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Why Are Ketones Produced?

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http://armandoh.org/ Ketone body production from acetyl Coa and its use.

Ketone Body Production And Disposal In Diabetic Ketosis: A Comparison With Fasting Ketosis

This work compares the metabolism of total ketone bodies in 13 insulin-deprived, type I diabetic subjects and 26 control subjects fasted for 15 h to 23 days, with the two groups showing a similar range of ketone body levels (1–12 mM). Ketone turnover rate was measured using a primed, constant infusion of either 14C-acetoacetate or 14C-β-hydroxybutyrate, both tracers yielding comparable results. The major conclusions of this study are the following: the kinetics of ketone bodies are comparable in the two groups within the range of concentrations tested. The hyperketonemia of fasting and diabetes is primarily caused by an increased production of ketone bodies, but the phenomenon is amplified by a progressive limitation in the ability of tissues to remove ketones from blood as the concentration rises. The inverse relationship between the metabolic clearance and the plasma levels of ketones, which underlies this process, represents a general characteristic of ketone body metabolism that applies to both types of ketosis. A maximal metabolic disposal rate of about 2.3 mmol/min/1.73 m2 is attained in both groups at concentrations of 10–12 mM, which correspond to the highest ketone bo Continue reading >>

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  1. Binti1962

    Does it matter when to test blood ketones?

    Just received a new blood ketone meter and the strips are arriving today so I haven't used it yet. Does it matter when I test? There were no guidelines with the meter. Thanks!
    Binti
    Sent from my iPhone using Diabetes Daily

  2. jwags

    I bought a ketone meter several years ago. I would test in the mornings once or twice a week. The strips are very expensive. I finally gave up because my ketone level was always very low, even doing a Ketogenic diet.

  3. furball64801

    Are you on a ketogenic diet to see if you are burning fat. You can get urine sticks that would do about the same job and are cheaper. I used those 45 yrs ago before I became diabetic and lost 10 lbs but was only 170 at the time.

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Moof's Medical Biochemistry Video Course: http://moof-university.thinkific.com/... In this video, I detail the pathway of Ketone Body Synthesis, commonly known as Ketogenesis. Ketogenesis occurs in the mitochondrial matrix of hepatocytes (liver cells). The pathway begins with the condensation of two Acetyl-CoA molecules, forming an Acetoacetyl-CoA (catalyzed by Thiolase). The second step involves the condensation of another Acetyl-CoA molecule to form HMG-CoA (catalyzed by HMG-CoA Synthase). The third step is the cleavage of HMG-CoA, producing Acetoacetate (a ketone body), while releasing an Acetyl-CoA. Acetoacetate can 1) be decarboxylated (either spontaneous or enzymatically by Acetoacetate Decarboxylase) to yield Acetone (another ketone body) or 2) be reduced to D--Hydroxybutyrate by D--Hydroxybutyrate Dehydrogenase, requiring an NADH as a coenzyme. Its worth mentioning that this pathway does NOT occur to a great extent in healthy people under normal conditions. It happens to a very minimal extent, and very few ketone bodies are synthesized during normal physiology. For a suggested viewing order of the videos, information on tutoring, personalized video solutions, and an opportu

Regulation Of Ketone Body Production: Answer

What regulates ketone body synthesis? The primary regulator of ketone body synthesis is fatty acid availability. When hormonal conditions (e.g., high glucagon, low insulin) cause fatty acid concentration in the plasma to be high, malonyl CoA concentration in the liver cytoplasm is low (because acetyl CoA carboxylase is in the less active phosphorylated state). Fatty acyl CoA can enter the mitochondria at a high rate (because there is no inhibition of CAT I), and beta-oxidation proceeds at a high rate. The ensuing high mitochondrial concentration of acetyl CoA results in active ketone body synthesis. Continue reading >>

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  1. MikeCrazy

    So I'm getting into ketosis and have come across something that all new should know about...(if they don't already), the keto flu, so to speak. It feels like the flu and/or food poisoning, and can scare the willpower out of you, if you don't know what's going on. Let me explain:
    WARNING THIS COULD BE SLIGHTLY GRAPHIC - THOSE WITH SENSITIVE STOMACHS BE ADVISED
    I'm on day 12 of this diet, and last night I over exerted myself with some exercise. As a result, a mild feeling of nausea that had been subtly bugging me, turned into some quality time with my head hanging over the porcelain throne. I was like WTF is wrong with me? My gut hurt so bad that I almost considered going to the hospital, and my nausea was through the roof. This coming from a guy who was known for the "iron stomach," needless to say, had me very worried. Had I understood what was happening, and what would happen, while transitioning through what's called induction, I would have prepared better, and it wouldn't have been as bad, or maybe almost unnoticeable.
    Things to know:
    1 - Enzymes. Your body makes enzymes for the digestion of fat and starches/sugars, in your stomach. These enzymes are fairly specific, and if they are out of balance you can get a bit upset in there.
    2 - Fungal. Candida cultures (yeast) throughout our bodies, and especially in our gut, thrive on sugars. If you cut the sugar, they die in swaths leaving toxins behind. All those toxins, if not properly flushed, will cause gastronomic distress, a temporary increase in acne, and even cough, stuffiness, and nasty achy flu symptoms. Flushing is the key, leading to the next point:
    3 - Fluids. Not drinking enough water, and not getting the proper balance of electrolytes in your system, will allow a build up of all the toxins release from all sources, including toxins stored in your fat cells. You can have all sorts of issues from it, let alone the dehydration issue – in and of itself.
    4 - Liver. Your liver must deal with all these toxins in your system, and if you are already on the toxic side of the coin, a keto induction can throw your liver into overtime. This causes pain, nausea, and more flu like symptoms. You can feel like death warmed over, when your liver is weak and over-taxed. Again, fluids help, but you may need to reduce fat, and total caloric intake for a few days, to give your liver a chance to catch up. I also hear that turmeric tea helps the liver detox, but I don't know much about it yet.
    So there you have it folks. That’s the scary side of keto induction. It's not so scary and bad, if you know what's going on, and you prepare for it. The biggest key is to drink lots of water with electrolytes.
    Good luck, and stay healthy!

  2. SnowFlinga

    Be careful with the exercise while keto-adapting. You're in a kind of "limbo land" while still in the adaptation phase; you're no longer giving your body the carbs it expects to refuel your glycogen stores and you're not quite efficient yet at burning ketones for energy. So exercise during this period can be a real mixed bag and for some people can sideline them in their attempt to adapt to this WOE.

  3. Leonidas_meets_Spartacus

    It's hard to prepare and depends on individual. I probably had worst 4 weeks of my life when I started eating this way, but it's been very easy for me to maintain with out any cravings for carbs.

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Emmelyn Hsieh, Integrative Biology; Music minor SURF/Rose Hills Experience Fellow Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship Session 3B Mentor: George Brooks, Integrative Biology August 26, 2013

Clinical Review: Ketones And Brain Injury

Abstract Although much feared by clinicians, the ability to produce ketones has allowed humans to withstand prolonged periods of starvation. At such times, ketones can supply up to 50% of basal energy requirements. More interesting, however, is the fact that ketones can provide as much as 70% of the brain's energy needs, more efficiently than glucose. Studies suggest that during times of acute brain injury, cerebral uptake of ketones increases significantly. Researchers have thus attempted to attenuate the effects of cerebral injury by administering ketones exogenously. Hypertonic saline is commonly utilized for management of intracranial hypertension following cerebral injury. A solution containing both hypertonic saline and ketones may prove ideal for managing the dual problems of refractory intracranial hypertension and low cerebral energy levels. The purpose of the present review is to explore the physiology of ketone body utilization by the brain in health and in a variety of neurological conditions, and to discuss the potential for ketone supplementation as a therapeutic option in traumatic brain injury. Introduction Ketogenesis is the process by which ketone bodies (KB), dur Continue reading >>

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  1. Flowerbomb90

    Intermittent fasting and keto

    Ok if I workout in a fasted state, is it a must that I take BCAAS beforehand? Also, let's say I fasted from 12 am until around 9:30 pm (post workout). My workout would be around 7:30-8 and over shortly after 9. My first meal would be then and last meal around 11 something. I have no problem eating large amounts of food at once (yeah, such talent....) but believe my workouts are better with little to no food sitting in my stomach. So I would have like a 3 hour eating window or something like that. Does that really matter? I just don't want to worry about food as much. Any thoughts/advice? I will do a keto with this also since high fat kills any cravings I have versus consuming carbs so often.

  2. AJBurns

    If your doing it wrong, your body will tell you.
    I'm doing a keto based diet with 1 large meal + a few protein shakes and loving it. Strength is up while losing weight and feel amazing. Everyone is different.
    You don't need BCAAS before your workout. 12am to 9:30pm is a bit long for my tastes but up to you if you don't feel like your losing strength in the gym with it.

  3. holysmokes700

    BCAA's won't make or break your success...but working out completely fasted may make you more prone to injury and hinder your recovery.
    Current accepted fact is the following: meal time is irrelevant, as well as macronutrient composition of individual meals, as long as macros add up on a daily (or weekly for some) basis. Obviously micro's matter too, but that's just common sense. Having said that...that doesn't mean that training fasted is a good idea.
    That's my advice, but curious to hear a different opinion on this.

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