Metabolism And Ketosis
Dr. Eades, If the body tends to resort to gluconeogenesis for glucose during a short-term carbohydrate deficit, are those who inconsistently reduce carb intake only messing things up by not effecting full blown ketosis? If the body will still prefer glucose as main energy source unless forced otherwise for at least a few days, is it absolutely necessary to completely transform metabolism for minimal muscle loss? Also, if alcohol is broken down into ketones and acetaldehyde, technically couldn’t you continue to drink during your diet or would the resulting gluconeogenesis inhibition from alcohol lead to blood glucose problems on top of the ketotic metabolism? Would your liver ever just be overwhelmed by all that action? I’m still in high school so hypothetical, of course haha… Sorry, lots of questions but I’m always so curious. Thank you so much for taking the time to inform the public. You’re my hero! P.S. Random question…what’s the difference between beta and gamma hydroxybutyric acids? It’s crazy how simple orientation can be the difference between a ketone and date rape drug…biochem is so cool! P.P.S. You should definitely post the details of that inner mitochondrial membrane transport. I’m curious how much energy expenditure we’re talkin there.. Keep doin your thing! Your Fan, Trey No, I don’t think people are messing up if they don’t get into full-blown ketosis. For short term low-carb dieting, the body turns to glycogen. Gluconeogenesis kicks in fairly quickly, though, and uses dietary protein – assuming there is plenty – before turning to muscle tissue for glucose substrate. And you have the Cori cycle kicking in and all sorts of things to spare muscle, so I wouldn’t worry about it. And you can continue to drink while low-carbing. Continue reading >>
The Ugly Truth About Ketogenic Diets
Here's what you need to know... Ketosis occurs when carbs are in such low quantities that your body relies almost exclusively on fatty acid oxidation and ketone metabolism. Ketogenic diets have about 70-75% of your daily caloric intake coming from fat and about 5% from carbohydrates. Ingesting protein above approximately .8 grams per pound is enough to kick you out of ketosis. Ketogenic diets improve body comp, but so does any diet that reduces calories from any source. There is no literature to support that a ketogenic diet is beneficial for promoting increases in muscle mass. Ketogenic diets affect performance negatively. Questions About Ketosis While the ketogenic diet has been used widely and rather effectively in some cases, there's still a lot of confusion about it. What exactly is a ketogenic diet? How does it differ from low carb dieting? Most importantly, at least for the T Nation demographic, is the question of whether ketogenic diets allow you to put on, or at least keep, muscle. Ketosis: What is it? Ketosis is a metabolic state that occurs when dietary carbohydrates are in such low quantities that your body must rely almost exclusively on fatty acid oxidation and ketone metabolism. That sounds simple on the surface, but let's unpack that explanation a bit. To function, your body requires a substantial amount of energy in the form of ATP. So, let's just assume that the average person uses about 1,800 calories per day to create enough ATP to keep him alive (not including any physical activity). Now this is where it gets interesting. You have this thing in your skull called a brain. It uses about 400 or so calories per day and runs almost exclusively on glucose. (There's some evidence it can use small amounts of fat and lactate, but in the big picture it's not Continue reading >>
South Beach Diet Vs. Ketogenic Diet
Energy can’t be created or destroyed. Just ask someone trying to lose weight. As much as we may want to destroy stored energy (body fat), the truth is, this energy needs to be converted. In order to convert energy stored as body fat to something else, an energy shift has to take place. This shift can be initiated through diet or exercise or both. Energy in the form of bodyfat is a lot like money. Stored fat is like cash locked up in a steel safe. In order to use money to buy something you want, you’ll need to unlock the safe and remove the cash in order to make an exchange. This exchange can be viewed much like losing weight. Energy has to be made available in order to spend it. Unlocking the “safe” through diet or exercise or a combination of the two allows fat to be used to power the demands of the body. Using fat as fuel is called Ketosis. The goal of a Ketogenic diet is to unlock stored fat and use it for energy without replacing energy through the regular pathway of glycolysis. Basically, fat is the “currency” of choice in a ketogenic diet. Ketosis from a mitochondrial perspective, means a shift in “energy currency”. Mitochondria, the body’s energy factories, prefer glucose, or carbohydrates as a main energy source, converting glucose molecules quickly and effectively to ATP, or useable human energy. Interestingly, a ketogenic diet increases the number of mitochondria in brain cells. A recent study found enhanced expression of genes encoding for mitochondrial enzymes and energy metabolism in the hippocampus, a part of the brain important for learning and memory. Brain cells often degenerate in age-related brain diseases, leading to cognitive dysfunction and memory loss. With increased energy reserve, neurons may be able to ward off disease stresso Continue reading >>
The Ketogenic Diet. Is It Paleo?
Part One in Our Ketogenic Diet Series. The Paleo and ketogenic diets are not the same, but does that mean there isn’t a place for the ketogenic diet within the Paleo template? They do have considerable overlap. Additionally, there is strong evidence that ketogenic diets are highly beneficial for a wide range of chronic health conditions. During the past decade, low-carb diets, such as the Paleo diet, have become increasingly popular, while a cloud of suspicion has formed over government-advocated, low-fat, grain-centric diets. The reasons for this are simple. Reducing carb intake promotes both improved blood glucose levels and reduced circulating insulin. It also improves metabolic syndrome markers, like obesity, which increase one’s risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease.1 The nutritional perspective on dietary fat has also changed. Dr. Cordain, Dr. Atkins, and other nutrition pioneers have helped bring two very important nutrition science concepts to the mainstream: 1) fat is an important energy source, and 2) fat doesn’t necessarily make you fat. While most people are aware that fat as well as carbs are the body’s primary energy sources, researchers and advocates of ketogenic diets have been calling attention to an important third fuel source (albeit a source derived from fat.) This “third fuel” is something called ketones, or ketone bodies (KBs). This third fuel is the basis of the ketogenic diet (as the name implies.) To understand KBs, we need to recap some biochemistry basics – specifically, the basics regarding a molecule called ATP. What is ATP? In 1929, a German chemist named Karl Lohmann discovered adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the molecule that became known as “the molecular unit of currency.”2 ATP is to biochemistry what gold is to t Continue reading >>
How To Workout On Keto Diet
To get into ketosis you need to go through a period of adaptation. To do that you have to either fast or restrict your carbohydrate intake to a bare minimum. For faster results, you can also exercise. But there are different ways how to workout on keto. Our body can use various fuel sources. The most preferred one is glucose, which is basically carbohydrate or sugar molecules, that gets absorbed very quickly. Next, to that, there are free fatty acids that can either be derived from dietary fat intake or our own body fat. Lastly, the third ones are called ketone bodies that are like “superfuel”, reigning supreme over the other two. By default, we’re hardwired to use glucose as our main fuel. This is reinforced even more by the high amounts of them in our diet. To create energy sugar enters the Krebs cycle during the process called glycolysis. What comes out is pyruvate that gets converted to ATP. The body can store about 2000 calories of glycogen (15g are circulating the blood stream, 150g are stored in the liver and 300-500g in muscle cells). Liver glycogen stores can be depleted already after an overnight fast. It’s our first fuel tank. To release glucose from muscle cells we need a lot more. This supply is scarce and used only when there’s no other way. When we would have to run from a lion or sprint after the bus. Muscle glycogen stores get tapped into only during very intense and glycolytic activities. When in an anaerobic mode we’re utilizing solely glucose for fuel to produce ATP with no oxygen. Free fatty acids, on the other hand, are almost infinite in terms of caloric storage. We can deposit as many triglycerides in our adipose tissue as we can possibly consume. Despite glucose being the body’s primary fuel source, most of the time we’re using f Continue reading >>
Glycolysis Vs Ketosis
As much as I don’t plan on this being a food or keto blog, the next few posts will probably be about keto and… well, food. Weight loss is a huge part of my Fit for 40 plan, so it’s on my mind a lot lately, and I tend to write about what’s interesting to me in the moment. And right now, I’m focused on my diet. I swear I have other posts planned, but I wanted to get these out of the way first. I’ve mentioned Keto in a couple posts, and wanted to do a few more posts on glycolysis vs ketosis (regular U.S. diet vs keto), exactly what keto is, how to start it, and some pros and cons of the diet. First, I am not a doctor, and you should always consult yours before starting a new diet or exercise routine. The ketogenic diet (Keto) is a low carbohydrate, high fat, moderate protein (LCHF) diet. Most people do keto to help in weight loss; but, it also has other health advantages like: lowering risk for heart disease, diabetes, cancer, stroke, migraines, depression, helping those with epilepsy and other neurological illnesses, and much more.1 Keto is meant to put your body into a state of ketosis, where you burn ketones for fuel (Ketosis) instead of glucose (Glycolysis). Boring explanation of how carbs work in your body. When you eat food with carbs your body produces glucose and insulin. Carbs are broken down into glucose, a single molecule of sugar that your body uses for energy. Glucose is the simplest molecule your body can use to convert and use as energy, so it will be chosen first over any other energy source.2 However, sugar needs help getting into your cells. When your body creates glucose from carbs, your pancreas produces insulin, a hormone that tells your body to burn the sugar first and to stop burning fat. Insulin gets released into your bloodstream, and t Continue reading >>
The Ketogenic Diet: Why The Switch Is More Important Than The Fuel
It’s three years this month since I wrote The Dissident Diet, based on my own experience of losing three stone, and a pilot study carried out with 16 people who needed to do the same. At the time it was ground-breaking, and more than a little brave, for a professional nutritionist to recommend a ketogenic diet when so many people in nutrition and medicine felt it was dangerous. Since then, the ketogenic diet has become a buzz word; it’s considered both safe and effective for a whole range of the conditions that beset us in the 21st century. Its use in epilepsy is long established, but now we know that it can work wonders in obesity and diabetes, and we suspect it may be important for cancer and Alzheimer’s. Powerful indeed. In a clinical setting I have used the diet to good effect with most of my clients. While it’s not suitable as a long term solution for everyone, I believe that nearly everyone (including those who consider themselves to be über-fit) can benefit from 6 to 12 weeks of ketosis to regulate their insulin responsiveness. It works a bit like a computer reboot. And that’s the key. I was in the Soho Theatre bar last Saturday night with my daughter, Polly, drinking tea and waiting to see the brilliant Pajama Men. We got chatting to a guy who shared our table and, when he discovered I was a nutritional therapist, he had just one question: “Should I be eating carbs?” Where to begin? For starters, diet is genuinely a completely individual thing. Some peopole cope well with carbs and others struggle. It depends on your genes, your metabolism, your stress levels, your environment, your exercise regime, and – in particular – your insulin response. Just from looking at him I knew he could benefit from eating fewer carby foods for a while, but witho Continue reading >>
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To gain a better understanding of ketosis and the ketogenic diet, it is important to take a look at the physiology behind the diet. If you recall from the article What is a Ketogenic Diet? the goal of a ketogenic diet is to induce ketosis by increasing ketone body production. A key step in understanding the diet is to learn what ketosis is, what are ketones and what do they do. “Normal” Metabolism Learning the basics of the various metabolic processes of the body will better your ability to understand ketosis. Under the normal physiological conditions that are common today, glucose is our body’s primary source of energy. Following ingestion, carbohydrates are broken down into glucose and released into the blood stream. This results in the release of insulin from the pancreas. Insulin not only inhibits fat oxidation but also acts as a key holder for cells by allowing glucose from the blood to be shuttled into cells via glucose transporters (GLUT). The amount of insulin required for this action varies between individuals depending on their insulin sensitivity. Once inside the cell, glucose undergoes glycolysis, a metabolic process that produces pyruvate and energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Once pyruvate is formed as an end product of glycolysis, it is shuttled into the mitochondria, where it is converted to acetyl-CoA by pyruvate dehydrogenase. Acetyl-CoA then enters the TCA cycle to produce additional energy with the aid of the electron transport chain. Since glucose is so rapidly metabolized for energy production and has a limited storage capacity, other energy substrates, such as fat, get stored as triglycerides due to our body’s virtually infinite fat storage capacity. When a sufficient source of carbohydrates is not available, the body adap Continue reading >>
Pros & Cons Of A Ketogenic Diet—many Benefits Including Fat Loss & Better Health!
This article will give you the pros and cons and show you how to safely adjust your body to ketosis so you achieve the many benefits this lifestyle has to offer. The ketogenic diet was first designed as a therapeutic diet to treat epilepsy that mimicked the benefits of severe calorie restriction without the drawbacks of literal starvation. Based on the fact that fasting relieved epileptic symptoms by forcing the body to produce ATP (the energy source for the body) from fat instead of glucose, a doctor at the Mayo clinic designed the ketogenic diet to have a similar effect. Original recommendations for a ketogenic diet were to radically reduce carbohydrates to less than 20 grams per day, while providing a moderate protein intake of 1 g/kg/bw with the rest of the calories coming from fat. This makes fat the primary fuel source, with protein providing just enough amino acid building blocks to sustain lean tissue and produce other compounds in the body, including transmitters and enzymes. In the last 15 years, the ketogenic diet has been modernized to allow for higher carb intakes (around 50 grams a day). It has gained in popularity, with a wealth of research showing many benefits, which we’ll get into below. In order to truly appreciate the “pros” and troubleshoot the “cons” it’s important to understand how a ketogenic diet works, so let’s cover that first. On conventional high-carb diets, the body gets its energy from a steady supply of glucose in the blood (carbs are digested into glucose, which acts as the fuel source for ATP energy production). By restricting carbohydrates on ketogenic diets, blood glucose levels fall. This leads a fat-burning enzyme called hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) to increase, releasing stored triglycerides (fat) from fat cells. Tr Continue reading >>
Is The Full Ketogenic Diet Bulletproof?
The word is getting out about ketogenic diets. Eating keto – getting about 75% of calories from fat, 20% from protein, and <5% from carbs – is a powerful way to shed body fat and sharpen your brain. Without access to glucose from carbs, your body turns to fat as its main fuel source. You begin to break fat down into ketones, little molecules that fuel your brain and curb hunger, and keep you lean while they do it. There’s been a lot of research on keto in the last few years. The science is starting to reveal just how powerful ketosis can be: It’s anti-inflammatory. Burning fat for fuel creates far less inflammation than burning sugar does , and ketones themselves turn off inflammatory pathways . It builds a stronger, denser brain. Ketosis causes your brain to create more mitochondria, the powerhouses of your cells . You can literally generate more energy when you strengthen your mitochondria, leaving you with excess willpower and a sharper mental state (shameless plug: for a full guide to building stronger mitochondria, check out Head Strong). It burns body fat. Ketones influence ghrelin and cholecystokinin (CCK), the hormones that control your hunger [4,5,6]. Hunger feels different when you’re in full ketosis – it fades from a pressing need to a background thought. In full keto it’s very easy to fast, and during that fast, your body is burning up your fat stores for energy. You can eat like a king (or queen). Bacon, grass-fed steak and butter, pastured eggs, olive oil, raw dairy (if you tolerate it and in moderation)…you can eat real, satisfying food on a ketogenic diet. Sounds pretty good, but don’t cut out all your carbs just yet. There are a couple possible downsides to keto, too. You may do better with a variation of keto, depending on yo Continue reading >>
Ketosis Vs Glycolysis
I noticed recently that people were talking about ways to stay just one the edge of ketosis and what not. I guess my questions is, why would you want to stay in glycolysis instead of going into ketosis (and vise-versa)? What are the benefits of each? I was under the impression (after a Robb Wolf seminar) that ketosis is the ideal stat of being... Thoughs? Continue reading >>
Cancer Treatments: Is A Ketogenic Diet Better?
Mainstream cancer treatments are expensive, have some pretty debilitating long-term and short-term side effects and for some people and some cancers, not as effective as advertised. What if a ketogenic diet can help improve the outcome of mainstream treatment, and if so, how does it work? The effect that ketogenic diets have on cancer is rooted in how cells make energy to sustain themselves. Most normal cells can make energy by burning sugar or glucose in a pathway called glycolysis. Normally, glycolysis makes products which feed into mitochondria, tiny "powerhouses" in each cell. The main job of mitochondria is to make and regulate the production of ATP, the energy source that runs all living things. In order to stay alive, cells have to be able to make ATP and maintain the “free energy” of ATP at a specific level common to all cells. If there is too little ATP, a cell will become apoptotic (suicidal) and die. If there is too much ATP, cellular respiration gets interrupted in the mitochondria and this can also kill the cell. Normal, healthy cells have metabolic flexibility to make and regulate free energy levels through glycolysis or through mitochondrial pathways which require oxygen. Healthy cells are able to utilize all fuels, including glucose, oxygen, fatty acids, and ketones to make ATP and regulate energy flow through the cell. In contrast, most cancer cells have mitochondria which are broken in some way. They are unable to use mitochondrial energy pathways to burn oxygen dependent fuels such as fatty acids and ketones. To maintain free ATP at the necessary levels, they must rely on glycolysis even when oxygen is available. They do this by "fermenting" glucose into a product called lactate. This lack of flexibility means cancer cells are dependent upon and m Continue reading >>
Energy Levels Under Ketosis – Fats, Carbs, And Atp
Update 2017: This post has been deprecated (not in line with my current thoughts. Read more on the ‘about’ page) Ever since I started my ketogenic lifestyle I’ve been experiencing higher energy levels. Basically I have the same increased energy from the minute I wake up at ~7 A.M. up until I go to sleep at 2 A.M. at night. No post-prandial (after-meal) fatigue and no sleepiness during the day. It’s been quite amazing because during my entire life I was kind of suffering of moments of tiredness throughout the day. As I began researching what happens inside the body under high-fat-very-low-carb nutrition, I wanted to know what could be the possible explanation of the higher energy levels. I’ve learned that carbohydrate metabolism yields lower amounts of ATP compared to beta-oxidation (fat metabolism). Carbohydrate Metabolism It basically starts with glycolysis which has the purpose of converting 1 molecule of glucose to two molecules of pyruvic acids (pyruvates). Glycolysis yields 4 ATPs, but it requires 2 ATPs to be completed, so the net gain of energy is 2 ATPs. After glycolysis, the 2 pyruvates react with Coenzyme A to form 2 molecules of Acetyl-CoA, which will later go into the TCA Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle or Krebs Cycle). In the TCA Cycle there are series of chemical reactions which lead to the release of more ATPs (yet, very decent amounts), CO2, CoA, and H+. So far, we’ve only gained 4 ATPs, 2 from glycolysis and 2 from the TCA Cycle. The next step is oxidative phosporylation or the Electron Transport Chain. This is where the hydrogen made available in the early stages of glucose metabolism will be oxidized. This is also where the most energy in the form of ATP is created. The ETC gives roughly 30 ATPs, yet there are 4 hydrogen atoms remaining which are Continue reading >>
Ketosis: Metabolic Flexibility In Action
Ketosis is an energy state that your body uses to provide an alternative fuel when glucose availability is low. It happens to all humans when fasting or when carbohydrate intake is lowered. The process of creating ketones is a normal metabolic alternative designed to keep us alive if we go without food for long periods of time. Eating a diet low in carb and higher in fat enhances this process without the gnawing hunger of fasting. Let’s talk about why ketones are better than glucose for most cellular fuel needs. Legionella Testing Lab - High Quality Lab Results CDC ELITE & NYSDOH ELAP Certified - Fast Results North America Lab Locations legionellatesting.com Body Fuel Basics Normal body cells metabolize food nutrients and oxygen during cellular “respiration”, a set of metabolic pathways in which ATP (adenosine triphosphate), our main cellular energy source is created. Most of this energy production happens in the mitochondria, tiny cell parts which act as powerhouses or fueling stations. There are two primary types of food-based fuel that our cells can use to produce energy: The first cellular fuel is glucose, which is commonly known as blood sugar. Glucose is a product of the starches and sugars (carbohydrates) and protein in our diet. This fuel system is necessary, but it has a limitation. The human body can only store about 1000-1600 calories of glucose in the form of glycogen in our muscles and liver. The amounts stored depend on how much muscle mass is available. Men will be able to store more because they have a greater muscle mass. Since most people use up about 2000 calories a day just being and doing normal stuff, you can see that if the human body depended on only sugar to fuel itself, and food weren’t available for more than a day, the body would run Continue reading >>
Review Article Ketogenic Diets As An Adjuvant Cancer Therapy: History And Potential Mechanism
Introduction Numerous dietary components and supplements have been evaluated as possible cancer prevention agents; however, until recently few studies have investigated diet as a possible adjuvant to cancer treatment. One of the most prominent and universal metabolic alterations seen in cancer cells is an increase in the rate of glycolytic metabolism even in the presence of oxygen . Although increased glucose uptake by tumor cells was thought to support increased cancer cell proliferation and energy demands, recent studies suggest that increased tumor cell glycolytic metabolism may represent an adaptive response to escape metabolic oxidative stress caused by altered mitochondrial oxygen metabolism [2–4]. These data support the hypothesis that cancer cells are reliant on increased glucose consumption to maintain redox homeostasis due to increased one electron reductions of O2 to form O2•− and H2O2 in mitochondria. This divergence from normal cell metabolism has sparked a growing interest in targeting mitochondrial oxygen metabolism as a means of selectively sensitizing cancer cells to therapy [5–17]. In this regard, dietary modifications, such as high-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets that enhance mitochondrial oxidative metabolism while limiting glucose consumption could represent a safe, inexpensive, easily implementable, and effective approach to selectively enhance metabolic stress in cancer cells versus normal cells. What is a ketogenic diet? A ketogenic diet consists of high fat, with moderate to low protein content, and very low carbohydrates, which forces the body to burn fat instead of glucose for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis. Generally, the ratio by weight is 3:1 or 4:1 fat to carbohydrate+protein, yielding a diet that has an energy dis Continue reading >>