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Which Of The Following Is Not True About How The Body Handles Excess Glucose

Nutrition Exam 3

Nutrition Exam 3

1. Metabolism 1.Metabolism is the sum of these and all the other chemical reactions that go on in living cells; energy metabolism includes all the ways the body obtains and uses energy from food. The enzymes involved in Phase I reactions are primarily located in the endoplasmic reticulum of the liver cell, they are called microsomal enzymes. Phase II metabolism involves the introduction of a hydrophilic endogenous species, such as glucuronic acid or sulfate, to the drug molecule. Refer to evernote for more info. 2. Examples of anabolism and metabolism. 2.Anabolism refers to all the metabolic activity in the human body that builds biological molecules, and catabolism refers to all the metabolic processes that break down biological molecules. EXAMPLE'S Muscle tissue growth is an anabolic process, and digestion is a catabolic activity. Diagram in evernote. 4. Body's response to feasting and fasting: metabolism, storage, priority Study ch 7 notes. Diagram for feasting and fasting, excess of each macro and defecit of each, first day what happens, next day major source of glucose. Refer to evernote for diagram Feasting: metabolism favors fat formation, excess energy stored as fat. Excess Protein Recall from Chapter 6 that the body cannot store excess amino acids as such; it has to convert them to other compounds. Contrary to popular opinion, a person cannot grow muscle simply by overeating protein. Lean tissue such as muscle develops in response to a stimulus such as hormones or physical activity. When a person overeats protein, the body uses the surplus first by replacing normal daily losses and then by increasing protein oxidation. An increase in protein oxidation uses some excess protein, but it displaces fat in the fuel mix. If excess protein is still available, the amino Continue reading >>

Fsn127 E2

Fsn127 E2

Which is false about type 1 and type 2 diabetes ?A) when untreated they both cause hyperglycemiaB) initially, they both involve the failure of the pancreas to produce insulinC) they both are diseases relating to the control of blood glucose Flashcards Matching Hangman Crossword Type In Quiz Test StudyStack Study Table Bug Match Hungry Bug Unscramble Chopped Targets FSN127 Exam 2 Study Guide and Reading Assignment Question Answer Which is false about type 1 and type 2 diabetes ?A) when untreated they both cause hyperglycemiaB) initially, they both involve the failure of the pancreas to produce insulinC) they both are diseases relating to the control of blood glucose B) initially, they both involve the failure of the pancreas to produce insulin Which type of hypoglycemia occurs a few hours after a meal and is associated with a panic attack ? A) reactive hypoglycemia B) fasting hypoglycemia A) reactive hypoglycemia Which are signs that suggest a person should get evaluated for diabetes ?A) excessive hungerB) frequent urinationC) blurred visionD) A and B only E) A, B, and C E) A, B, and C It is possible that person who is classified as being insulin resistant will have a very high blood level of insulin. A) true B) false A) True All people who develop insulin resistance go on to develop Type 2 diabetes mellitus. A) true B) false B) False Various studies have shown that diabetics who consume food of low glycemic index tend to have improved blood glucose levels. A) true B) false A) True Hypoglycemia refers to A) high blood sugar B) high blood pressure C) low blood sugar D) low blood pressure C) Low blood sugar Which of the following refers to damage to the kidneys caused by chronic hyperglycemia, as occurs in poorly managed diabetes mellitus ?A) retinopathy B) neuropathy C) n Continue reading >>

The Liver & Blood Sugar

The Liver & Blood Sugar

During a meal, your liver stores sugar for later. When you’re not eating, the liver supplies sugar by turning glycogen into glucose in a process called glycogenolysis. The liver both stores and produces sugar… The liver acts as the body’s glucose (or fuel) reservoir, and helps to keep your circulating blood sugar levels and other body fuels steady and constant. The liver both stores and manufactures glucose depending upon the body’s need. The need to store or release glucose is primarily signaled by the hormones insulin and glucagon. During a meal, your liver will store sugar, or glucose, as glycogen for a later time when your body needs it. The high levels of insulin and suppressed levels of glucagon during a meal promote the storage of glucose as glycogen. The liver makes sugar when you need it…. When you’re not eating – especially overnight or between meals, the body has to make its own sugar. The liver supplies sugar or glucose by turning glycogen into glucose in a process called glycogenolysis. The liver also can manufacture necessary sugar or glucose by harvesting amino acids, waste products and fat byproducts. This process is called gluconeogenesis. When your body’s glycogen storage is running low, the body starts to conserve the sugar supplies for the organs that always require sugar. These include: the brain, red blood cells and parts of the kidney. To supplement the limited sugar supply, the liver makes alternative fuels called ketones from fats. This process is called ketogenesis. The hormone signal for ketogenesis to begin is a low level of insulin. Ketones are burned as fuel by muscle and other body organs. And the sugar is saved for the organs that need it. The terms “gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysis and ketogenesis” may seem like compli Continue reading >>

An Overview Of The Pancreas

An Overview Of The Pancreas

Pancreas Essentials The pancreas maintains the body’s blood glucose (sugar) balance. Primary hormones of the pancreas include insulin and glucagon, and both regulate blood glucose. Diabetes is the most common disorder associated with the pancreas. The pancreas is unique in that it’s both an endocrine and exocrine gland. In other words, the pancreas has the dual function of secreting hormones into blood (endocrine) and secreting enzymes through ducts (exocrine). The pancreas belongs to the endocrine and digestive systems—with most of its cells (more than 90%) working on the digestive side. However, the pancreas performs the vital duty of producing hormones—most notably insulin—to maintain the balance of blood glucose (sugar) and salt in the body. Without this balance, your body is susceptible to serious complications, such as diabetes. Anatomy of the Pancreas The pancreas is a 6 inch-long flattened gland that lies deep within the abdomen, between the stomach and the spine. It is connected to the duodenum, which is part of the small intestine. Only about 5% of the pancreas is comprised of endocrine cells. These cells are clustered in groups within the pancreas and look like little islands of cells when examined under a microscope. These groups of pancreatic endocrine cells are known as pancreatic islets or more specifically, islets of Langerhans (named after the scientist who discovered them). Hormones of the Pancreas The production of pancreatic hormones, including insulin, somatostatin, gastrin, and glucagon, play an important role in maintaining sugar and salt balance in our bodies. Gastrin: This hormone aids digestion by stimulating certain cells in the stomach to produce acid. Glucagon: Glucagon helps insulin maintain normal blood glucose by working in the Continue reading >>

Ch 15 Drugs For The Endocrine System Flashcards Preview

Ch 15 Drugs For The Endocrine System Flashcards Preview

1. The main regulators of metabolism, growth and development, reproduction, homeostasis, energy production, and immunity are: minerals. vitamins. hormones. nutrients. hormones. The main regulators of metabolism, growth and development, reproduction, homeostasis, energy production, and immunity are hormones 2. Which of the following is the gland at the base of the brain, known as the master gland? Thyroid Adrenal Pituitary Thymus 3. Which of the following terms is used to describe a condition that results from the overproduction of growth hormone in an adult? Acromegaly Gigantism Hypergenesis Osteopathy 4. Which of the following glands is (are) NOT controlled by the pituitary? Sex glands Parathyroid glands Thyroid gland Adrenal glands 6. Which of the following is the major function of the thyroid gland? Control metabolism Regulate blood calcium levels Secrete epinephrine in response to an emergency Store excess sugar in the liver 8. An intolerance to cold, personality changes, fatigue, dry skin, brittle nails, slow speech, and weight gain may be symptoms of: diabetes mellitus. hypothyroidism. Cushing's syndrome. Addison's disease. 33. Which of the following statements describes why insulin must be injected? Insulin is destroyed by gastric secretions. Oral delivery results in a longer time for the peak effect to occur than does injection. Continuous delivery by the transdermal route dose not conform to fluctuations in blood sugar levels. Buccal administration is too fast to coincide with peak action. Faulty messages from the pituitary There are many reasons a gland may secrete too much, too little, or too early. One is that the gland may be overdeveloped, a condition called hyperplasia. Or it may contain a tumor. Usually tumors and hyperplasia cause too much hormone produ Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes

What is type 2 diabetes Type 2 diabetes is a chronic condition that affects your body’s use of glucose (a type of sugar you make from the carbohydrates you eat). Glucose is the fuel your cells need to do their work. You need glucose for energy. You also need insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas that helps glucose enter your cells so that it can be converted to energy. Here’s the problem: People with type 2 diabetes (also known as diabetes mellitus) can’t properly use or store glucose, either because their cells resist it or, in some cases, they don’t make enough. Over time, glucose builds up in the bloodstream, which can lead to serious health complications unless people take steps to manage their blood sugar. Type 2 diabetes affects more than 29 million Americans, including nearly eight million who don’t even know they have it. You may be at greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes if it runs in your family, if you are of a certain age or ethnicity, or if you are inactive or overweight. Type 2 diabetes vs. type 1 diabetes What’s the difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes? Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease in which the body does not produce insulin. The immune system destroys insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. Type 1 diabetes is usually diagnosed in children, teens, and young adults. People with type 1 diabetes need life-long insulin therapy. Type 2 diabetes is much more common. In type 2 diabetes, the body doesn’t use insulin properly or, in some cases, doesn’t make enough. It’s usually diagnosed in middle-aged or older adults, but anyone can develop type 2 diabetes. It can be managed through diet, exercise, and medication. Type 2 diabetes occurs when the body doesn’t use insulin as it should or when the pancreas doesn Continue reading >>

Why White Bread And Sugar Can Be Bad For Your Health | News & Observer

Why White Bread And Sugar Can Be Bad For Your Health | News & Observer

Why white bread and sugar can be bad for your health | News & Observer Why white bread and sugar can be bad for your health Richard Marini - San Antonio Express-News Youve probably read that the new No. 1 food villain isnt fat or cholesterol. Its sugar. In fact, youve probably read it right here in one of my previous columns. You might also be reading not here, but elsewhere that bread is just as bad for you as sugar. That the body cant distinguish between the two and digests both the same way. Not true, according to Robert Lustig, a pediatric endocrinologist at the University of California, San Francisco, and author of Fat Chance: Beating the Odds Against Sugar, Processed Food, Obesity, and Disease. Neither sugar nor most bread is all that good for you when consumed in more than moderate quantities. But they are metabolized differently by the digestive system. Help us deliver journalism that makes a difference in our community. Our journalism takes a lot of time, effort, and hard work to produce. If you read and enjoy our journalism, please consider subscribing today. I asked Lustig to walk me through the chemistry, and, fortunately, you dont have to be Walter White to understand it. Sugar, Lustig explained, is made up of one glucose molecule bound to one fructose molecule. Enzymes in the gut cleave the bond so the glucose can be absorbed into the bloodstream. This triggers the release of insulin, which shuttles the glucose into the cells where its used for energy. Eat too much sugar, though, and the body will convert the excess glucose into love handles for your gut or extra padding for your butt. Meanwhile, the newly liberated fructose is sent to the liver to be metabolized. Too much sugar and the excess fructose can overwhelm the livers ability to handle it. The ex Continue reading >>

Questions And Answers About Sugars

Questions And Answers About Sugars

By Kris Sollid, RD | Sep 28 2009 Last updated May 23 2014 Favorably Reviewed By: American Academy of Family Physicians Foundation Think about foods you most enjoy eating. Chances are they contain some form of sugar. It could be the sugars in peaches fresh from the orchard, or the sugars contributing to the prized taste of your favorite ice cream. Indeed, most people enjoy the sweet taste of sugars. But taste is only one of the important roles sugars play in food. For example, sugars help preserve jams, cereals, cakes, candies, cookies and drinks. Sugars also help produce the tender, moist texture of cakes and the golden-brown, crispy essence of many cookies. As part of a balanced plan for healthy eating, you can enjoy sugars in moderation. This brochure answers questions you may have about sugars and their role in a healthful diet. Sugars are carbohydrates, which serve as the main energy source for the body. There are many types of sugars. They occur both naturally and as ingredients in many foods. The most familiar sugar is sucrose. It is made of two simple sugars, fructose and glucose. Fruits and vegetables naturally contain fructose and glucose. Other sugars used in foods include invert sugar, corn syrup, high fructose corn syrup, honey, lactose (milk sugar) and other syrups. During digestion, all of these sugars except lactose break down into fructose and glucose. Lactose breaks down into glucose and galactose. Sugars play important roles in foods. They add taste, texture and color to baked goods. They provide energy for yeast used in baking bread. They add body to yogurt. They help balance acidity in tomato sauces and salad dressings. Certain sugars also play special roles in foods. Invert sugar helps keep sucrose from crystallizing in candies. Corn syrup is used Continue reading >>

Does Carbohydrate Become Body Fat?

Does Carbohydrate Become Body Fat?

Dear Reader, Ah, poor carbohydrates, maligned by diets such as Atkins’ and the ketogenic diet. However, carbohydrates are your body’s main source of energy — in fact your muscles and brain cells prefer carbs more than other sources of energy (triglycerides and fat, for example). To answer your question: research completed over the last several decades suggests that if you are eating a diet that is appropriate for your levels of daily activity, little to no carbohydrate is converted to fat in your body. For most people (unless you have a metabolic disorder) when you eat carbs they are digested, broken down to glucose, and then transported to all the cells in your body. They are then metabolized and used to support cellular processes. If you’re active and eating appropriately for your activity level, most of the carbs you consume are more or less burned immediately. There are two caveats here: first, if you’re eating a lot more calories per day than you are burning, then yes, your liver will convert excess calories from carbohydrate into fats; second, not all carbs are created equal. If you consume too many calories from simple sugars like sucrose and fructose (think sugary sodas sweetened by sugar and high fructose corn syrup) then your body will more readily take some of those sugars and turn them into triglycerides (fat) in your liver. What happens to excess calories that come from carbs? The answer depends on several things: what kind of carbs you consumed, your genetics, as well as how many extra calories we’re talking about. For those who eat a well-balanced diet and have no metabolic disorders, excess dietary carbohydrates are converted by the liver into complex chains of glucose called glycogen. Glycogen is stored in liver and muscle cells and is a sec Continue reading >>

Ess 3 Nutrition For Health

Ess 3 Nutrition For Health

What is the end product of both simple and complex carbohydrate consumption in humans? What is the stored form of glucose called? What happens when eating sugar before short term events (sprints, field events)? Blood glucose level shoots up and then has a dramatic fall. Eating sugar is not good for you at all, you don't need to completely remove it from your diet, but it will never improve performance. Glucagon is a hormone that is secreted from the pancreas that stimulates the liver to release glucose into the blood and raise blood glucose levels. What does your body do to regulate blood glucose level when it is too low? The pancreas releases glucagon to stimulate the liver in order for it to release glucose into the blood and raise blood glucose levels. Insulin is a hormone secreted from the pancreas that regulates glucose entry into all tissues. Insulin lowers and regulates blood glucose levels. What does your body do to regulate blood glucose levels when it is too high? The pancreas secretes insulin that regulates glucose entry into tissues (liver, muscles, adipose cells) Makes sure excess glucose is not in the blood. Fructose is the sweetest of all sugars, even sweeter than table sugar (sucrose). Does fiber provide any calories to the human body? No, fiber is indigestible, therefore it cannot be absorbed and if it is not absorbed then your body cannot take any calories from it. But, fiber is still nutritionally important and helps prevent certain diseases. What is the main source of energy for the human body? Carbohydrates are our main source of energy. Which of the two contains more calories (spoon for spoon) sugar or honey? Fibers can be broken down by the human body? False, fibers are indigestible. Although, they can be water soluble, or water insoluble. The in Continue reading >>

The Liver And Blood Glucose Levels

The Liver And Blood Glucose Levels

Tweet Glucose is the key source of energy for the human body. Supply of this vital nutrient is carried through the bloodstream to many of the body’s cells. The liver produces, stores and releases glucose depending on the body’s need for glucose, a monosaccharide. This is primarily indicated by the hormones insulin - the main regulator of sugar in the blood - and glucagon. In fact, the liver acts as the body’s glucose reservoir and helps to keep your circulating blood sugar levels and other body fuels steady and constant. How the liver regulates blood glucose During absorption and digestion, the carbohydrates in the food you eat are reduced to their simplest form, glucose. Excess glucose is then removed from the blood, with the majority of it being converted into glycogen, the storage form of glucose, by the liver’s hepatic cells via a process called glycogenesis. Glycogenolysis When blood glucose concentration declines, the liver initiates glycogenolysis. The hepatic cells reconvert their glycogen stores into glucose, and continually release them into the blood until levels approach normal range. However, when blood glucose levels fall during a long fast, the body’s glycogen stores dwindle and additional sources of blood sugar are required. To help make up this shortfall, the liver, along with the kidneys, uses amino acids, lactic acid and glycerol to produce glucose. This process is known as gluconeogenesis. The liver may also convert other sugars such as sucrose, fructose, and galactose into glucose if your body’s glucose needs not being met by your diet. Ketones Ketones are alternative fuels that are produced by the liver from fats when sugar is in short supply. When your body’s glycogen storage runs low, the body starts conserving the sugar supplies fo Continue reading >>

Unit 3 Test

Unit 3 Test

23 Muscles develop in response to which of the following stimuli? a. high quality meats in the diet b. protein supplements c. hormones and physical activity only d. hormones e. physical activity f. protein supplements and physical activity only 26 Which of the following statements regarding the basic units of energy-yielding nutrients is false? a. Amino acids have 2, 3, or more carbons with a sulfur molecule attached. b. Glycerol has 3 carbons. c. Fatty acids usually have an even number of carbons; commonly 16 or 18. d. Glucose has 6 carbons. 28 Which of the following statements regarding excess energy intake is false? a. The body uses less energy to convert dietary carbohydrate to body fat than dietary fat to body fat. b. The more protein and carbohydrate available for energy from food, the less fat contributes to energy thereby accumulating as fat storage. c. When a person eats too much, metabolism favors fat formation. d. Before entering fat storage, protein must fulfill its role in the body's lean tissues. 39 8. Which of the following nutrients provides the strongest satiety signals when it enters the intestine? a. vitamins b. carbohydrates c. proteins d. water e. fats f. minerals 43 8. Which of the following statements regarding how anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa sometimes overlap is false? a. victims of both disorders have a tendency to drastically under eat b. victims of both disorders may be overly concerned with body weight c. none of these choices d. victims of both disorders may purge e. victims of both disorders may perceive foods as "forbidden" and "give in" to an eating binge 48 9. Which of the following statements regarding environmental influences and food intake is incorrect? a. People tend to eat less food when socializing with others. b. The les Continue reading >>

Chapter 4

Chapter 4

Sort Fatty Acids Carbohydrates can be converted into glycogen for short-term energy storage in the liver and muscle cells. When the capacity for glycogen storage is reached, excess glucose is converted to ________ in the process of lipogenesis Fatty Acids Amino Acids Starch None of The Above Continue reading >>

How Is Excess Glucose Stored?

How Is Excess Glucose Stored?

The human body has an efficient and complex system of storing and preserving energy. Glucose is a type of sugar that the body uses for energy. Glucose is the product of breaking down carbohydrates into their simplest form. Carbohydrates should make up approximately 45 to 65 percent of your daily caloric intake, according to MayoClinic.com. Video of the Day Glucose is a simple sugar found in carbohydrates. When more complex carbohydrates such as polysaccharides and disaccharides are broken down in the stomach, they break down into the monosaccharide glucose. Carbohydrates serve as the primary energy source for working muscles, help brain and nervous system functioning and help the body use fat more efficiently. Function of Glucose Once carbohydrates are absorbed from food, they are carried to the liver for processing. In the liver, fructose and galactose, the other forms of sugar, are converted into glucose. Some glucose gets sent to the bloodstream while the rest is stored for later energy use. Once glucose is inside the liver, glucose is phosphorylated into glucose-6-phosphate, or G6P. G6P is further metabolized into triglycerides, fatty acids, glycogen or energy. Glycogen is the form in which the body stores glucose. The liver can only store about 100 g of glucose in the form of glycogen. The muscles also store glycogen. Muscles can store approximately 500 g of glycogen. Because of the limited storage areas, any carbohydrates that are consumed beyond the storage capacity are converted to and stored as fat. There is practically no limit on how many calories the body can store as fat. The glucose stored in the liver serves as a buffer for blood glucose levels. Therefore, if the blood glucose levels start to get low because you have not consumed food for a period of time Continue reading >>

How The Body Uses Carbohydrates, Proteins, And Fats

How The Body Uses Carbohydrates, Proteins, And Fats

How the Body Uses Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Fats The human body is remarkably adept at making do with whatever type of food is available. Our ability to survive on a variety of diets has been a vital adaptation for a species that evolved under conditions where food sources were scarce and unpredictable. Imagine if you had to depend on successfully hunting a woolly mammoth or stumbling upon a berry bush for sustenance! Today, calories are mostly cheap and plentifulperhaps too much so. Understanding what the basic macronutrients have to offer can help us make better choices when it comes to our own diets. From the moment a bite of food enters the mouth, each morsel of nutrition within starts to be broken down for use by the body. So begins the process of metabolism, the series of chemical reactions that transform food into components that can be used for the body's basic processes. Proteins, carbohydrates , and fats move along intersecting sets of metabolic pathways that are unique to each major nutrient. Fundamentallyif all three nutrients are abundant in the dietcarbohydrates and fats will be used primarily for energy while proteins provide the raw materials for making hormones, muscle, and other essential biological equipment. Proteins in food are broken down into pieces (called amino acids) that are then used to build new proteins with specific functions, such as catalyzing chemical reactions, facilitating communication between different cells, or transporting biological molecules from here to there. When there is a shortage of fats or carbohydrates, proteins can also yield energy. Fats typically provide more than half of the body's energy needs. Fat from food is broken down into fatty acids, which can travel in the blood and be captured by hungry cells. Fatty aci Continue reading >>

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