diabetestalk.net

Which Of The Following Signs And Symptoms Are Most Characteristic Of Hyperglycemic Ketoacidosis?

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus, disorder of carbohydrate metabolism characterized by impaired ability of the body to produce or respond to insulin and thereby maintain proper levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. Diabetes is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, though these outcomes are not due to the immediate effects of the disorder. They are instead related to the diseases that develop as a result of chronic diabetes mellitus. These include diseases of large blood vessels (macrovascular disease, including coronary heart disease and peripheral arterial disease) and small blood vessels (microvascular disease, including retinal and renal vascular disease), as well as diseases of the nerves. Causes and types Insulin is a hormone secreted by beta cells, which are located within clusters of cells in the pancreas called the islets of Langerhans. Insulin’s role in the body is to trigger cells to take up glucose so that the cells can use this energy-yielding sugar. Patients with diabetes may have dysfunctional beta cells, resulting in decreased insulin secretion, or their muscle and adipose cells may be resistant to the effects of insulin, resulting in a decreased ability of these cells to take up and metabolize glucose. In both cases, the levels of glucose in the blood increase, causing hyperglycemia (high blood sugar). As glucose accumulates in the blood, excess levels of this sugar are excreted in the urine. Because of greater amounts of glucose in the urine, more water is excreted with it, causing an increase in urinary volume and frequency of urination as well as thirst. (The name diabetes mellitus refers to these symptoms: diabetes, from the Greek diabainein, meaning “to pass through,” describes the copious urination, and mellitus, from the Latin meaning “sweetened wi Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis & Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State

Diabetic Ketoacidosis & Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State

Diabetic ketoacidosis is characterized by having blood glucose >13.9 mmol/L, arterial pH <7.3 in adults or venous pH <7.3 in pediatrics, bicarbonate <15 mEg/L, moderate ketonuria or ketonemia and anion gap >14. Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic state in adults is described as having blood glucose >33.3 mmol/L, arterial pH >7.3, bicarbonate >15 mEq/L, mild ketonuria or ketonemia, effective serum osmolality >320 mOsm/kg and variable anion gap. While hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic state in pediatric patients have blood glucose >33.3 mmol/L, venous pH >7.3, bicarbonate >15 mEq/L and altered mental status or severe dehydration. Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia (high Blood Sugar)

Hyperglycemia (high Blood Sugar)

Hyperglycemia is a hallmark sign of diabetes (both type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes) and prediabetes. Other conditions that can cause hyperglycemia are pancreatitis, Cushing's syndrome, unusual hormone-secreting tumors, pancreatic cancer, certain medications, and severe illnesses. The main symptoms of hyperglycemia are increased thirst and a frequent need to urinate. Severely elevated glucose levels can result in a medical emergency like diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) or hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome (HHNS, also referred to as hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state). Insulin is the treatment of choice for people with type 1 diabetes and for life-threatening increases in glucose levels. People with type 2 diabetes may be managed with a combination of different oral and injectable medications. Hyperglycemia due to medical conditions other than diabetes is generally treated by treating the underlying condition responsible for the elevated glucose. Blood Sugar Swings: Tips for Managing Diabetes & Glucose Levels A number of medical conditions can cause hyperglycemia, but the most common by far is diabetes mellitus. Diabetes affects over 8% of the total U.S. population. In diabetes, blood glucose levels rise either because there is an insufficient amount of insulin in the body or the body cannot use insulin well. Normally, the pancreas releases insulin after a meal so that the cells of the body can utilize glucose for fuel. This keeps blood glucose levels in the normal range. Type 1 diabetes is responsible for about 5% of all cases of diabetes and results from damage to the insulin-secreting cells of the pancreas. Type 2 diabetes is far more common and is related to the body's inability to effectively use insulin. In addition to type 1 and type 2, gestational diabe Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Summarized from Nyenwe E, Kitabchi A. The evolution of diabetic ketoacidosis: An update of its etiology, pathogenesis and management. Metabolism 2016; 65: 507-21 Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), which is an acute, potentially life-threatening complication of poorly controlled diabetes, is the subject of a recent comprehensive review article. The authors discuss epidemiological issues, revealing increasing incidence of DKA and decreasing mortality. Once inevitably fatal, DKA now has a reported mortality rate of <1 % in adults and 5 % in the elderly who also have one or more chronic illnesses, in addition to diabetes. They reveal that although DKA more commonly affects those with type 1 diabetes, around a third of cases occur in those with type 2 diabetes. This introductory section also reminds that DKA is characterized by the presence of three cardinal biochemical features: raised blood glucose (hyperglycemia); presence of ketones in blood and urine (ketonemia, ketonuria); and metabolic acidosis. Insulin deficiency is central to the development of these three biochemical abnormalities. The very rare occurrence of euglycemic DKA (DKA with normal blood glucose) is highlighted by reference to recent reports of this condition in patients treated with a relatively new class of antidiabetic drug (the SGLT 2 inhibitors) that reduces blood glucose by inhibiting renal reabsorption of glucose. There follows discussion of factors that precipitate DKA (omission or inadequate dosing of insulin, and infection are the most common triggers), and the possible mechanisms responsible for ketosis-prone type 2 diabetes. This latter condition, which was recognized as an entity only relatively recently, is distinguished by the development of severe but transient failure of pancreatic β-cells to m Continue reading >>

Midterm #1

Midterm #1

Sort A 46-year-old man presents with generalized weakness and shortness of breath after he was bitten on the leg by a rattlesnake. His blood pressure is 106/58 mm Hg and his pulse rate is 112 beats/min. In addition to supplemental oxygen, further treatment for this patient should include: splinting and lowering of the affected part. A 36-year-old male, who is a known diabetic, presents with severe weakness, diaphoresis, and tachycardia. He is conscious, but confused. His blood pressure is 110/58 mm Hg, pulse is 120 beats/min and weak, and respirations are 24 breaths/min. The glucometer reads error after several attempts to assess his blood glucose level. In addition to high-flow oxygen, medical control will MOST likely order you to: give at least one tube of oral glucose. Approximately 5 minutes after being stung by a bee, a 21-year-old male develops hives and begins experiencing difficulty breathing. When you arrive at the scene, you note that his level of consciousness is decreased, his breathing is labored, and wheezing can be heard without a stethoscope. The patient has a bee sting kit, but has not used it. You should: assist his ventilations with a bag-mask device, administer epinephrine from his bee sting kit after receiving approval from medical control, and prepare for immediate transport. You are dispatched to a residence for a 20-year-old male with respiratory distress. When you arrive, you find that the patient has a tracheostomy tube and is ventilator dependent. His mother tells you that he was doing fine, but then suddenly began experiencing breathing difficulty. You should: remove him from the mechanical ventilator and ventilate him manually. Law enforcement requests your assistance to evaluate a young female who they believe has overdosed. The patient is Continue reading >>

Management Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Adults

Management Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Adults

Diabetic ketoacidosis is a potentially life-threatening complication of diabetes, making it a medical emergency. Nurses need to know how to identify and manage it and how to maintain electrolyte balance Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

A Preventable Crisis People who have had diabetic ketoacidosis, or DKA, will tell you it’s worse than any flu they’ve ever had, describing an overwhelming feeling of lethargy, unquenchable thirst, and unrelenting vomiting. “It’s sort of like having molasses for blood,” says George. “Everything moves so slow, the mouth can feel so dry, and there is a cloud over your head. Just before diagnosis, when I was in high school, I would get out of a class and go to the bathroom to pee for about 10–12 minutes. Then I would head to the water fountain and begin drinking water for minutes at a time, usually until well after the next class had begun.” George, generally an upbeat person, said that while he has experienced varying degrees of DKA in his 40 years or so of having diabetes, “…at its worst, there is one reprieve from its ill feeling: Unfortunately, that is a coma.” But DKA can be more than a feeling of extreme discomfort, and it can result in more than a coma. “It has the potential to kill,” says Richard Hellman, MD, past president of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. “DKA is a medical emergency. It’s the biggest medical emergency related to diabetes. It’s also the most likely time for a child with diabetes to die.” DKA occurs when there is not enough insulin in the body, resulting in high blood glucose; the person is dehydrated; and too many ketones are present in the bloodstream, making it acidic. The initial insulin deficit is most often caused by the onset of diabetes, by an illness or infection, or by not taking insulin when it is needed. Ketones are your brain’s “second-best fuel,” Hellman says, with glucose being number one. If you don’t have enough glucose in your cells to supply energy to your brain, yo Continue reading >>

Nursing 3 Exam 2 Flashcards

Nursing 3 Exam 2 Flashcards

7.35-7.45 What is the normal pH of the blood range? 4.5 L The presence of pitting edema is associated with a gain of how much fluid in the interstitial space? Increased capillary fluid pressure, decreased capillary oncotic pressure, or increased interstitial oncotic pressure What are the three causes of edema, a common manifestation of fluid volume excess (FVE) 115 mEq/L, 100 mEq/L When the serum sodium level is less than _______ signs of increased intracranial pressure occur. In SIADH, the serum sodium level can be as low as ________ Fatigue, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, muscle weakness, leg cramps, decreased bowel motility, paresthesia(numbness and tingling), arrhythmias, and increased sensitivity to digitalis. What are the ten manifestations of hypokalemia? Alcoholism What is the most common cause of symptomatic hypomagnesemia in the United States? Tomato juice, bananas, dates, eggs, cheese, milk, salty broth, canned vegetables, and processed meats. What are five foods, high in chloride, that should be encouraged for a patient with hypochloremia? Tachypnea, weakness, lethargy, deep rapid respirations, diminished cognitive ability, and hypertension. What are the six major signs and symptoms of hyperchloremia? The bicarbonate-carbonic acid buffer system, 20 parts of bicarbonate (HCO3) to one part of carbonic acid (H2CO3) The body’s major extracellular buffer system is ______ which maintains a ratio of ______ Less than 7.35, greater than 45 mm Hg Respiratory acidosis is a clinical disorder that occurs when the pH is _____ and the PaCO2 Early evidence of third-space fluid shifting is a decrease in urine output despite adequate fluid intake. Urine output decreases because fluid shifts out of the intravascular space; the kidneys then receive less blood and attempt to comp Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis: Maintaining Glucose Control

Diabetic Ketoacidosis: Maintaining Glucose Control

The metabolic chain reaction that precedes diabetic ketoacidosis can occur rapidly, and this potentially life-threatening condition requires swift recognition and treatment. Two critical words in a diabetic’s vocabulary are “management” and “control.” When a patient with diabetes fails to manage food intake and loses control of blood sugar levels, hyperglycemia follows. In most cases, blood sugar levels elevate slightly, which prompts the individual with diabetes to take action to lower those levels. Under some conditions, blood sugar rises precipitously, which is usually caused by 1 or more of the following1-3 : • Developing or fulminant infection (especially Klebsiella pneumonia) or illness • Serious disruption of insulin treatment • New onset of diabetes • Physical or emotional stress • Adverse drug reaction (especially to corticosteroids, pentamidine, thiazides, sympathomimetics, or secondgeneration antipsychotics4 ) Acute, life-threatening diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) can develop rapidly. Table 11,2 describes criteria usually used to define DKA. We typically associate this metabolic abnormality with type 1 diabetes, but it also occurs in some patients with type 2 diabetes, with infection or an adverse drug reaction as the primary causes. As blood sugar rises in DKA, the patient becomes dehydrated and metabolic changes produce acidosis.1,2,4,5 Pathophysiology DKA usually occurs when absolute or relative insulin deficiency leads to increased counter-regulatory hormones (ie, glucagon, cortisol, growth hormone, epinephrine). These hormones enhance hepatic glucose production (gluconeogenesis), glycogenolysis, and lipolysis, all of which increase free fatty acids (FFAs) in circulation. With insulin unavailable, the liver turns to FFAs as an alternative Continue reading >>

Classification, Pathophysiology, Diagnosis And Management Of Diabetes Mellitus

Classification, Pathophysiology, Diagnosis And Management Of Diabetes Mellitus

University of Gondar, Ethopia *Corresponding Author: Habtamu Wondifraw Baynes Lecturer Clinical Chemistry University of Gondar, Gondar Amhara 196, Ethiopia Tel: +251910818289 E-mail: [email protected] Citation: Baynes HW (2015) Classification, Pathophysiology, Diagnosis and Management of Diabetes Mellitus. J Diabetes Metab 6:541. doi:10.4172/2155-6156.1000541 Copyright: © 2015 Baynes HW. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Visit for more related articles at Journal of Diabetes & Metabolism Abstract Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by the presence of chronic hyperglycemia either immune-mediated (Type 1 diabetes), insulin resistance (Type 2), gestational or others (environment, genetic defects, infections, and certain drugs). According to International Diabetes Federation Report of 2011 an estimated 366 million people had DM, by 2030 this number is estimated to almost around 552 million. There are different approaches to diagnose diabetes among individuals, The 1997 ADA recommendations for diagnosis of DM focus on fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG), while WHO focuses on Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT). This is importance for regular follow-up of diabetic patients with the health care provider is of great significance in averting any long term complications. Keywords Diabetes mellitus; Epidemiology; Diagnosis; Glycemic management Abbreviations DM: Diabetes Mellitus; FPG: Fasting Plasma Glucose; GAD: Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase; GDM: Gestational Diabetes Mellitus; HDL-cholesterol: High Density Lipoprotein cholesterol; HLA: Human Leucoid Antigen; IDD Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus Type 1

Diabetes Mellitus Type 1

Diabetes Mellitus (DM) Type 1 is a chronic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) and disruption in metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. It occurs because of little or no insulin being produced by the pancreas. It occurs in children or young adults, usually before the age of 30. It typically has an abrupt onset, with most individuals having a thin or normal body weight at diagnosis. Type 1 Diabetes is managed by diet, exercise, and insulin injections. It can result in serious vascular complications and neuropathies and can be a major cause of cardiovascular disease and strokes. It is also the leading cause of end-stage renal (kidney) disease, non-traumatic amputations in the lower extremity, and new cases of blindness. Autoimmune, environmental, and genetic causes may put individuals at risk of developing Type 1 DM. ~5% of all Diabetes cases are Type 1 DM 29.1 million Americans had Diabetes (2012) 1.25 million Americans had Type 1 DM (2012) 208,000 Americans under the age of 20 estimated to have Diabetes, which is 0.25% of the population Polyuria (increased urination) Polydipsia (increased thirst) Polyphagia (Increased appetite)~ Glycosuria (glucose in urine) Weight loss despite polyphagia~ Hyperglycemia (increased blood glucose) Ketonuria (ketones in urine) Fruity smelling breath Fatigue Generalized weakness Blurred vision Irritability Recurring skin, gum, bladder, vaginal, or other infections Numbness or tingling in hands or feet Cuts, scrapes, or bruises that are difficult or slow to heal Periarthritis (especially shoulder)~ Hand stiffness ~ = Occurs primarily in Type 1 Diabetes Hypoglycemia Hypertension Dislipidemia Cardiovascular Disease Blindness/Eye problems Kidney Disease Increased risk for cognitive decline/dementia (including Al Continue reading >>

> Hyperglycemia And Diabetic Ketoacidosis

> Hyperglycemia And Diabetic Ketoacidosis

When blood glucose levels (also called blood sugar levels) are too high, it's called hyperglycemia. Glucose is a sugar that comes from foods, and is formed and stored inside the body. It's the main source of energy for the body's cells and is carried to each through the bloodstream. But even though we need glucose for energy, too much glucose in the blood can be unhealthy. Hyperglycemia is the hallmark of diabetes — it happens when the body either can't make insulin (type 1 diabetes) or can't respond to insulin properly (type 2 diabetes). The body needs insulin so glucose in the blood can enter the cells to be used for energy. In people who have developed diabetes, glucose builds up in the blood, resulting in hyperglycemia. If it's not treated, hyperglycemia can cause serious health problems. Too much sugar in the bloodstream for long periods of time can damage the vessels that supply blood to vital organs. And, too much sugar in the bloodstream can cause other types of damage to body tissues, which can increase the risk of heart disease and stroke, kidney disease, vision problems, and nerve problems in people with diabetes. These problems don't usually show up in kids or teens with diabetes who have had the disease for only a few years. However, they can happen in adulthood in some people, particularly if they haven't managed or controlled their diabetes properly. Blood sugar levels are considered high when they're above someone's target range. The diabetes health care team will let you know what your child's target blood sugar levels are, which will vary based on factors like your child's age. A major goal in controlling diabetes is to keep blood sugar levels as close to the desired range as possible. It's a three-way balancing act of: diabetes medicines (such as in Continue reading >>

Medical Practice Exam

Medical Practice Exam

Sort You are assessing a 40-year-old male with an apparent psychiatric crisis. According to the mans's wife, he has a history of depression and schizophrenia and takes Zoloft and Zyprexa. A police officer is present at the scene. The patient, who is obviously scared, tells you that he sees snakes everywhere. You should: tell him that you do not see any snakes, but they are obviously scaring him You are called to an assisted living center where an attendant found a 72-year-old man unresponsive. The patient had recent hip surgery and has been taking Vicodin for pain. His respirations are slow and shallow and his pulse is slow and weak. You should: begin ventilation assistance with a bag-mask device. A 16-year-old, 125-pound male ingested a bottle of aspirin approximately 20 minutes ago. Medical control orders you to administer activated charcoal in a dose of 1 g/kg. How much activated charcoal should you administer? 57g You receive a call for a 54-year-old female who is having a seizure. When you arrive at the scene, the patient is actively seizing. Her husband tells you that she has a history of seizures, and that she has been seizing continuously for 20 minutes. It is MOST important for you to recognize that: the patient is hypoxic and needs oxygen as soon as possible You respond to a baseball field for a person who was struck by lightning. When you arrive, you see one patient who appears confused and is ambulatory; a second patient who is conscious, sitting on the ground, and holding his arm; and a third patient who is supine and motionless. After requesting additional responders, you should: assess the motionless victim and perform CPR and defibrillation if necessary You respond to a grocery store where a 39-year-old man reportedly experienced a seizure. When you arri Continue reading >>

Severe Ketoacidosis (ph ≤ 6.9) In Type 2 Diabetes: More Frequent And Less Ominous Than Previously Thought

Severe Ketoacidosis (ph ≤ 6.9) In Type 2 Diabetes: More Frequent And Less Ominous Than Previously Thought

BioMed Research International Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 134780, 5 pages 1Division of Endocrinology, Internal Medicine Department, University Hospital “Dr. José E. González”, Autonomous University of Nuevo León, 64460 Monterrey, NL, Mexico 2Knowledge and Evaluation Research Unit, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, Metabolism and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA 3Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital “Dr. José E. González”, Autonomous University of Nuevo León, 64460 Monterrey, NL, Mexico 4Latino Diabetes Initiative, Joslin Diabetes Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA Academic Editor: Gianluca Bardini Copyright © 2015 René Rodríguez-Gutiérrez et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Diabetic ketoacidosis is a life-threatening acute metabolic complication of uncontrolled diabetes. Severe cases of DKA (pH ≤ 7.00, bicarbonate level ≤ 10.0, anion gap > 12, positive ketones, and altered mental status) are commonly encountered in patients with type 1 diabetes and are thought to carry an ominous prognosis. There is not enough information on the clinical course of severely acidotic type 2 diabetes (pH ≤ 6.9) patients with DKA, possibly because this condition is rarely seen in developed countries. In this series, we present 18 patients with type 2 diabetes, DKA, and a pH ≤ 6.9 that presented to a tertiary university hospital over the past 11 years. The objective was to describe their clinical characteristics, the triggering cause, and emphasis on treatment, evolution, and outcomes. The majority of Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

INTRODUCTION Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a very serious complication of diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disorder that is characterized by hyperglycemia, metabolic acidosis, and increased body ketone concentrations. The most common causes of DKA are infection and poor compliance with medication regimens. Other causes include undiagnosed diabetes, alcohol abuse, and a multitude of medical conditions such as cerebrovascular accident (CVA), complicated pregnancy, myocardial infarction, pancreatitis, and stress. Diabetic ketoacidosis is a complicated pathology. Early recognition of DKA, a good understanding of the pathological processes of DKA, and aggressive treatment are the keys to successful treatment. With good care, DKA can be managed and the patient will survive. OBJECTIVES When the student has finished studying this module, he/she will be able to: 1. Identify the correct definition of DKA. 2. Identify a basic function of insulin. 3. Identify the insulin derangements of types I and II diabetes. 4. Identify the basic cause of DKA. 5. Identify two specific causes of DKA. 6. Identify the two pathogenic mechanisms that produce the signs/symptoms of DKA. 7. Identify metabolic consequences of increased hormone concentrations in DKA. 8. Identify the criteria used to diagnose DKA. 9. Identify common signs and symptoms of DKA. 10. Identify laboratory abnormalities seen in DKA. 11. Identify complications of DKA. 12. Identify the three most important therapies for treating DKA. 13. Identify the correct roles of sodium bicarbonate and phosphate in treating DKA. 14. Identify an important rule for using potassium replacement in DKA. 15. Identify an important rule for switching from IV to subcutaneous insulin. EPIDEMIOLOGY Most cases of DKA are seen in patients with type I diabete Continue reading >>

More in ketosis