Metabolism And Ketosis
Dr. Eades, If the body tends to resort to gluconeogenesis for glucose during a short-term carbohydrate deficit, are those who inconsistently reduce carb intake only messing things up by not effecting full blown ketosis? If the body will still prefer glucose as main energy source unless forced otherwise for at least a few days, is it absolutely necessary to completely transform metabolism for minimal muscle loss? Also, if alcohol is broken down into ketones and acetaldehyde, technically couldn’t you continue to drink during your diet or would the resulting gluconeogenesis inhibition from alcohol lead to blood glucose problems on top of the ketotic metabolism? Would your liver ever just be overwhelmed by all that action? I’m still in high school so hypothetical, of course haha… Sorry, lots of questions but I’m always so curious. Thank you so much for taking the time to inform the public. You’re my hero! P.S. Random question…what’s the difference between beta and gamma hydroxybutyric acids? It’s crazy how simple orientation can be the difference between a ketone and date rape drug…biochem is so cool! P.P.S. You should definitely post the details of that inner mitochondrial membrane transport. I’m curious how much energy expenditure we’re talkin there.. Keep doin your thing! Your Fan, Trey No, I don’t think people are messing up if they don’t get into full-blown ketosis. For short term low-carb dieting, the body turns to glycogen. Gluconeogenesis kicks in fairly quickly, though, and uses dietary protein – assuming there is plenty – before turning to muscle tissue for glucose substrate. And you have the Cori cycle kicking in and all sorts of things to spare muscle, so I wouldn’t worry about it. And you can continue to drink while low-carbing. Continue reading >>
Why You Need To Stop Worrying About The Color Of Your Ketostix
Yeah, I know you like to use them, but there are so many misconceptions about what they are telling you, that I need to intervene and make sure you get it. But before I go there, let me urge you to just buy The Art and Science of Low Carbohydrate Living, and read pages 164-165. Phinney and Volek have the best description of this that has probably ever been written, and you should really just read it from them. If I could copy these pages verbatim and paste it here, I would. Seriously, it’s only a few bucks and it’s quite literally the book you want to own if you’re interested in low carb ketogenic diets. OK, while you wait for your book to arrive, let’s dig in… What ketostix measure First off, we need to understand what ketostix actually measure, and more importantly, what they don’t. Generally speaking, ketostix measure excess ketones in your urine. They are considered excess, because they are removed from your serum and shunted to your urine by your kidneys. Their caloric content is thereby wasted. Of the three types of ketones (acetate, acetoacetate, and beta-hydroxybutyrate) produced by your body, ketostix only measure acetoacetate. This is extremely important to understand, because it turns out that your body produces different quantities of these different types of ketones depending on how long you’ve been in ketosis. If you’ve been in ketosis for a while, you’re going to see a reduction in the “intensity” of what you register on your ketostix for two reasons: A change in the relative volume of the ketones produced/present in your body A reduction in the volume of ketones in your urine as your kidneys reduce the amount they secrete Both of these are covered below. Changes in the types of ketones you produce When you first start your ketogenic Continue reading >>
Keto-adapted, But No Ketones?
One of the cheapest and easiest ways to measure ketones is to use ketone test strips, e.g. Ketostix. Ketone test strips use a chemical reaction to measure acetoacetate (see below), usually in urine, though the same method can be used for blood. (Not to be confused with the blood strips used at home for beta-hydroxybutyrate.) However, acetoacetate test strips are of limited usefulness. For one thing, urine concentrations are affected by dilution, which means that they are affected by how much you drink. But the problem is deeper than that. Acetoacetate is only one of the three ketone bodies (see below). Initially, when you start a ketogenic diet, acetoacetate will make up about half of the circulating ketones , but when you are keto-adapted, it makes up only about 20% of the ketone bodies in circulation (see below). Morover, the sensitivity of the strips is a little lower than optimal for our purposes. They register negative unless the concentration is quite high. So, it is not uncommon for a keto-adapted person to measure negative for acetoacetate. Different ketone bodies occur in different amounts There are three compounds grouped together as ketone bodies: acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and acetone. In keto-adapted people, acetoacetate levels are relatively low even though beta-hydroxybutyrate is high. Typically, beta-hydroxybutyrate levels are 4–5 times as high as acetoacetate. (Acetone makes up only about 2% of total ketone bodies .) The graph above shows that in the ketosis of fasting, the proportion of acetoacetate (the top, white part of the bar) is much smaller than that of beta-hydroxybutyrate (the black part). In the study here, after 21 days of fasting, the average level of blood acetoacetate was 1.04 mmol/L, while the beta-hydroxybutyrate level Continue reading >>
How To Make Your Morning Coffee Low Carb & Keto Friendly
Become a Low Carb Coffee Expert! We could never give up our morning coffee, not forever anyway. Coffee has been shown to provide your body with tons of benefits as long as you keep it in moderation. If you find yourself stopping by your favorite coffee shop every morning, you may find those added grams of sugar adding up quickly. Here’s a sobering fact: a Starbucks White Chocolate Mocha Venti coffee has 18 TEASPOONS of sugar. Teaspoons, people. A third of all drinks tested by Action on Sugar contained more sugar than Coca Cola. There’s sugar hiding in your coffee and lots of it. So what’s a new low carb-er to do? Well, you can always opt for making your coffee at home with real, un-artificially flavored coffee beans and lots of heavy cream. But if you wake up every morning looking forward to a hot cup of ready-made coffee at your coffee shop, there are ways you can help them make your coffee keto-friendly. 1. Choose Unflavored Coffee Beans Go for the real coffee beans like arabica or robusta. These have their own natural flavors and subtleties that can be lost in artificially flavored coffee beans. You’ll soon start noticing flavors like nuts, chocolate, and even fruitiness. Experiment with different beans and soon you’ll find a blend that excites you! 2. Skip the Milk Milk is not low carb! It contains a relatively large amount of sugar (lactose). Whole milk is the lesser of the evils, containing a relatively higher amount of fat than skim and the 1 & 2%s. What you’re looking for is heavy cream. Heavy cream is low carb, high fat. It’s the cream collected off the top of milk when it’s left to separate (what’s left is skim milk, a.k.a. pretty much water). Heavy cream (or heavy whipping cream or whipping cream) is gold in the keto community. It’s delici Continue reading >>
Monitoring For Compliance With A Ketogenic Diet: What Is The Best Time Of Day To Test For Urinary Ketosis?
Go to: Methods The KetoPerformance study with its before-and-after comparison design was registered at germanctr.de as DRKS00009605 and took place from February to June 2016. Exclusion criteria included underweight, obesity, kidney stones, pregnancy, diabetes mellitus and any fatty acid-metabolism disorders. The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Commission of the Albert-Ludwig University Freiburg (494/14) and all subjects signed a written consent form. Twelve of the 42 subjects from the KetoPerformance study could be recruited for the present substudy. Experimental design and dietary intervention The experimental intervention consisted of a KD without caloric restriction lasting 6 weeks with a previous preparation period including detailed instructions during teaching classes and individual counselling by a dietitian. The subjects were free to follow a KD according to their personal preferences but were advised to reach a ratio by weight of approximately 1.8:1 fat to carbohydrate and protein combined, yielding a diet with 80, 15, and 5 % of total energy intake from fat, protein and carbohydrate, respectively. During the KD intervention's sixth week, our substudy subjects were instructed to measure urine and blood ketone concentrations at regular intervals in as close proximity as possible during a 24-h period from 07:00 to 07:00 in the morning. During the day (07:00 till 22:00) blood and urinary ketones were measured every full hour and every three hours, respectively. During the night, blood and urinary ketones were measured once at 03:00. In total blood and urine and ketones were measured 18 and 8 times, respectively, and were recorded in a table sheet. Subjects were asked to drink 400 ml of water every 3 h during the day to ensure sufficient urination and to Continue reading >>
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43: Fat Digestion, Morning Sickness, Binge Eating, Carb Cravings, Steam Room Effect On Ketones
If you are interested in the low-carb, moderate protein, high-fat, ketogenic diet, then this is the podcast for you. We zero in exclusively on all the questions people have about how being in a state of nutritional ketosis and the effects it has on your health. There are a lot of myths about keto floating around out there and our two amazing cohosts are shooting them down one at a time. Keto Talk is cohosted by 10-year veteran health podcaster and international bestselling author Jimmy Moore from “Livin’ La Vida Low-Carb” and Arizona osteopath and certified bariatric physician Dr. Adam Nally from “Doc Muscles” who thoroughly share from their wealth of experience on the ketogenic lifestyle each and every Thursday. We love hearing from our fabulous Ketonian listeners with new questions–send an email to Jimmy at [email protected] And if you’re not already subscribed to the podcast on iTunes and listened to the past episodes, then you can do that and leave a review HERE. Listen in today as Jimmy and Adam have another educational and entertaining show for you in Episode 43. **Special THANK YOU to Louann, Laura, Richard, Chris, Pedro, and Diane** KEY QUOTE: “Most women with significant morning sickness have a problem with B6 and B12. These vitamins are fat-soluble and need enough animal fat to absorb them well. If you take the huge prenatal pill with a large dose of folic acid, those can be nauseating by themselves. Eating keto helps prevent this.” — Dr. Adam Nally Here’s what Jimmy and Adam talked about in Episode 43: – Should I be concerned about the fat related digestion results of my stool analysis? Hi guys, I recently had a CDSA stool analysis to look for more information about my health. Under the absorption category, my fat related di Continue reading >>
Where Did My Appetite Go?
It’s the flip side to being hungry all the time: what on earth do you do when your appetite just isn’t showing up to play? When you count up your food and find you’re eating almost nothing – not because you’re trying to starve yourself, but because you just aren’t hungry for it at all. You don’t even want to eat. This can be great for weight loss, but it can also be pretty scary to experience without knowing why, and you might be wondering whether you’re accidentally depriving yourself of necessary nutrients on such a tiny amount of food. So why could this be happening? Ketosis Ketosis is a metabolic state where your body runs primarily on fat for energy, instead of carbohydrates. You achieve ketosis by eating a very low-carb diet. Whether you were intending to eat a ketogenic diet or not, if you don’t make an effort to eat any tubers or fruits, you might end up accidentally taking Paleo in a ketogenic direction. And one of the best-known side effects of ketosis is loss of appetite. There’s nothing necessarily wrong with this – it’s one of the reasons why ketogenic diets can be so great for weight loss. If you want to lose weight or don’t mind the appetite loss, then just sit back and enjoy the hunger-free ride! On the other hand, if you weren’t trying to lose weight, this can be a problem. For an athlete going Paleo to improve the health, for example, a ketogenic diet can be a disaster: suddenly, they aren’t eating enough to fuel their workouts, and performance goes down the drain. The fix for this is simple: try adding some more safe starches into your diet and see how you feel. You might find that your appetite comes back all on its own. Hunger as Fatigue Another potential cause for a loss of appetite is that you are hungry; you just don Continue reading >>
How I Fixed The Biggest Ketosis Mistakes
The ketogenic diet isn’t always as easy as it seems. I tried for a long time, but not until I dove deep into the research and found out how to fix all of the common mistakes was I able to enjoy the full state of ketosis. This article is to help you avoid those same mistakes. Why Try the Ketogenic Diet First, why would you want to even try ketosis? I truly enjoy trying diets and eating methodologies to research what I like and what works for me. I’ve experimented with low-carb diets, high-carb diets, and everything in between, but I’ve never cut them out to the point to achieve ketosis. What’s most exciting about the ketogenic diet to me is that, yes, it’s amazing for weight loss, but it’s not just a “diet.” Ketosis is literally a state of metabolism. You are either in or you’re out. I wanted to see and feel for myself the benefits everyone is talking about from going full Keto. My Keto Coach has a great line that goes like this: I was sold and needed to try this and commit. If you are new to researching ketosis, a quick review of the popular benefits: Mental Clarity  Fat Loss  Feeling Full  Better Sleep  Better Mood  Better Skin  The list goes on and on, including disease and inflammation reduction, better cholesterol, etc. For my purposes I didn’t care about weight loss or fat loss, I just cared about doing the diet the best I could, and to do that, I needed to prepare accordingly. Preparation Stage – Learning the Keto Basics Here is what I did to educate myself and prepare for six weeks of the Ketogenic Diet. I picked a start date and spent $30 at In-N-Out burger on a massive send-off to carbohydrates. A whole other post could be dedicated to the mistakes I made at In-N-Out. After this epic meal, it was officially time Continue reading >>
Ketosis & Measuring Ketones
Generally, ketone concentrations are lower in the morning and higher in the evening. Whatever time you pick to measure ketone levels, make sure to keep it consistent. Also, do not measure your ketone levels right after exercise. Ketone levels tend to be lower while your glucose levels higher so you won't get representative numbers. Keep in mind there are daily fluctuations caused by changes in hormone levels. Don't get discouraged! Another aspect that affects the level of ketones is the amount of fat in your diet. Some of you may show higher concentration of ketones after a high-fat meal. Coconut oil contains MCTs that will help you boost ketones. To easily increase your fat intake on a ketogenic diet, try fat bombs - snacks with at least 80% fat content. Ketone levels tend to be higher after extensive aerobic exercise as your body depletes glycogen stores. Exercise may help you get into ketosis faster. ketogenic "fruity" breath is not pleasant for most people. To avoid this, drink a lot of water, mint tea and make sure you eat foods rich in electrolytes. Avoid too many chewing gums and mints, as it may put you out of ketosis; there may be hidden carbs affecting your blood sugar. Increase your electrolyte intake, especially potassium. You are likely going to lose some sodium and potassium when switching to the keto diet. Finally, if you find it hard to lose weight on a ketogenic diet, there may be plenty other reasons than the level of ketone bodies: Not Losing Weight on Low-Carb Ketogenic Diet? Don’t Give Up and Read Further. Continue reading >>
Why I Stopped Testing My Ketones On A Ketogenic Diet
On measuring Ketones. Like many people, when I first started a Ketogenic diet in early 2014 I bought the Ketostix and just couldn’t wait to see the color change. And change it did! It was neat, and it provided motivation for me to continue. Eventually, I got a blood meter, a breath meter and spent lots of time (and money) testing ketones. Between a Ketonix Breath Ketone Analyzer, as well as dozens of blood ketone test strips, I’ve probably spent well over $500 testing ketones. The main thing I learned from my extensive ketone testing regimen is that the results vary widely and there’s little application to my goals. Eventually, I stopped testing and here are several reasons why: 1. Burning fatty acids from fat is the main benefit of a ketogenic diet On a ketogenic diet, some of the brain’s energetic demand is fueled by ketones, but the heart, muscles, etc. are fueled by fatty acids. Most of the energy we utilize both at rest and at sub-maximal exertion on a ketogenic diet is fatty acid, not ketones. Quoting Dr. Ron Rosedale on chasing ketones at the Keto Summit: “I don’t want people to have the mindset that it’s the ketones that are the benefit of the diet. They are a beneficial side effect, but the main benefit is that you are burning fatty acids from fat. The more fatty acids from fat you are burning, the less glucose you need to burn. And that’s really where you are getting the benefit…So ketones are great but the term ketogenic diet indicating that the diet is so good because you are generating all these ketones is a misinterpretation of the benefit. The main benefit is that you are burning fatty acids, and as a side effect of burning fatty acids you are producing ketones that your body can burn too!” 2. Urine Ketones aka “peetones” are ridic Continue reading >>
Implications Of The Circadian Nature Of Ketones.
Ketosis. Happens during starvation and also by restricting carbohydrates (and protein, to a lesser degree)… might be important for epilepsy and bipolar disorder, too. Ketostix measure urinary acetoacetate (AcAc) and reflect the degree of ketosis in the blood probably about 2-4 hours ago. Blood ketone meters measure beta-hydroxybutyrate (bHB) right now. bHB fluctuates to a greater degree, eg, it plummets after a meal whereas AcAc takes longer to decline. AcAc/bHB is usually around 1, but increases after a meal (Mori et al., 1990): Conversely, when glucose levels decline and fatty acid oxidation increases, liver redox potential drops which reduces AcAc/bHB. Galvin et al., 1968 Ketogenic diet-induced ketosis: 90% fat diet for 9 days. Ketones ~0.3-9.4 mM. Starvation-exercise ketosis: 36 h fast, then 2.5 h walk. 0.7-6.9 mM. Exercise-induced ketosis: same as above, sans starvation. 0.2-1.7 mM Whether it is Jane Plain’s pee, or Jimmy & Freda’s blood, ketosis register strongest at night. Why? It’s not measurement error. From Cameron (2012): Urinary acidity increases in the evening, which should favor false negatives on the ketostix. Urine is more dilute in the evenings which also favors lower ketone readings… but this doesn’t happen; confirmed by blood testing. It occurs in dairy cows, too (Nielsen et al., 2003): And in rats fed a ketogenic diet: bHB is elevated after they’ve been eating all night; similar to humans who have been eating keto all day (closed squares, solid line) (De Gasquet 1977): PM ketones are likely higher because of the convergence of a few “normal” biological events. 1) Adipose-derived FFAs are not as robust of a delivery mechanism as keto-buffet in stimulating ketogenesis. 2) Exercise is a known ketogenic stimulus. Daily activity is a wea Continue reading >>
The Basic Ketogenic Diet
Note: Please note that if you are interested in a Ketogenic Diet used to treat Epilepsy or Pediatric Epilepsy, please start at Johns Hopkins who are the pioneers in this field. The wikipedia page for the Ketogenic Diet diet also has information on the diet as it relates to treating epilepsy. The diet below is simply for rapid and effective weight loss and uses a 1 to 1 fat to protein ratio rather than the 4 to 1 fat to combined protein and carbs ratio of the Ketogenic Diet pioneered by Johns Hopkins used to treat epilepsy. [wp_ad_camp_3] Disclaimer: I am neither a doctor nor self proclaimed nutrition expert so please consult your doctor before starting any diet or taking any action that affects your health and wellbeing. After finishing Gary Taubes latest book, which seems to have rapidly become the cornerstone of a new approach to nutrition, I’ve become very interested in the Ketogenic diet. The speed of weight loss I’ve seen is incredible and my energy level has remained high. The science behind a ketogenic diet is solidly backed up by Taubes research published in “Good Calories, Bad Calories” and “Why we get fat“. According to Taubes’ research, it may also be the only way for people who have become severely insulin resistant, to effectively lose weight. The Ketogenic diet has always lived on the fringes of diet lore and has been seen as extreme. But the reality is that the low glycemic index diet (Low GI Diet) is effective because it is close to, but not quite, a ketogenic diet. Other diets like the South Beach Diet are also only effective because of the reduction in carbs and consequently insulin levels. The science behind this diet looks solid and it is part of the massive shift in nutrition research we’ve seen in the last few years. Prominent sport Continue reading >>
5 Simple Steps To Get Into Ketosis
I think almost everyone agrees with me when I say that the ketogenic diet is probably one of the most complex and difficult eating plans out there. Even when you’re not on a diet or trying to lose weight you still have to bring a lot of attention to detail. Getting into ketosis isn’t as important as we would think, but there are still 5 simple steps we can make to get into a ketotic state. What Needs to Happen The conditions of nutritional ketosis are: Low blood sugar levels (about <85 mg/dl) Low insulin And because of that there are going to be: Higher glucagon, which is released by the liver, in response to low insulin, to increase the amount of fatty acids in the blood stream. High serum blood ketone levels, with the optimal zone being in between 0.5 and 3.0 mMols. Here are the 5 simple steps to get into ketosis. Step #1 Do a 24-Hour Fast Ketosis is the by-product of a prolonged period of fasting. After your liver glycogen stores have been depleted already after an overnight fast, the liver then begins to create more ketone bodies. After 2-3 days of fasting, you’ll be definitely in ketosis. Your brain will adapt to using ketone bodies and gets about 75% of its energy from fat. Overall, the body’s glucose demands and protein catabolism get reduced to a bare minimum. However, to get into ketosis we don’t necessarily have to abstain from eating that long. We’re already in mild ketosis in the morning and doing a 24-hour fast will increase our ketogenic pathways by a significant amount. Step #2 Start Eating Low Carb Ketogenic Meals Once you finish your 24-hours, you can start eating keto foods. Make your first meal something extremely ketogenic, meaning: Ultra-low carbs – cruciferous vegetables, like spinach, kale, broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage, chard. Your Continue reading >>
Confused...having A Hypo With High Ketones!!!
Diabetes Forum The Global Diabetes Community Find support, ask questions and share your experiences. Join the community Confused...having a hypo with high ketones!!! This morning I checked my BS levels (fasting) as usual and they were 2.7...I also have a blood ketones monitor that I test every other morning just to make sure that my ketone levels are normal. Now, this morning during my hypo I thought I would test my ketone levels and they were reading at 3.1!!!! Of course, I was very shocked as I am in hypo mode and not feeling particularly unwell, just the usual hypo symptoms, which I have now treated. I am so confused as I associate high ketone levels with having high BS levels. Can anyone explain to me how this has happened. In my 10 years of having T1 I have never had high ketone levels like this before. Should I be worried? What do I need to do? Thanks for your help. M x Ketones are a by-product created when there is not enough glucose to fuel the body's needs, so the body burns it's fat reserves to create energy. Generally, this can happen when there is either: not enough insulin in the body to convert the glucose into energy (with high BG readings) when there is not enough glucose for the insulin to convert to energy (with low BG readings). Both of these conditions have the effect of preventing glucose being used as fuel for the body and, as a result, both can give rise to higher ketone levels. I'm at a loss to explain that I admit but I am not totally convinced by mrburden's explanation either unless you are low carbing? . If not your low BG state is (since you are T1) most likely a high insulin state and a high insulin state clears ketones and suppresses ketosis. If however you are low carbing then mrburden is completely correct, and also in that case your 0.3 Continue reading >>
How To Measure Ketones And Optimize Ketogenic Diets
The problem with diets is that we think that one diet should be good for everyone. But research and N=1 experiments show that’s not the case. Learn about measuring ketones and ketosis to understand how your low carb or high fat diet is really affecting you. If there is one area of our bodies that is debated to extremes, with literally hundreds of differing strong opinions on it, it’s nutrition. For many, beliefs about nutrition and diet are tribal. We put ourselves in different camps and we war agains the other camps. Whether it be paleo, low fat, low carb, Atkins, high fat, low protein, vegan, raw vegan and so on. It’s exactly this sort of area where I see data as essential. Without data we have no hope of cutting through the maze of opinions to get to what really works. Part of the problem with nutrition and diets is that we tend to think that one diet should be good for everyone. But increasingly, research and N=1 experiments, are showing that that isn’t the case. And this is exactly why you should pay attention to today’s show. Today, we’re looking at what has relatively recently become the fastest growing nutrition or diet trend. The high fat diet. Also known in different guises as the ketogenic diet, or the low carb diet. And specifically how this can affect our different individual biochemistries, how we can measure “Ketosis” and other biomarkers to understand how our specific biology is reacting to it… and allowing us to troubleshoot and course correct when it isn’t getting the desired results we’re looking for from it. Today’s guest is Jimmy Moore. In 2004, Jimmy, at 32 years, weighed 410 pounds. Since then he has transformed his own biology, shedding all that additional weight with low carb and ketogenic diets. He has also interviewed n Continue reading >>