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Which Of The Following Signs And Symptoms Are Most Characteristic Of Hyperglycemic Ketoacidosis?

Nursing 3 Exam 2 Flashcards

Nursing 3 Exam 2 Flashcards

7.35-7.45 What is the normal pH of the blood range? 4.5 L The presence of pitting edema is associated with a gain of how much fluid in the interstitial space? Increased capillary fluid pressure, decreased capillary oncotic pressure, or increased interstitial oncotic pressure What are the three causes of edema, a common manifestation of fluid volume excess (FVE) 115 mEq/L, 100 mEq/L When the serum sodium level is less than _______ signs of increased intracranial pressure occur. In SIADH, the serum sodium level can be as low as ________ Fatigue, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, muscle weakness, leg cramps, decreased bowel motility, paresthesia(numbness and tingling), arrhythmias, and increased sensitivity to digitalis. What are the ten manifestations of hypokalemia? Alcoholism What is the most common cause of symptomatic hypomagnesemia in the United States? Tomato juice, bananas, dates, eggs, cheese, milk, salty broth, canned vegetables, and processed meats. What are five foods, high in chloride, that should be encouraged for a patient with hypochloremia? Tachypnea, weakness, lethargy, deep rapid respirations, diminished cognitive ability, and hypertension. What are the six major signs and symptoms of hyperchloremia? The bicarbonate-carbonic acid buffer system, 20 parts of bicarbonate (HCO3) to one part of carbonic acid (H2CO3) The body’s major extracellular buffer system is ______ which maintains a ratio of ______ Less than 7.35, greater than 45 mm Hg Respiratory acidosis is a clinical disorder that occurs when the pH is _____ and the PaCO2 Early evidence of third-space fluid shifting is a decrease in urine output despite adequate fluid intake. Urine output decreases because fluid shifts out of the intravascular space; the kidneys then receive less blood and attempt to comp Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes Mellitusclinical And Biochemical Differences

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes Mellitusclinical And Biochemical Differences

Background Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), once thought to typify type 1 diabetes mellitus, has been reported to affect individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. An analysis and overview of the different clinical and biochemical characteristics of DKA that might be predicted between patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes is needed. Methods We reviewed 176 admissions of patients with moderate-to-severe DKA. Patients were classified as having type 1 or type 2 diabetes based on treatment history and/or autoantibody status. Groups were compared for differences in symptoms, precipitants, vital statistics, biochemical profiles at presentation, and response to therapy. Results Of 138 patients admitted for moderate-to-severe DKA, 30 had type 2 diabetes. A greater proportion of the type 2 diabetes group was Latino American or African American (P<.001). Thirty-five admissions (19.9%) were for newly diagnosed diabetes. A total of 85% of all admissions involved discontinuation of medication use, 69.2% in the type 2 group. Infections were present in 21.6% of the type 1 and 48.4% of the type 2 diabetes admissions. A total of 21% of patients with type 1 diabetes and 70% with type 2 diabetes had a body mass index greater than 27. Although the type 1 diabetes group was more acidotic (arterial pH, 7.21 ± 0.12 vs 7.27 ± 0.08; P<.001), type 2 diabetes patients required longer treatment periods (36.0 ± 11.6 vs 28.9 ± 8.9 hours, P = .01) to achieve ketone-free urine. Complications from therapy were uncommon. Conclusions A significant proportion of DKA occurs in patients with type 2 diabetes. The time-tested therapy for DKA of intravenous insulin with concomitant glucose as the plasma level decreases, sufficient fluid and electrolyte replacement, and attention to associated problems remai Continue reading >>

About Diabetes

About Diabetes

formerly known as Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM). characterized by hyperglycemia due to an absolute deficiency of the insulin hormone produced by the pancreas. patients require lifelong insulin injections for survival. usually develops in children and adolescents (although can occur later in life). may present with severe symptoms such as coma or ketoacidosis. patients are usually not obese with this type of diabetes, but obesity is not incompatible with the diagnosis. patients are at increased risk of developing microvascular and macrovascular complications. Etiology usually (but not always) caused by autoimmune destruction of the beta cells of the pancreas, with the presence of certain antibodies in blood. a complex disease caused by mutations in more than one gene, as well as by environmental factors. Symptoms increased urinary frequency (polyuria), thirst (polydipsia), hunger (polyphagia), and unexplained weight loss. numbness in extremities, pain in feet (disesthesias), fatigue, and blurred vision. recurrent or severe infections. loss of consciousness or severe nausea/vomiting (ketoacidosis) or coma. Ketoacidosis more common in T1D than in T2D. Diagnosis diagnosis is made by the presence of classic symptoms of hyperglycemia and an abnormal blood test. a plasma glucose concentration >=7 mmol/L (or 126 mg/dL) or >=11.1mmol/L ( or 200mg/dL) 2 hours after a 75g glucose drink. in a patient without classic symptoms, diagnosis can also be made by two abnormal blood tests on separate days. in most settings (although not always available in resource-poor countries), another test called HbA1C is done to approximate metabolic control over previous 2-3 months and to guide treatment decisions. Treatment overall aim of treatment is symptom relief and prevention or de Continue reading >>

Clinical And Biochemical Characteristics Of Diabetes Ketoacidosis In A Tertiary Hospital In Riyadh

Clinical And Biochemical Characteristics Of Diabetes Ketoacidosis In A Tertiary Hospital In Riyadh

Diabetes is the fifth leading cause of death worldwide. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a life-threatening acute complication of diabetes. The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical and biochemical characteristics of DKA among 400 patients admitted to hospital, most of whom had type 1 diabetes (n = 372; 93%). Vomiting (n = 319; 79.8%), nausea (n = 282; 70.5%), and abdominal pain (n = 303; 75.8%) were the presenting symptoms most commonly experienced by the patients. Tachycardia was the most common clinical sign noted in the patients on admission (n = 243; 61.8%). The predominant precipitating cause of DKA was noncompliance to an insulin regimen (n = 215; 54.2%). Recurrent DKA admissions in type 1 diabetes patients was higher than those with type 2 diabetes (n = 232 versus n = 9, respectively; P = 0.002). Recurrent DKA admissions in female patients were higher than in male patients (n = 167 versus n = 74, respectively; P = 0.002). Continued diabetic education (given to n = 384; 94%) and counseling on the importance of adhering to the recommended medical regime, addressing the social and cultural barriers that precipitate DKA, as well as the provision of timely medical attention may greatly reduce DKA episodes and their associated complications. 1. Al-Nozha, M.M., Al-Maatouq, M.A., Al-Mazrou, Y.Y.. Diabetes mellitus in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med J. 2004; 25(11): 1603–1610. Google Scholar 2. Available at: Google Scholar 3. Vanelli, M., Chiarelli, F. Treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis in children and adolescents. Acta Biomed. 2003; 74(2): 59–68. Google Scholar 4. Faich, G.A., Fishbein, H.A., Ellis, S.E. The epidemiology of diabetic acidosis: a population-based study. Am J Epidemiol. 1983; 117: 551–558. Google Scholar 5. Johnson, D.D., Palumbo, P.J., Chu, C-P. Di Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis & Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State

Diabetic Ketoacidosis & Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State

Diabetic ketoacidosis is characterized by having blood glucose >13.9 mmol/L, arterial pH <7.3 in adults or venous pH <7.3 in pediatrics, bicarbonate <15 mEg/L, moderate ketonuria or ketonemia and anion gap >14. Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic state in adults is described as having blood glucose >33.3 mmol/L, arterial pH >7.3, bicarbonate >15 mEq/L, mild ketonuria or ketonemia, effective serum osmolality >320 mOsm/kg and variable anion gap. While hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic state in pediatric patients have blood glucose >33.3 mmol/L, venous pH >7.3, bicarbonate >15 mEq/L and altered mental status or severe dehydration. Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia: When Your Blood Glucose Level Goes Too High

Hyperglycemia: When Your Blood Glucose Level Goes Too High

Hyperglycemia means high (hyper) glucose (gly) in the blood (emia). Your body needs glucose to properly function. Your cells rely on glucose for energy. Hyperglycemia is a defining characteristic of diabetes—when the blood glucose level is too high because the body isn't properly using or doesn't make the hormone insulin. You get glucose from the foods you eat. Carbohydrates, such as fruit, milk, potatoes, bread, and rice, are the biggest source of glucose in a typical diet. Your body breaks down carbohydrates into glucose, and then transports the glucose to the cells via the bloodstream. Body Needs Insulin However, in order to use the glucose, your body needs insulin. This is a hormone produced by the pancreas. Insulin helps transport glucose into the cells, particularly the muscle cells. People with type 1 diabetes no longer make insulin to help their bodies use glucose, so they have to take insulin, which is injected under the skin. People with type 2 diabetes may have enough insulin, but their body doesn't use it well; they're insulin resistant. Some people with type 2 diabetes may not produce enough insulin. People with diabetes may become hyperglycemic if they don't keep their blood glucose level under control (by using insulin, medications, and appropriate meal planning). For example, if someone with type 1 diabetes doesn't take enough insulin before eating, the glucose their body makes from that food can build up in their blood and lead to hyperglycemia. Your endocrinologist will tell you what your target blood glucose levels are. Your levels may be different from what is usually considered as normal because of age, pregnancy, and/or other factors. Fasting hyperglycemia is defined as when you don't eat for at least eight hours. Recommended range without diabet Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia (high Blood Sugar)

Hyperglycemia (high Blood Sugar)

Hyperglycemia is a hallmark sign of diabetes (both type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes) and prediabetes. Other conditions that can cause hyperglycemia are pancreatitis, Cushing's syndrome, unusual hormone-secreting tumors, pancreatic cancer, certain medications, and severe illnesses. The main symptoms of hyperglycemia are increased thirst and a frequent need to urinate. Severely elevated glucose levels can result in a medical emergency like diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) or hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome (HHNS, also referred to as hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state). Insulin is the treatment of choice for people with type 1 diabetes and for life-threatening increases in glucose levels. People with type 2 diabetes may be managed with a combination of different oral and injectable medications. Hyperglycemia due to medical conditions other than diabetes is generally treated by treating the underlying condition responsible for the elevated glucose. Blood Sugar Swings: Tips for Managing Diabetes & Glucose Levels A number of medical conditions can cause hyperglycemia, but the most common by far is diabetes mellitus. Diabetes affects over 8% of the total U.S. population. In diabetes, blood glucose levels rise either because there is an insufficient amount of insulin in the body or the body cannot use insulin well. Normally, the pancreas releases insulin after a meal so that the cells of the body can utilize glucose for fuel. This keeps blood glucose levels in the normal range. Type 1 diabetes is responsible for about 5% of all cases of diabetes and results from damage to the insulin-secreting cells of the pancreas. Type 2 diabetes is far more common and is related to the body's inability to effectively use insulin. In addition to type 1 and type 2, gestational diabe Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus, disorder of carbohydrate metabolism characterized by impaired ability of the body to produce or respond to insulin and thereby maintain proper levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. Diabetes is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, though these outcomes are not due to the immediate effects of the disorder. They are instead related to the diseases that develop as a result of chronic diabetes mellitus. These include diseases of large blood vessels (macrovascular disease, including coronary heart disease and peripheral arterial disease) and small blood vessels (microvascular disease, including retinal and renal vascular disease), as well as diseases of the nerves. Causes and types Insulin is a hormone secreted by beta cells, which are located within clusters of cells in the pancreas called the islets of Langerhans. Insulin’s role in the body is to trigger cells to take up glucose so that the cells can use this energy-yielding sugar. Patients with diabetes may have dysfunctional beta cells, resulting in decreased insulin secretion, or their muscle and adipose cells may be resistant to the effects of insulin, resulting in a decreased ability of these cells to take up and metabolize glucose. In both cases, the levels of glucose in the blood increase, causing hyperglycemia (high blood sugar). As glucose accumulates in the blood, excess levels of this sugar are excreted in the urine. Because of greater amounts of glucose in the urine, more water is excreted with it, causing an increase in urinary volume and frequency of urination as well as thirst. (The name diabetes mellitus refers to these symptoms: diabetes, from the Greek diabainein, meaning “to pass through,” describes the copious urination, and mellitus, from the Latin meaning “sweetened wi Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia

Hyperglycemia

Definition Hyperglycemia is a complex metabolic condition characterized by abnormally high levels of blood sugar (blood glucose) in circulating blood, usually as a result of diabetes mellitus (types 1 and 2), although it can sometimes occur in cystic fibrosis and near-drowning (submersion injury). Description Hyperglycemia, also known as diabetic ketoacidosis, is a condition that develops over a period of a few days as the blood glucose levels of a type 1 or type 2 diabetic gradually rise. Ketoacidosis occurs when increasing glucose levels are met by a lack of sufficient or effective insulin production, starting a sequence of physiologic events as follows: The combination of excess glucose production and low glucose utilization in the body raises levels of blood glucose, which leads to increased urinary output (diuresis) followed quickly by a loss of fluid and essential mineral salts (electrolytes) and, ultimately, dehydration . The loss of fluid may finally result in dehydration. If the entire process is severe enough over several hours (serum glucose levels over 800mg/dL), swelling can occur in the brain (cerebral edema), and coma can eventually result. In a metabolic shift to a catabolic (breaking down) process, cells throughout the body empty their electrolytes (sodium, potassium, and phosphate) into the bloodstream. Electrolytes control the fluid balance of the body and are important in muscle contraction, energy generation, and almost all major biochemical reactions in the body. As a result of electrolyte imbalance, many functions can become impaired. Free fatty acids from lipid stores are increased, encouraging the production of ketoacids in the liver, leading to an over-acidic condition (metabolic acidosis) that causes even more disruption in body processes. Wit Continue reading >>

Chapter 21 (emt)

Chapter 21 (emt)

Sort Which of the following is an action of insulin? incorrectIt increases the transfer of sugar from the stomach and small intestine to the bloodstream. It increases the movement of sugar from the bloodstream to the cell. It increases the circulating level of glucose in the blood. It blocks the uptake of sugar by the body's cells. It increases the movement of sugar from the bloodstream to the cell. If the blood sugar level is very high, which of the following may result? Excessive urination, excessive thirst, and excessive hunger Polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, and hyperactivity Excessive insulin, excessive glucose, and excessive urination Hyperactivity, excessive thirst, and polyuria Excessive urination, excessive thirst, and excessive hunger For the reticular activating system to work correctly, what three substances are needed? Oxygen to perfuse brain tissue, insulin to nourish brain tissue, and sodium to keep the brain hydrated Oxygen to perfuse brain tissue, insulin to nourish brain tissue, and water to keep the brain hydrated Oxygen to perfuse brain tissue, glucose to nourish brain tissue, and sodium to keep the brain hydrated Oxygen to perfuse brain tissue, glucose to nourish brain tissue, and water to keep the brain hydrated Oxygen to perfuse brain tissue, glucose to nourish brain tissue, and water to keep the brain hydrated Which of the following may result in hypoglycemia in the diabetic patient? Failure to take insulin or oral diabetes medications Lack of exercise Vomiting after eating a meal Overeating Vomiting after eating a meal During your primary assessment you find your patient has an altered mental status. This could indicate which of the following? Failing respiratory system Problems with the RAS due to hypertension The need for suctioning of the a Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Print Overview Diabetic ketoacidosis is a serious complication of diabetes that occurs when your body produces high levels of blood acids called ketones. The condition develops when your body can't produce enough insulin. Insulin normally plays a key role in helping sugar (glucose) — a major source of energy for your muscles and other tissues — enter your cells. Without enough insulin, your body begins to break down fat as fuel. This process produces a buildup of acids in the bloodstream called ketones, eventually leading to diabetic ketoacidosis if untreated. If you have diabetes or you're at risk of diabetes, learn the warning signs of diabetic ketoacidosis — and know when to seek emergency care. Symptoms Diabetic ketoacidosis signs and symptoms often develop quickly, sometimes within 24 hours. For some, these signs and symptoms may be the first indication of having diabetes. You may notice: Excessive thirst Frequent urination Nausea and vomiting Abdominal pain Weakness or fatigue Shortness of breath Fruity-scented breath Confusion More-specific signs of diabetic ketoacidosis — which can be detected through home blood and urine testing kits — include: High blood sugar level (hyperglycemia) High ketone levels in your urine When to see a doctor If you feel ill or stressed or you've had a recent illness or injury, check your blood sugar level often. You might also try an over-the-counter urine ketones testing kit. Contact your doctor immediately if: You're vomiting and unable to tolerate food or liquid Your blood sugar level is higher than your target range and doesn't respond to home treatment Your urine ketone level is moderate or high Seek emergency care if: Your blood sugar level is consistently higher than 300 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL), or 16.7 mill Continue reading >>

What Are The 3 P's Of Diabetes?

What Are The 3 P's Of Diabetes?

The 3 classic symptoms of diabetes mellitus are polyuria, polydipsia and polyphagia -- also known as the 3 P's. Polyuria, polydipsia and polyphagia are defined as an increase in urination, thirst and hunger, respectively. The presence of the 3 P’s is a good indication that your blood sugar may be too high. With type 1 diabetes (T1DM), these symptoms typically develop relatively quickly and are more obvious, often leading to diagnosis of the condition. With type 2 diabetes (T2DM), the 3 P's are often more subtle and develop more gradually. As a result, people with type 2 diabetes may overlook these symptoms, leading to a delay in diagnosis. Video of the Day The 3 P’s of diabetes are typically among the first symptoms to occur in T1DM, but they can occur with other conditions. Polyuria, or excessive urine production, can be identified by needing to urinate during the night, frequent bathroom trips or accidents in potty-trained children. Polydipsia, a consequence of polyuria, is characterized by excessive thirst. An increase in fluid intake due to polydipsia can also contribute to increased urination. Polyphagia is the term for excessive or increased hunger. It occurs with diabetes because blood sugar is fails to enter body tissues normally, leaving them short of fuel to produce energy. To compensate, fat and muscle are broken down and used for energy resulting in weight loss, lack of energy and fatigue, which are most often seen with T1DM. Signs of long-term high blood sugar, such as blurred vision and tingling or numbness in hands and feet, are more common at diagnosis with T2DM. High Blood Sugar and the 3 P's The 3 P's of diabetes all stem from high blood sugar levels. Blood sugar is normally filtered by the kidneys but then reabsorbed into the blood. When blood sug Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)

Diabetic ketoacidosis is an acute metabolic complication of diabetes characterized by hyperglycemia, hyperketonemia, and metabolic acidosis. Hyperglycemia causes an osmotic diuresis with significant fluid and electrolyte loss. DKA occurs mostly in type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM). It causes nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain and can progress to cerebral edema, coma, and death. DKA is diagnosed by detection of hyperketonemia and anion gap metabolic acidosis in the presence of hyperglycemia. Treatment involves volume expansion, insulin replacement, and prevention of hypokalemia. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is most common among patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and develops when insulin levels are insufficient to meet the body’s basic metabolic requirements. DKA is the first manifestation of type 1 DM in a minority of patients. Insulin deficiency can be absolute (eg, during lapses in the administration of exogenous insulin) or relative (eg, when usual insulin doses do not meet metabolic needs during physiologic stress). Common physiologic stresses that can trigger DKA include Some drugs implicated in causing DKA include DKA is less common in type 2 diabetes mellitus, but it may occur in situations of unusual physiologic stress. Ketosis-prone type 2 diabetes is a variant of type 2 diabetes, which is sometimes seen in obese individuals, often of African (including African-American or Afro-Caribbean) origin. People with ketosis-prone diabetes (also referred to as Flatbush diabetes) can have significant impairment of beta cell function with hyperglycemia, and are therefore more likely to develop DKA in the setting of significant hyperglycemia. SGLT-2 inhibitors have been implicated in causing DKA in both type 1 and type 2 DM. Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia

Hyperglycemia

Not to be confused with the opposite disorder, hypoglycemia. Hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar (also spelled hyperglycaemia or hyperglycæmia) is a condition in which an excessive amount of glucose circulates in the blood plasma. This is generally a blood sugar level higher than 11.1 mmol/l (200 mg/dl), but symptoms may not start to become noticeable until even higher values such as 15–20 mmol/l (~250–300 mg/dl). A subject with a consistent range between ~5.6 and ~7 mmol/l (100–126 mg/dl) (American Diabetes Association guidelines) is considered slightly hyperglycemic, while above 7 mmol/l (126 mg/dl) is generally held to have diabetes. For diabetics, glucose levels that are considered to be too hyperglycemic can vary from person to person, mainly due to the person's renal threshold of glucose and overall glucose tolerance. On average however, chronic levels above 10–12 mmol/L (180–216 mg/dL) can produce noticeable organ damage over time. Signs and symptoms[edit] The degree of hyperglycemia can change over time depending on the metabolic cause, for example, impaired glucose tolerance or fasting glucose, and it can depend on treatment.[1] Temporary hyperglycemia is often benign and asymptomatic. Blood glucose levels can rise well above normal and cause pathological and functional changes for significant periods without producing any permanent effects or symptoms. [1] During this asymptomatic period, an abnormality in carbohydrate metabolism can occur which can be tested by measuring plasma glucose. [1] However, chronic hyperglycemia at above normal levels can produce a very wide variety of serious complications over a period of years, including kidney damage, neurological damage, cardiovascular damage, damage to the retina or damage to feet and legs. Diabetic n Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In A Pediatric Intensive Care Unit

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In A Pediatric Intensive Care Unit

Objective: To describe the characteristics of children aged 0-14 years diagnosed with diabetic ketoacidosis and compare the following outcomes between children with prior diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus and children without prior diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus length of hospital stay, severity on admission, insulin dosage, time of continuous insulin use, volume of fluids infused during treatment, and complications. Methods: A retrospective descriptive study with review of medical records of patients admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit of a referral hospital from June 2013 to July 2015. The following data regarding 52 admissions were analyzed: age, sex, weight, body surface area, signs, symptoms and severity on admission, blood gas, blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, serum osmolarity, and index of mortality. The insulin dosage, time of continuous insulin use, volume administered in the expansion phase and in the first 24 h, length of stay, and complications such as electrolyte disturbances, hypoglycemia, cerebral edema, and death were compared between the two groups. Results: Patients without a previous diagnosis of DM1 were younger at admission, with mean age of 8.4 years (p < 0.01), reported more nausea or vomiting, polydipsia and polyuria, and showed more weight loss (p < 0.01). This study also observed a higher prevalence of hypokalemia (p < 0.01) and longer hospital stay in this group. Conclusions: No differences in severity between groups were observed. The study showed that children without prior diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus were younger at admission, had more hypokalemia during the course of treatment, and had greater length of hospital stay. KEYWORDS Diabetic ketoacidosis; Children; Cerebral edema; Mortality; Diabetes mellitus Continue reading >>

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