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Why Do Cows Get Ketosis

Primary Ketosis In The High-producing Dairy Cow: Clinical And Subclinical Disorders, Treatment, Prevention, And Outlook.

Primary Ketosis In The High-producing Dairy Cow: Clinical And Subclinical Disorders, Treatment, Prevention, And Outlook.

Abstract Bovine ketosis typically occurs in early lactation. Clinical signs include diminished appetite, decreased milk production, loss of weight, hypoglycemia, and hyperketonemia. Susceptibility to ketosis is probably due to the combination of appetite limitation and a high degree of precedence given to the demand of the mammary gland for nutrients, in particular glucose. The precipitating cause is likely to be development of a marked imbalance between glucose supply and glucose requirement. This imbalance then leads to decreased carbohydrate status, decreased insulin secretion, increased fat mobilization, and increased hepatic ketogenesis. Hepatic ketogenesis may be augmented by the diminished carbohydrate status. The role of hormones other than insulin in the etiology of ketosis, although probably important, has not yet been elucidated satisfactorily. Treatment of ketosis involves increasing glucose supply relative to glucose demand. Incidence of clinical ketosis can be minimized by correct nutrition and management as outlined in recommended guidelines. Besides decreasing milk field, clinical ketosis may affect productivity adversely in other ways, for example, by impairing fertility. Subclinical ketosis is important because it may remain undetected and yet have effects on productivity which parallel those elicited by clinical ketosis. Future research should be directed toward understanding mechanisms conferring priority on milk production and regulating appetite. Continue reading >>

Ketosis

Ketosis

Not to be confused with Ketoacidosis. Ketosis is a metabolic state in which some of the body's energy supply comes from ketone bodies in the blood, in contrast to a state of glycolysis in which blood glucose provides energy. Ketosis is a result of metabolizing fat to provide energy. Ketosis is a nutritional process characterised by serum concentrations of ketone bodies over 0.5 mM, with low and stable levels of insulin and blood glucose.[1][2] It is almost always generalized with hyperketonemia, that is, an elevated level of ketone bodies in the blood throughout the body. Ketone bodies are formed by ketogenesis when liver glycogen stores are depleted (or from metabolising medium-chain triglycerides[3]). The main ketone bodies used for energy are acetoacetate and β-hydroxybutyrate,[4] and the levels of ketone bodies are regulated mainly by insulin and glucagon.[5] Most cells in the body can use both glucose and ketone bodies for fuel, and during ketosis, free fatty acids and glucose synthesis (gluconeogenesis) fuel the remainder. Longer-term ketosis may result from fasting or staying on a low-carbohydrate diet (ketogenic diet), and deliberately induced ketosis serves as a medical intervention for various conditions, such as intractable epilepsy, and the various types of diabetes.[6] In glycolysis, higher levels of insulin promote storage of body fat and block release of fat from adipose tissues, while in ketosis, fat reserves are readily released and consumed.[5][7] For this reason, ketosis is sometimes referred to as the body's "fat burning" mode.[8] Ketosis and ketoacidosis are similar, but ketoacidosis is an acute life-threatening state requiring prompt medical intervention while ketosis can be physiological. However, there are situations (such as treatment-resistant Continue reading >>

Cattle Diseases

Cattle Diseases

Ketosis Also known as: Acetonemia, Fat Cow Syndrome, Hypoglycemia and Pregnancy Toxemia. Primary ketosis, or acetonemia, is a metabolic disorder and is largely a disease that is influenced by management of dairy cows in early lactation. Ketosis is an important clinical and subclinical disease, as there are several metabolic disorders and diseases that commonly occur in the calving and the early lactation period that are linked to ketosis (including milk fever, retained foetal membranes and displaced abomasum). Hypoglycemia is the major factor involved in the onset and development of clinical ketosis. There is a gradual loss of body condition over several days or even weeks. There is also a moderate to marked decline in milk yield (up to 5 liters per day) over five to six days before the onset of obvious clinical signs (Edwards and Tozer, 2004). This can persist for up to two weeks after diagnosis (Rajala-Schultz et al., 1999). The disease is most commonly seen in high-yielding dairy cows in early lactation. Secondary ketosis due to lack of appetite as a result of another disease can be seen at any stage of lactation. Beef cows may also suffer from ketosis during pregnancy, although this is less commonly recognized. Primary ketosis in dairy cows To satisfy the requirements of milk production, the cow can draw on two sources of nutrients – feed intake and body reserves. During early lactation, the energy intake is insufficient to meet the energy output in milk and the animal is in a negative energy balance. In conventional farming, this is considered to be a normal metabolic situation in high-yielding dairy cows. Cows in early lactation are, therefore, in a vulnerable situation, and any stress that causes a reduction in feed intake may lead to the onset of clinical keto Continue reading >>

Why Are Cows Considered Holy Animals In Hinduism(sanatana Dharma)?

Why Are Cows Considered Holy Animals In Hinduism(sanatana Dharma)?

It is not just India that has a taboo on beef. Cows are greatly respected in Nepal and Burma too. People in the Vedic period were primarily pastoral. They relied on the cows for milk and dung. Cow dung is one of the main fuels in rural India and also served as a fertilizer. Cow dung and cow urine is also thought to be an disinfectant among ancient Indians and used to clean up home. Thus, cow provided the food, fuel, disinfectant and fertilizer for the Vedic people. Hindu scriptures have always considered milk as among the highest forms of food - Satvic. Cow's milk is believed to have a great calming effect and improves meditation. A product of cow's milk - ghee (clarified butter) - is used for Yajna (fire worship). Fire worship is the highest form prayer for Hindus. This adds religious significance to cow's products. Despite its big size, a cow is a calm animal and non-threatening - you could see cows quietly roaming Indian roads. Hindus have always appreciated the tolerance, patience and calmness of the cow. Thus, cows stood for the goodness of Hindu religion and considered a representative of Dharma. Also, a cow's affection to its calf is a beautiful thing and Vedas greatly appreciated this bonding. Sustainability: Ancient Indians probably ate meat when they wandered in the grasslands. However, as soon as they settled and the population near Ganges exploded, they saw the issues cropping. The key was water pollution from the slaughterhouses. Both the leather industry and slaughter industry hugely polluting industries and thus taboos quickly came. In some ways, cows for Indians are like the pets in the Western Culture. You don't see dog meat, cat meat or even horse meat in the US as these are the animals people have in their homes and form a special bonding with. For so Continue reading >>

New Tools Help Us Spot Ketotic Cows

New Tools Help Us Spot Ketotic Cows

The author is a dairy practitioner and owner/partner in Countryside Veterinary Clinic, Lowville, N.Y. When a cow's intake of energy does not meet her energy needs for maintenance and milk production, she begins to burn fat as an energy source. One common form of ketosis (Type I) occurs when a cow is in negative energy balance. She is not consuming enough energy to meet her metabolic needs. This generally occurs in early lactation when the cow's feed intake is unable to keep up with climbing milk production. When a cow's intake of energy does not meet her energy needs, she begins to burn fat as an energy source. The liver is the necessary organ to convert fat into usable energy (sugar). Think of the liver as a factory with an output limit. It can only convert so much fat into sugar. Once this pathway is overwhelmed, the liver produces ketones. Ketones can be used as an energy source, but they are much less efficient, and they cause the cow to feel sick. This becomes a downward spiral . . . the cow does not feel well, eats less, burns more fat, and makes more ketones. She now has clinical ketosis. Two other forms of ketosis can occur as a result of either "fat cow syndrome" or the consumption of forages high in butyric acid. "Fat cow" (or Type II) ketosis occurs when dry matter intake declines before freshening. This most commonly occurs in overconditioned cows but can also occur when dry matter intake is restricted to cows prior to freshening. This often is the result of overcrowding or improperly balanced prefresh rations. Cows with Type II ketosis are very difficult to manage and don't respond well to treatment. Butyric acid-induced ketosis is caused by the direct consumption of ketones in the diet. This causes poor dry matter intake and the obvious downward spiral as Continue reading >>

Ketosis And Fatty Liver

Ketosis And Fatty Liver

Mary Beth de Ondarza, Ph.D., Technical Services Nutritionist F.A.R.M.E. Institute, Homer, NY What Is Ketosis? Ketosis is caused by the incomplete metabolism of body fat which has been mobilized to supply energy demands. The characteristics of ketosis include: reduced milk yield, loss of body weight, loss of appetite, and occasionally, signs of nervousness. Sometimes these signs are clearly recognized (clinical) but, often, they are not easily seen (subclinical). By nature of their high energy demands, most of today's high-producing dairy cows experience some sub-clinical ketosis during the first 5 to 7 weeks of their lactation. In general, fatter cows (BCS > 3.75) will experience more ketosis. A Little Biochemistry...... In the rumen, grains are generally broken down by the microbes to form propionate. Fiber is mostly converted to acetate or butyrate. All three of these volatile fatty acids are absorbed through the rumen wall and transported to the liver. Propionate is used by the liver to make glucose. Glucose is used by the cow to make lactose, the sugar in milk. For this reason, total milk production is very closely related to the total glucose supply at the udder. Propionate's second function involves the cow's fat metabolism. When the cow's energy demands for milk production exceed the amount of energy she is eating, she begins to break down some of her body fat stores. Fats are first broken down into smaller pieces, called non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA's), and carried to the liver. At the liver, they are broken down to form acetate and through this process, energy is generated. Acetate must then be broken down to carbon dioxide and water to yield more energy, however, this process requires some propionate. If there is not enough propionate available (which is o Continue reading >>

Preventive Strategies For Ketosis

Preventive Strategies For Ketosis

Parturition and the onset of lactation challenges calcium and energy homeostasis in dairy cows predisposing them to periparturient disorders that affect health, production and reproductive performance says Carlos Risco, DVM, Dipl. ACT, University of Florida. Dairy cattle experience a negative carbohydrate balance, from -3 weeks and + 3 weeks from calving and are at risk to develop ketosis, Risco explained at the 2010 Western Veterinary Conference. Milk production, in particular, drives the high requirements for glucose because other fuels cannot substitute for lactose in milk. To counteract this, the cow mobilizes body fat and protein stores in the form of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and amino acids. This promotes gluconeogenesis and occurs under the influence of low serum concentrations of insulin. Volatile fatty acids (acetate, propionate, butyrate [BHBA]) produced in the rumen are also presented to the liver as fuels. Acetate and butyrate are ketogenic, and propionate is glycogenic. The key to prevention of ketosis is to maximize dry matter intake before and after calving to prevent excessive NEFA mobilization. Preventing ketosis in the first place is key to avoid some post-partum issues. Risco outlined some preventive strategies: The transition ration. To prevent ketosis the transition ration should maximize DMI, provide adequate energy density, and minimize ketogenic precursors. Silage with a high butyric acid content should not be fed. Introduce ration changes gradually. Manage transition cows to maximize DMI, e.g., provide adequate bunk space. Avoid over-conditioning of cows in late lactation and the early dry period. Niacin (nicotinic acid) fed in transition rations at 6–12 g /d may help reduce blood ketone levels. Propylene glycol may be administered pr Continue reading >>

Fresh Cow Ketosis Tests Pay Back Big

Fresh Cow Ketosis Tests Pay Back Big

A drop of blood is all that’s needed Editor’s note: This is the first of a six-part series on transition cow management that will run in 2015. When it comes to fresh cow health, an ounce of prevention can result in pounds more milk, fewer displaced abomasums (DAs) and less culling. All of it adds up to potentially thousands of dollars saved each year. And it all can be had with the use of a simple, easy-to-use blood test of cows in your fresh pen. Most dairy farmers, unless they routinely test for subclinical ketosis, are blissfully unaware of how prevalent the disease is in their herds. But work in New York and Wisconsin herds done by veterinarian researchers Jessica McArt, Cornell University, and Gary Oetzel, University of Wisconsin, suggest subclinical ketosis is challenging fresh cows through early transition. The study, done during the summer of 2010, involved 1,800 cows in four herds—two each in New York and Wisconsin. Nearly 45% of cows were subclincally ketotic during the first two weeks after calving. The good news is subclinical cows that were treated responded well, averaging 1.5 lb. more milk per day, had fewer DAs and were culled less frequently. For every 100 fresh cows tested twice between three and nine days in milk, the net economic return was roughly $1,200. What makes all this possible are easy-to-use test strips requiring just a drop of blood from the tail vein. A very small amount of blood is added to the end of the test strip and then read by a meter. The Cornell and Wisconsin vet-erinarians have found the Precision Xtra ketone meter from Abbott gives excellent results with no additional calibration needed from the human system. The meter measures whole blood beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA). A reading of 1.2 mmol/L or more indicates subclinical k Continue reading >>

Ketosis (acetonaemia)

Ketosis (acetonaemia)

General information Ketosis in cattle is associated with an inadequate supply of the nutrients necessary for the normal carbohydrate and fat metabolism that is seen mainly in times of high milk production in early lactation. The excessive ketone bodies in the bloodstream come from the breakdown of fat when the animal is forced to draw on its bodily reserves for energy. Although the metabolism of body fat provides energy for cows, the nervous system is dependent on glucose, and the ketones produced as a result of excessive fat metabolism can have toxic effects. The excess ketone bodies are eliminated in the urine, milk and breath of the animal. Overview Cause Ketosis may develop from poor diet or periods of stress such as cold, wet weather. It may also affect apparently well-fed cows producing very large volumes of milk. In pasture-fed cows the condition is usually seen when the grass is drying off and green feed is scarce. The disease is relatively common in lactating cows in Australia but often goes unnoticed in its mild forms. The mortality rate in affected cattle is low and spontaneous recoveries occur in many cases. The disease is usually seen in early lactation (within the first 2 months after calving) and may cause significant production losses. Five types of the disease are recognised: Primary underfeeding or starvation ketosis - feed quality inadequate. Secondary underfeeding ketosis - inadequate feed intake due to another disease or condition. Ketogenic or alimentary ketosis - from feeds high in ketogenic material. Ketosis due to a specific nutritional deficiency - cobalt and possibly phosphorus deficiency have been suspected as causes. Spontaneous ketosis - where causes are not able to be established. Predisposing factors Age - cows of any age may be affected Continue reading >>

250 Yearbook Of Agriculture 1956

250 Yearbook Of Agriculture 1956

To obtain best results in treatment, an adequate concentration of the drug must be maintained in the udder for a period of time. Best results are usually obtained when the drugs are administered once or twice daily over a period of 2 to 4 days, depending upon the causative agent and the nature of the case. Most staphylococcal infections must be treated longer than streptococcal infections. Clinical cases must be treated longer than cases not showing symptoms to produce a cure. Many of the antibiotics are available in various vehicles, such as ointments and water-in-oil emulsions, that are designed for infusion into the udder. The vehicles aid in maintaining an adequate therapeutic level of the anti- biotic in the udder for about 24 to 48 hours after i injection. Because anti- biotics can persist for several days in the udder, the milk from the treated cows should not be marketed during the period of treatment or for at least 72 hours after the last treatment. The antibiotics interfere with the growth of the bacteria necessary for the pro- duction of cheese. The drugs are administered by in- fusion into the infected quarter through the teat canal. First, though, the teat must be washed thoroughly and the teat orifice cleansed with a pledget of cotton wetted with alcohol. Because drugs do not cure all infec- tions caused by some of the bacteria and yeasts, the danger exists of intro- ducing these resistant micro-organisms into the udders while treating for another type of organism and of allow- ing a more severe form of mastitis to develop. Faulty technique in prepar- ing the teat for injection and contam- ination of the instruments, drug, or vehicle may be to blame. In treating acute mastitis, it is desir- able to have the drugs administered intravenously or intramuscula Continue reading >>

Why Doesn't Ketosis Work?

Why Doesn't Ketosis Work?

There is a reason why people who use ketosis to lose weight usually end up gaining the weight back. If the goal is to lose weight quickly, then yes, ketogenic diet will work for you! If the aim is to lose weight and keep it off without damaging hormones, then the ketogenic diet will fail you. I know, on paper it makes sense right? Cut out the carbohydrates, and the body is forced to burn fat as fuel. But, what’s going on behind the scenes when people deprive their bodies of carbohydrates for too long? Leptin Ghrelin Testosterone The big three hormones when it comes to weight loss and muscle building sink dramatically. Being sunken for a long time, the harder it becomes to regulate our hormones. Low carbohydrate combined with low calorie leads to drastically lower leptin levels when comparing to just a normal caloric deficit. As levels of leptin begin to decline more and more, the hunger levels humans experience will raise in parallel. Leptin also affects our muscles and thyroid hormones, and decreased quantities of it will stall our metabolism. All of the attribute to lower leptin levels causing weight gain. It also affects Adiponectin, which sends out glucose levels out of whack as well as fatty acid breakdown. Another hormone affected is Ghrelin by decreasing HGH output and increasing appetite artificially. I wrote an article “the holy grail of weight loss” that talks all about the ill effects of low carb diets. To summarize it: Once the body realizes fat is its primary/only source of energy, the body drives energy usage way down. The body cuts energy for all things, like creativity, concentration, metabolism to name the top sectors that get hit first. The body doesn't give a shit about your work or personal life; the body solely cares about having enough energy Continue reading >>

Ketosis In Cattle Symptoms And Treatments

Ketosis In Cattle Symptoms And Treatments

Ketosis is a fairly common disease among adult cattle, although usually it occurs in dairy cattle.Ketosis typically occurs the first six weeks of parturition.It occurs in dairy cattle because of their inability to intake enough nutrients to meet their energy needs.This can lead to hypoglycemia which is a pathologic state produced by a lower than normal level of glucose.That in turn leads to the formation of ketone bodies from the body and fat stores. Although they are only broken down for energy to used by the heart and brain in the times of low glucose levels. Ketosis is not an immediate thing like many other illnesses, it gradually occurs. Some typical symptoms you will notice about your cattle if they have ketosis happen to be a decreased appetite,marked weight loss,decreased milk production,acetone odor of breath,nervousness, and hard, mucus covered feces. For confined cattle, usually decreased appetite is the first sign that they might have ketosis.Also if they are fed in components such as part forage, part grain, they will tend to go for the forage more than they will go for the grain.If you fed your cattle in herds, then usually you will see reduced milk production,lethargy and an somewhat “empty” appearing abdomen.When cattle are physically examined with having ketosis they may appear sightly dehydrated. Treatment for ketosis in cattle is more commonly done by IV administration of 500 ml of 50% dextrose solution. This treatment allows rapid recovery but the effects are often producing results beyond itself therefore relapses of ketosis are pretty common.Another treatment that can be used is the administration of glucocorticoids such as dexamethasone or isoflupredone acetate.You typically administer 5-20mg dose intra muscularly. This treatment often has good Continue reading >>

A New Approach To Ketosis

A New Approach To Ketosis

By Knockanboy Vets Transition cow management is the crucial period for avoiding metabolic diseases in dairy cows. It is during this period, 3 weeks either side of calving, that the risk of diseases such as milk fever, ketosis, RFMs, endometritis, LDAs and cystic ovaries can either be reduced by good management or increased by sub-optimal management. Ketosis is one of the key diseases to avoid in this period as it is often the gateway disease to many of the other fresh cow conditions we see. For instance the risk of having an LDA increases by 8 fold with ketosis, metritis risk increases by 3 fold and the risk of cystic ovaries increases by 6 fold. Typically we don’t think of ketosis as a costly disease in its own right but when you see what the other health consequences and add in the lost milk production then the costs soon ramp up. Ketosis is also known as sweet breath, acetonaemia and nervous ketosis by vets and farmers. It is normal for cows to experience an energy gap in the period just after calving. This results in the cow mobilising her own body tissue reserves to fuel her milk production. Clinical ketosis is just the tip of the iceberg with many cases of sub clinical ketosis going undiagnosed. Blood, milk and urine are typically tested for ketosis. Treatment generally involves drenching with propylene glycol (which the cow can readily convert into glucose), addressing any concurrent diseases, and encouraging the cow’s appetite and metabolism using injectable steroids and good husbandry. We do however have a new product to help in the battle against ketosis, Kexxtone boluses from Elanco Animal Health. Kexxtone is a pulse release bolus containing monensin which is licenced in the UK to reduce the risk of ketosis in dairy cows around calving. The bolus encourag Continue reading >>

Nervous Form Of Ketosis In Cows And Its Treatment

Nervous Form Of Ketosis In Cows And Its Treatment

Ketosis is defined as an abnormal rise of the ketone or acetone bodies in the body. The ketone bodies are organic chemical compounds and include acetone, acetoacetic acid, and beta hydroxy butyric acid. Present study reports the primary nervous ketosis in three cows at their peak milk yield. Cows exhibited the bellowing, head pressing and reluctance to take concentrates. Low serum glucose, high levels of blood urea nitrogen with ketonuria was observed. Cows showed fruitful recovery after treatment with 25% glucose solution, dexamethasone and glycerin along with supportive therapy. Keywords: Cows, Dextrose, Ketosis, Nervous Signs. Ketosis is defined as an abnormal rise of the ketone or acetone bodies in the body. The ketone bodies are organic chemical compounds and include acetone, acetoacetic acid, and beta hydroxy butyric acid. Present study reports the primary nervous ketosis in three cows at their peak milk yield. Cows exhibited the bellowing, head pressing and reluctance to take concentrates. Low serum glucose, high levels of blood urea nitrogen with ketonuria was observed. Cows showed fruitful recovery after treatment with 25% glucose solution, dexamethasone and glycerin along with supportive therapy. Keywords: Cows, Dextrose, Ketosis, Nervous Signs. Continue reading >>

Ketosis

Ketosis

Ketosis (Acetonemia, Ketonemia) is a common multifactorial disease resulting in downer cow syndrome in adult cattle worldwide[1]. Causes which predisposed to ketosis include: Ketosis is a common disease of dairy cows in early lactation caused by a negative energy balance that results in high concentrations of circulating nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) (acetone, acetoacetate, and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB)). This disease is usually associated with fatty liver. Clinical signs Clinically affected cattle shows signs of anorexia, reduced milk yield and may present as downer cows. Neurological signs of restlessness and ataxia may sometimes be noted. A sweet breath may be observed by an observant farmer or veterinarian. Diagnosis is based on presenting clinical signs supported by laboratory tests such as urinalysis and milk detection of ketones. During the first month of lactation, ratios of glycerophosphocholine:phosphocholine less than 2.5 in the milk indicate a high risk for developing ketosis[2]. Blood tests showing elevated NEFAs can assist diagnosis in more valuable cattle[3]. Bolus IV administration of 500 mL of 50% dextrose solution is a common therapy[4]. Glucocorticoids including dexamethasone or isoflupredone acetate at 5–20 mg/dose, IM, generally results in a more sustained response. Oral propylene glycol (250–400 g) may be effective as ketosis therapy[5]. Continue reading >>

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