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Which Of The Following Signs And Symptoms Are Most Characteristic Of Hyperglycemic Ketoacidosis?

Final

Final

A 36-year-old male, who is a known diabetic, presents with severe weakness, diaphoresis, and tachycardia. He is conscious, but confused. His blood pressure is 110/58 mm Hg, pulse is 120 beats/min and weak, and respirations are 24 breaths/min. The glucometer reads error after several attempts to assess his blood glucose level. In addition to high-flow oxygen, medical control will MOST likely order you to: Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemic Crises: Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka), And Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar State (hhs)

Hyperglycemic Crises: Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka), And Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar State (hhs)

Go to: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state (HHS) are acute metabolic complications of diabetes mellitus that can occur in patients with both type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus. Timely diagnosis, comprehensive clinical and biochemical evaluation, and effective management is key to the successful resolution of DKA and HHS. Critical components of the hyperglycemic crises management include coordinating fluid resuscitation, insulin therapy, and electrolyte replacement along with the continuous patient monitoring using available laboratory tools to predict the resolution of the hyperglycemic crisis. Understanding and prompt awareness of potential of special situations such as DKA or HHS presentation in comatose state, possibility of mixed acid-base disorders obscuring the diagnosis of DKA, and risk of brain edema during the therapy are important to reduce the risks of complications without affecting recovery from hyperglycemic crisis. Identification of factors that precipitated DKA or HHS during the index hospitalization should help prevent subsequent episode of hyperglycemic crisis. For extensive review of all related areas of Endocrinology, visit WWW.ENDOTEXT.ORG. Go to: INTRODUCTION Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) represent two extremes in the spectrum of decompensated diabetes. DKA and HHS remain important causes of morbidity and mortality among diabetic patients despite well developed diagnostic criteria and treatment protocols (1). The annual incidence of DKA from population-based studies is estimated to range from 4 to 8 episodes per 1,000 patient admissions with diabetes (2). The incidence of DKA continues to increase and it accounts for about 140,000 hospitalizations in the US in 2009 (Figure 1 a) (3). Continue reading >>

Management Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Adults

Management Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Adults

Diabetic ketoacidosis is a potentially life-threatening complication of diabetes, making it a medical emergency. Nurses need to know how to identify and manage it and how to maintain electrolyte balance Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis Definition Diabetic ketoacidosis is a dangerous complication of diabetes mellitus in which the chemical balance of the body becomes far too acidic. Description Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) always results from a severe insulin deficiency. Insulin is the hormone secreted by the body to lower the blood sugar levels when they become too high. Diabetes mellitus is the disease resulting from the inability of the body to produce or respond properly to insulin, required by the body to convert glucose to energy. In childhood diabetes, DKA complications represent the leading cause of death, mostly due to the accumulation of abnormally large amounts of fluid in the brain (cerebral edema). DKA combines three major features: hyperglycemia, meaning excessively high blood sugar kevels; hyperketonemia, meaning an overproduction of ketones by the body; and acidosis, meaning that the blood has become too acidic. Insulin deficiency is responsible for all three conditions: the body glucose goes largely unused since most cells are unable to transport glucose into the cell without the presence of insulin; this condition makes the body use stored fat as an alternative source instead of the unavailable glucose for energy, a process that produces acidic ketones, which build up because they require insulin to be broken down. The presence of excess ketones in the bloodstream in turn causes the blood to become more acidic than the body tissues, which creates a toxic condition. Causes and symptoms DKA is most commonly seen in individuals with type I diabetes, under 19 years of age and is usually caused by the interruption of their insulin treatment or by acute infection or trauma. A small number of people with type II diabetes also experience ketoacidosis, but this is rare give Continue reading >>

Midterm #1

Midterm #1

Sort A 46-year-old man presents with generalized weakness and shortness of breath after he was bitten on the leg by a rattlesnake. His blood pressure is 106/58 mm Hg and his pulse rate is 112 beats/min. In addition to supplemental oxygen, further treatment for this patient should include: splinting and lowering of the affected part. A 36-year-old male, who is a known diabetic, presents with severe weakness, diaphoresis, and tachycardia. He is conscious, but confused. His blood pressure is 110/58 mm Hg, pulse is 120 beats/min and weak, and respirations are 24 breaths/min. The glucometer reads error after several attempts to assess his blood glucose level. In addition to high-flow oxygen, medical control will MOST likely order you to: give at least one tube of oral glucose. Approximately 5 minutes after being stung by a bee, a 21-year-old male develops hives and begins experiencing difficulty breathing. When you arrive at the scene, you note that his level of consciousness is decreased, his breathing is labored, and wheezing can be heard without a stethoscope. The patient has a bee sting kit, but has not used it. You should: assist his ventilations with a bag-mask device, administer epinephrine from his bee sting kit after receiving approval from medical control, and prepare for immediate transport. You are dispatched to a residence for a 20-year-old male with respiratory distress. When you arrive, you find that the patient has a tracheostomy tube and is ventilator dependent. His mother tells you that he was doing fine, but then suddenly began experiencing breathing difficulty. You should: remove him from the mechanical ventilator and ventilate him manually. Law enforcement requests your assistance to evaluate a young female who they believe has overdosed. The patient is Continue reading >>

Diabetes Signs

Diabetes Signs

The symptoms of diabetes can be reduced to three major factors. In the case of type 1 diabetes, these symptoms can develop quickly. However, when it comes to type 2 diabetes, symptoms may be far subtler and develop slower. What are the big three symptoms of diabetes? The three major symptoms of diabetes are: Polyuria - the need to urinate frequently Polydipsia - increased thirst & fluid intake Polyphagia - increased appetite It is common for a number of symptoms to appear together. For example, increased thirst (polydipsia) and an increased need to urinate (polyuria) will often come as a pair. Are there other symptoms of diabetes? The 3Ps of diabetes are a good indication that blood glucose levels may be too high. However, these symptoms may not always be obvious and it’s important to be aware of the other symptoms which may also be presented. In children and young adults, the symptoms of type 1 diabetes (including the 3Ps) develop more quickly. In type 2 diabetes, symptoms of diabetes may appear gradually, sometimes over a period of years, and may become more noticeable on some days and less noticeable on other days. What happens when a person develops diabetes? The 3Ps of diabetes are caused by the effect of diabetes on the body. If the level of glucose in the blood becomes too high, excess glucose is removed from the blood by the kidneys and excreted via the urine (glycosuria). This results in greater urine production and causes the patient to urinate frequently. Water held in the cells is required to replace lost blood volume, and thus causes dehydration and thirst. Increased hunger develops if the body has difficulty getting glucose from the blood into cells. This can occur if the body has insufficient insulin or if the body cannot respond to its insulin sufficie Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes Mellitusclinical And Biochemical Differences

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes Mellitusclinical And Biochemical Differences

Background Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), once thought to typify type 1 diabetes mellitus, has been reported to affect individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. An analysis and overview of the different clinical and biochemical characteristics of DKA that might be predicted between patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes is needed. Methods We reviewed 176 admissions of patients with moderate-to-severe DKA. Patients were classified as having type 1 or type 2 diabetes based on treatment history and/or autoantibody status. Groups were compared for differences in symptoms, precipitants, vital statistics, biochemical profiles at presentation, and response to therapy. Results Of 138 patients admitted for moderate-to-severe DKA, 30 had type 2 diabetes. A greater proportion of the type 2 diabetes group was Latino American or African American (P<.001). Thirty-five admissions (19.9%) were for newly diagnosed diabetes. A total of 85% of all admissions involved discontinuation of medication use, 69.2% in the type 2 group. Infections were present in 21.6% of the type 1 and 48.4% of the type 2 diabetes admissions. A total of 21% of patients with type 1 diabetes and 70% with type 2 diabetes had a body mass index greater than 27. Although the type 1 diabetes group was more acidotic (arterial pH, 7.21 ± 0.12 vs 7.27 ± 0.08; P<.001), type 2 diabetes patients required longer treatment periods (36.0 ± 11.6 vs 28.9 ± 8.9 hours, P = .01) to achieve ketone-free urine. Complications from therapy were uncommon. Conclusions A significant proportion of DKA occurs in patients with type 2 diabetes. The time-tested therapy for DKA of intravenous insulin with concomitant glucose as the plasma level decreases, sufficient fluid and electrolyte replacement, and attention to associated problems remai Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

A Preventable Crisis People who have had diabetic ketoacidosis, or DKA, will tell you it’s worse than any flu they’ve ever had, describing an overwhelming feeling of lethargy, unquenchable thirst, and unrelenting vomiting. “It’s sort of like having molasses for blood,” says George. “Everything moves so slow, the mouth can feel so dry, and there is a cloud over your head. Just before diagnosis, when I was in high school, I would get out of a class and go to the bathroom to pee for about 10–12 minutes. Then I would head to the water fountain and begin drinking water for minutes at a time, usually until well after the next class had begun.” George, generally an upbeat person, said that while he has experienced varying degrees of DKA in his 40 years or so of having diabetes, “…at its worst, there is one reprieve from its ill feeling: Unfortunately, that is a coma.” But DKA can be more than a feeling of extreme discomfort, and it can result in more than a coma. “It has the potential to kill,” says Richard Hellman, MD, past president of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. “DKA is a medical emergency. It’s the biggest medical emergency related to diabetes. It’s also the most likely time for a child with diabetes to die.” DKA occurs when there is not enough insulin in the body, resulting in high blood glucose; the person is dehydrated; and too many ketones are present in the bloodstream, making it acidic. The initial insulin deficit is most often caused by the onset of diabetes, by an illness or infection, or by not taking insulin when it is needed. Ketones are your brain’s “second-best fuel,” Hellman says, with glucose being number one. If you don’t have enough glucose in your cells to supply energy to your brain, yo Continue reading >>

The Signs, Diagnosis & Types Of Diabetes Mellitus In Cats

The Signs, Diagnosis & Types Of Diabetes Mellitus In Cats

There are certain signs or symptoms which are commonly seen in cats with diabetes mellitus. Unfortunately, these signs also occur in other diseases and conditions. Therefore, laboratory tests are necessary to diagnose diabetes mellitus in cats. The following article includes a discussion of how this diagnosis is made and the types of diabetes found in cats. What are the signs of diabetes mellitus in cats and why do they occur? Depending on how severely insulin production is impaired, there may be few signs of disease, or the signs may be severe. Dogs with diabetes often develop cataracts; cats do not. The most common signs of diabetes are: Increased thirst (polydipsia) and urination (polyuria) Change in appetite Weight loss Change in gait (walking) Decreased activity, weakness, depression Vomiting Increased Thirst and Urination: Because the glucose cannot enter the cells, the glucose levels in the blood become abnormally high (hyperglycemia). The glucose is filtered out by the kidneys and is found in the urine (glucosuria). When it is filtered out, it carries water with it. The animal, then, is losing more water through the urine than normal and has to make up for it by drinking more. Inappropriate Elimination: The increased urination may result in the cat not always urinating in the litter box. This inappropriate urination may be one of the first signs of diabetes in cats. In addition, cats with diabetes can often develop urinary tract infections, which may also result in inappropriate elimination. Change in Appetite: Some diabetic cats eat less, because frankly, they do not feel well. Other cats may have voracious appetites and eat a lot (polyphagia) because their hypothalamus keeps telling them they are hungry. Weight Loss: Because the cat cannot use the calories he Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

INTRODUCTION Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a very serious complication of diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disorder that is characterized by hyperglycemia, metabolic acidosis, and increased body ketone concentrations. The most common causes of DKA are infection and poor compliance with medication regimens. Other causes include undiagnosed diabetes, alcohol abuse, and a multitude of medical conditions such as cerebrovascular accident (CVA), complicated pregnancy, myocardial infarction, pancreatitis, and stress. Diabetic ketoacidosis is a complicated pathology. Early recognition of DKA, a good understanding of the pathological processes of DKA, and aggressive treatment are the keys to successful treatment. With good care, DKA can be managed and the patient will survive. OBJECTIVES When the student has finished studying this module, he/she will be able to: 1. Identify the correct definition of DKA. 2. Identify a basic function of insulin. 3. Identify the insulin derangements of types I and II diabetes. 4. Identify the basic cause of DKA. 5. Identify two specific causes of DKA. 6. Identify the two pathogenic mechanisms that produce the signs/symptoms of DKA. 7. Identify metabolic consequences of increased hormone concentrations in DKA. 8. Identify the criteria used to diagnose DKA. 9. Identify common signs and symptoms of DKA. 10. Identify laboratory abnormalities seen in DKA. 11. Identify complications of DKA. 12. Identify the three most important therapies for treating DKA. 13. Identify the correct roles of sodium bicarbonate and phosphate in treating DKA. 14. Identify an important rule for using potassium replacement in DKA. 15. Identify an important rule for switching from IV to subcutaneous insulin. EPIDEMIOLOGY Most cases of DKA are seen in patients with type I diabete Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus Type 1

Diabetes Mellitus Type 1

Diabetes Mellitus (DM) Type 1 is a chronic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) and disruption in metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. It occurs because of little or no insulin being produced by the pancreas. It occurs in children or young adults, usually before the age of 30. It typically has an abrupt onset, with most individuals having a thin or normal body weight at diagnosis. Type 1 Diabetes is managed by diet, exercise, and insulin injections. It can result in serious vascular complications and neuropathies and can be a major cause of cardiovascular disease and strokes. It is also the leading cause of end-stage renal (kidney) disease, non-traumatic amputations in the lower extremity, and new cases of blindness. Autoimmune, environmental, and genetic causes may put individuals at risk of developing Type 1 DM. ~5% of all Diabetes cases are Type 1 DM 29.1 million Americans had Diabetes (2012) 1.25 million Americans had Type 1 DM (2012) 208,000 Americans under the age of 20 estimated to have Diabetes, which is 0.25% of the population Polyuria (increased urination) Polydipsia (increased thirst) Polyphagia (Increased appetite)~ Glycosuria (glucose in urine) Weight loss despite polyphagia~ Hyperglycemia (increased blood glucose) Ketonuria (ketones in urine) Fruity smelling breath Fatigue Generalized weakness Blurred vision Irritability Recurring skin, gum, bladder, vaginal, or other infections Numbness or tingling in hands or feet Cuts, scrapes, or bruises that are difficult or slow to heal Periarthritis (especially shoulder)~ Hand stiffness ~ = Occurs primarily in Type 1 Diabetes Hypoglycemia Hypertension Dislipidemia Cardiovascular Disease Blindness/Eye problems Kidney Disease Increased risk for cognitive decline/dementia (including Al Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus Nclex Quiz

Diabetes Mellitus Nclex Quiz

This NCLEX diabetes mellitus quiz will test your knowledge on diabetes. Diabetes mellitus is where a patient does not have sufficient amounts of insulin to use the glucose that enters the blood stream. Therefore, the patient experiences hyperglycemia which is damaging to the body. The NCLEX and nursing school lecture exams love to test students on their ability to differentiate between causes, signs and symptoms, patient education, and various treatments for diabetes. This NCLEX quiz will test your ability: Patho of Diabetes Mellitus Causes of Diabetes Mellitus Different types of Diabetes Mellitus Signs and Symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus Complications of Diabetes Mellitus Lecture on Diabetes Mellitus (NOTE: When you hit submit, it will refresh this same page. Scroll down to see your results.) Diabetes Mellitus NCLEX Quiz 1.Which of the following symptoms do NOT present in hyperglycemia? A. Extreme thirst B. Hunger C. Blood glucose <60 mg/dL D. Glycosuria 2. Type 1 diabetics typically have the following clinical characteristics: A. Thin, young with ketones present in the urine B. Overweight, young with no ketones present in the urine C. Thin, adult-aged with ketones present in the urine D. Thin, older adult with glycosuria 3. A patient with diabetes has a morning glucose of 50. The patient is sweaty, cold, and clammy. Which of the following nursing interventions is MOST important? A. Recheck the glucose level B. Give the patient ½ cup (4 oz) of fruit juice C. Call the doctor D. Keep the patient nothing by mouth 4. Which of the following patients is at most risk for Type 2 diabetes? A. A 6 year old girl recovering from a viral infection with a family history of diabetes. B. A 28 year old male with a BMI of 49. C. A 76 year old female with a history of cardiac disease. D. Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis Workup

Diabetic Ketoacidosis Workup

Approach Considerations Diabetic ketoacidosis is typically characterized by hyperglycemia over 250 mg/dL, a bicarbonate level less than 18 mEq/L, and a pH less than 7.30, with ketonemia and ketonuria. While definitions vary, mild DKA can be categorized by a pH level of 7.25-7.3 and a serum bicarbonate level between 15-18 mEq/L; moderate DKA can be categorized by a pH between 7.0-7.24 and a serum bicarbonate level of 10 to less than 15 mEq/L; and severe DKA has a pH less than 7.0 and bicarbonate less than 10 mEq/L. [17] In mild DKA, anion gap is greater than 10 and in moderate or severe DKA the anion gap is greater than 12. These figures differentiate DKA from HHS where blood glucose is greater than 600 mg/dL but pH is greater than 7.3 and serum bicarbonate greater than 15 mEq/L. Laboratory studies for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) should be scheduled as follows: Repeat laboratory tests are critical, including potassium, glucose, electrolytes, and, if necessary, phosphorus. Initial workup should include aggressive volume, glucose, and electrolyte management. It is important to be aware that high serum glucose levels may lead to dilutional hyponatremia; high triglyceride levels may lead to factitious low glucose levels; and high levels of ketone bodies may lead to factitious elevation of creatinine levels. Continue reading >>

Quick And Dirty Guide To Diabetic Emergencies

Quick And Dirty Guide To Diabetic Emergencies

Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes Mellitus is a systemic disease of the endocrine system resulting from the insufficiency/dysfunction of the pancreas. It is a complex disorder of fat, carbohydrates, and protein metabolism. Diabetes mellitus is potentially lethal, putting the patient at risk for several types of medical emergencies. It is characterized by a lack of insulin, or a persons inability to use insulin. In order to properly manage the numerous calls for diabetics, it is important for EMS professionals to have a basic knowledge of diabetes (DM) before dealing with the associated emergencies that may arise as a result of the disease. Diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death in the US, as well as, it is estimated that 5 + million US citizens become diabetic annually and don't realize they have the disease until an emergency arises. To truly understand the signs and symptoms of the various related conditions, we must first, comprehend some basic pathophysiology. The primary energy fuel for cells is glucose. Glucose is a simple sugar that accounts for approximately 95 percent of the sugar in the bloodstream after gastrointestinal absorption. Thus, it is the blood glucose level that EMS and other health care practitioners are most interested in determining. The key function of insulin (A hormone secreted by the beta cells in the pancreas) is to move glucose from the blood into the cells, where it can be used for energy. However, insulin does not directly carry glucose into the cell, it triggers a receptor on the plasma membrane to open a channel allowing a protein helper (through the process of facilitated diffusion), to carry the glucose molecule into the cell. As long as any insulin is available in the blood, is active, is effective, and is able to stimulate the rece Continue reading >>

Emt-b: Medical

Emt-b: Medical

Sort Which of the following signs and symptoms are MOST characteristic of hyperglycemic ketoacidosis? Warm, dry skin and a slow onset Hyperglycemic ketoacidosis (diabetic coma) is characterized by a dangerously high blood glucose level (hyperglycemia); slow onset; warm, dry skin (from dehydration); and Kussmaul's respirations, which are deep and rapid and have a fruity or acetone odor. Insulin shock results from a low blood glucose level (hypoglycemia) and is characterized by a rapid onset; altered mental status; and cool, clammy skin. A 40-year-old woman presents with widespread hives that she noticed about 45 minutes after taking penicillin. She is conscious and alert and denies difficulty breathing. Her breath sounds are clear to auscultation bilaterally, her vital signs are stable, and her oxygen saturation is 94%. She tells you she is allergic to wasps and has an epinephrine auto-injector. You should: give supplemental oxygen and transport her to the hospital. The patient is experiencing an allergic reaction, but she is not in anaphylactic shock. Urticaria (hives) is common to all allergic reactions, regardless of severity; however, wheezing and hypotension, which she does not have, are specific to anaphylaxis. Although she carries an epinephrine auto-injector for her allergy to wasps, she was not stung by a wasp. Furthermore, the absence of wheezing and hypotension negates epinephrine administration. Give supplemental oxygen (in a concentration sufficient to maintain an SpO2 of greater than 94%) and transport her to the hospital. Because it can take up to an hour for signs of a severe allergic reaction to manifest, the patient should not drive herself. Diphenhydramine (Benadryl), an antihistamine, is an appropriate drug based on her presentation; however, it is no Continue reading >>

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