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Which Of The Following Signs And Symptoms Are Most Characteristic Of Hyperglycemic Ketoacidosis?

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Clinical And Biochemical Characteristics Of Diabetes Ketoacidosis In A Tertiary Hospital In Riyadh

Go to: Introduction Diabetes is considered the fifth leading cause of death, and it is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed world, as well as in many developing countries. Diabetes prevalence (in adults) is reported to be 24% in Saudi Arabia,1 which is higher than that reported in the developed countries. According to the International Diabetes Federation, the diabetes rate in Saudi Arabia in 2015 was 17.6%.2 Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is one of the life-threatening acute complications of diabetes mellitus (DM) that mainly occurs in type 1 diabetes patients, as well as in some patients with type 2 diabetes. It tends to present under stressful conditions or in association with illnesses that feature metabolic decompensation. DKA is characterized by hyperglycemia, ketoacidosis, and ketonuria.3 DKA affects both children and adults and requires immediate attention. The true annual incidence rate for DKA is difficult to establish, but population-based studies have reported ranges from 4.6 to 8 cases per 1,000 patients with diabetes.4,5 DKA rates may be between 5% and 7% in individuals aged <18 years.6 The global incidence of DKA is influenced by various factors a Continue reading >>

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  1. 12 Volt Man

    3 years ago I attempted to lose weight through a low carb diet. I lost 20 pounds or so and was doing well. One night I couldn't get to sleep because my heart felt like it was beating weird. It felt sort of like a fish flopping around in my chest. It wouldn't stop. Finally after a few hours my Wife hauled me to the emergency room. They said I had Atrial Fibrillation. They actually had to stop my heart and restart it to get it to beat regular. I ended up with subsequent visits to a heart doctor to figure out what was going on. He put me on a medication and basically told me I would be taking it the rest of my life.
    At 33 years old, that was quite a shock. Because of that event, I gave up on the diet. I thought that something I did with the diet had caused it. I asked the Doctor repeatedly if my diet could have caused the issue and he said "No". I took that medication for two months and had started my "normal" eating patterns (overeating, no portion control etc...) I decided to try and stop taking the medication.
    Fast forward to two weeks ago. I had not had any issues with my heart since quitting the medication. I had been losing weight with low calories and phentermine (Doctor's Idea) for about 3 weeks. My heart problems started again. Sometimes all day of that fish flopping around in my chest. Sometimes a few hours. Sometimes all night. I went back to a different heart doctor. This time thinking it was the phentermine causing the issue.
    This heart doctor had me stop taking an Asthma medication. He did not think the phentermine could cause heart palpitations or atrial fibrillation. I went ahead and quit taking both. But I still kept having issues with my heart. I went through EKG's, Ultra Sounds, and a stress test. Strange part was that the doctor said it wasn't dangerous for my heart to beat like that. Still I was very scared and annoyed by the whole thing. I couldn't concentrate at work or sleep well.
    Last Friday he sent me to go have my blood drawn so they could do lab work and see if that could shed any light on what was going on. During that visit he said something about Potassium or electrolytes possibly being low and that that may be causing my problems.
    I went home Friday afternoon and started researching this a little bit. I found that lack Potassium could indeed be my issue. I wasn't eating bananas, potatoes, or any of the other foods high in Potassium. I little Spinach was the only Potassium rich food I had eaten in the past few weeks. I had been taking a multivitamin. That only had 100mg of Potassium in it.
    I decided to up that and see what would happen. I went out and purchased some Potassium Gluconate supplement. I added 300mg (3 pills in this case). By the end of that day, my heart palpitations had stopped! Good sign. So here it is Tuesday (still haven't heard from the doctor on my blood test) and I still haven't had any problems. I resumed taking the Phentermine and my Asthma medication too. I am feeling better and a whole bunch of weight dropped off in the last 4 days.
    Long story to get my point across. If you start having heart palpitations while dieting. Don't just assume that you are doomed or that you will have an ongoing problem. Take a hard look at what you have been eating. Are you not getting enough Potassium? I hope that this post might save someone from a lot of worry and visits to the doctor.
    Indecision may or may not be my problem.

  2. k8yk

    The most surprising thing about this story to me is that a doctor would prescribe phentermine to a person with heart issues.
    My blog, This is not a Diet:
    http://notsobigk.wordpress.com
    Follow me on Facebook for tips, recipes, advice, exercise ideas and more:
    http://www.facebook.com/notadiet

  3. Ed Endicott

    Do some research on electrolyte balance with relation to anatomy and physiology. Essentially, your body is looking to balance the electrical charges in your cells by moving potassium, sodium, etc in and out of your blood cells and it's finding a deficiency. If you have too much of one thing (potassium, or hyperkalemia) or not enough of something (hypokalemia which is what you're describing) your body will want to balance things out. Talk this over with your doctor - it's basic anatomy and physiology (one of the first courses a doctor or nurse needs to take in order to start their course of study in medicine).
    P.S. - I'm not a doctor but I ABSOLUTELY disagree with the comments that your diet has no effect and I ABSOLUTELY disagree with the comment that it is not a dangerous condition. Atrial Fibrullation (A-FIB) means your blood is not pumping as it should because your heart is not beating as it should. This causes inadequate profusion of oxygen throughout your body which is dangerous both to your life as well as your brain and brain function. If you are in A-FIB, your EKG will resemble the teeth of a saw blade. If you have a normal sinus rhythm, you will see the contraction of your heart while it's pumping blood.

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