores. Although they are only broken down for energy to used by the heart and brain in the times of low glucose levels. Ketosis is not an immediate thing like many other illnesses, it gradually occurs. Some typical symptoms you will notice about your cattle if they have ketosis happen to be a decreased appetite,marked weight loss,decreased milk production,acetone odor of breath,nervousness, and hard, mucus covered feces. For confined cattle, usually decreased appetite is the first sign that they might have ketosis.Also if they are fed in components such as part forage, part grain, they will tend to go for the forage more than they will go for the grain.If you fed your cattle in herds, then usually you will see reduced milk production,lethargy and an somewhat “empty” appearing abdomen.When cattle are physically examined with having ketosis they may appear sightly dehydrated. Treatment for ketosis in cattle is more commonly done by IV administration of 500 ml of 50% dextrose solution. This treatment allows rapid recovery but the effects are often producing results beyond itself therefore relapses of ketosis are pretty common.Another treatment that can be used is the administration of glucocorticoids such as dexamethasone or isoflupredone acetate.You typically administer 5-20mg dose intra muscularly. This treatment often has good Continue reading >>

Overview Of Ketosis In Cattle

Overview Of Ketosis In Cattle

(Acetonemia, Ketonemia) By Thomas H. Herdt, DVM, MS, DACVN, DACVIM, Professor, Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences and Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal Health, Michigan State University Ketosis is a common disease of adult cattle. It typically occurs in dairy cows in early lactation and is most consistently characterized by partial anorexia and depression. Rarely, it occurs in cattle in late gestation, at which time it resembles pregnancy toxemia of ewes (see Pregnancy Toxemia in Ewes and Does). In addition to inappetence, signs of nervous dysfunction, including pica, abnormal licking, incoordination and abnormal gait, bellowing, and aggression, are occasionally seen. The condition is worldwide in distribution but is most common where dairy cows are bred and managed for high production. Etiology and Pathogenesis: The pathogenesis of bovine ketosis is incompletely understood, but it requires the combination of intense adipose mobilization and a high glucose demand. Both of these conditions are present in early lactation, at which time negative energy balance leads to adipose mobilization, and milk synthesis creates a high glucose demand. Adipose mobilization is accompanied by high blood serum concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs). During periods of intense gluconeogenesis, a large portion of serum NEFAs is directed to ketone body synthesis in the liver. Thus, the clinicopathologic characterization of ketosis includes high serum concentrations of NEFAs and ketone bodies and low concentrations of glucose. In contrast to many other species, cattle with hyperketonemia do not have concurrent acidemia. The serum ketone bodies are acetone, acetoacetate, and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB). There is speculation that the pathogenesis of ketosis cases oc Continue reading >>

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