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Which Is Better Glycolysis Vs Ketosis

Keto 101: Ketogenic Diet & Ketosis For Beginners

Keto 101: Ketogenic Diet & Ketosis For Beginners

The term “keto” has become a buzzword in the health and nutrition world lately. There are keto snacks out there, you may have seen keto-friendly meal preps popping up, and some people are trying out the keto diet. But what is keto? “Keto” is shorthand for ketogenic, which describes a particular kind of diet and lifestyle. Many people know it as a high fat diet, which may sound a bit strange… It sure sounded strange to me when I first heard of it! We generally associate the word “fat” with fat on our bodies, but fat is also fuel. Dietary fats from whole foods provide our bodies with energy—but those fats that we eat actually aren’t the main cause for gaining more “fat” on our bodies. There are many factors at play with weight gain and weight loss. It’s more complicated than “calories in, calories out,” and the idea that “fat makes you fat,” is wholly inaccurate. The ketogenic diet challenges these old beliefs, and it can get pretty confusing. That’s why I’ve compiled all of my learning and research into a Keto 101 video, to help break down the basics of the keto diet! There’s a lot to learn and it’s only an introductory video, but, if you’re curious about how a ketogenic diet works and the science behind it, it’s a good place to start. Even if you’re not interested in trying out the keto lifestyle for yourself, understanding ketosis is a great way to learn more about how our bodies function. I’ve summarized the main points here, but check out the video for more detailed information and useful resources about keto, ketosis, and the ketogenic diet! DISCLAIMER: The Keto 101 video and this blog are educational resources. I am not advocating for or against keto diets, and I am not claiming that a keto diet is either “right” Continue reading >>

Metabolism And Ketosis

Metabolism And Ketosis

Dr. Eades, If the body tends to resort to gluconeogenesis for glucose during a short-term carbohydrate deficit, are those who inconsistently reduce carb intake only messing things up by not effecting full blown ketosis? If the body will still prefer glucose as main energy source unless forced otherwise for at least a few days, is it absolutely necessary to completely transform metabolism for minimal muscle loss? Also, if alcohol is broken down into ketones and acetaldehyde, technically couldn’t you continue to drink during your diet or would the resulting gluconeogenesis inhibition from alcohol lead to blood glucose problems on top of the ketotic metabolism? Would your liver ever just be overwhelmed by all that action? I’m still in high school so hypothetical, of course haha… Sorry, lots of questions but I’m always so curious. Thank you so much for taking the time to inform the public. You’re my hero! P.S. Random question…what’s the difference between beta and gamma hydroxybutyric acids? It’s crazy how simple orientation can be the difference between a ketone and date rape drug…biochem is so cool! P.P.S. You should definitely post the details of that inner mitochondrial membrane transport. I’m curious how much energy expenditure we’re talkin there.. Keep doin your thing! Your Fan, Trey No, I don’t think people are messing up if they don’t get into full-blown ketosis. For short term low-carb dieting, the body turns to glycogen. Gluconeogenesis kicks in fairly quickly, though, and uses dietary protein – assuming there is plenty – before turning to muscle tissue for glucose substrate. And you have the Cori cycle kicking in and all sorts of things to spare muscle, so I wouldn’t worry about it. And you can continue to drink while low-carbing. Continue reading >>

Ketosis – Advantaged Or Misunderstood State? (part I)

Ketosis – Advantaged Or Misunderstood State? (part I)

As The Eating Academy approaches its first birthday in about a month, I figured it was as good a time as any to put together some thoughts on a subject I get asked about with great frequency. (For those wondering when I’ll get to Part X of The Straight Dope on Cholesterol, the answer is, “hopefully before the end of the year.”) A few months ago I was planning a post along the lines of “the 10 things you need to know about ketosis,” but I’m now thinking that might be putting the proverbial cart before the horse. So, let’s start with a more fundamental set of questions. In part I of this post I will see to it (assuming you read it) that you’ll know more about ketosis than just about anyone, including your doctor or the majority of “experts” out there writing about this topic. Before we begin, a disclaimer in order: If you want to actually understand this topic, you must invest the time and mental energy to do so. You really have to get into the details. Obviously, I love the details and probably read 5 or 6 scientific papers every week on this topic (and others). I don’t expect the casual reader to want to do this, and I view it as my role to synthesize this information and present it to you. But this is not a bumper-sticker issue. I know it’s trendy to make blanket statements – ketosis is “unnatural,” for example, or ketosis is “superior” – but such statements mean nothing if you don’t understand the biochemistry and evolution of our species. So, let’s agree to let the unsubstantiated statements and bumper stickers reside in the world of political debates and opinion-based discussions. For this reason, I’ve deliberately broken this post down and only included this content (i.e., background) for Part I. What is ketosis? Ketosis is Continue reading >>

The Ketogenic Diet: Why The Switch Is More Important Than The Fuel

The Ketogenic Diet: Why The Switch Is More Important Than The Fuel

It’s three years this month since I wrote The Dissident Diet, based on my own experience of losing three stone, and a pilot study carried out with 16 people who needed to do the same. At the time it was ground-breaking, and more than a little brave, for a professional nutritionist to recommend a ketogenic diet when so many people in nutrition and medicine felt it was dangerous. Since then, the ketogenic diet has become a buzz word; it’s considered both safe and effective for a whole range of the conditions that beset us in the 21st century. Its use in epilepsy is long established, but now we know that it can work wonders in obesity and diabetes, and we suspect it may be important for cancer and Alzheimer’s. Powerful indeed. In a clinical setting I have used the diet to good effect with most of my clients. While it’s not suitable as a long term solution for everyone, I believe that nearly everyone (including those who consider themselves to be über-fit) can benefit from 6 to 12 weeks of ketosis to regulate their insulin responsiveness. It works a bit like a computer reboot. And that’s the key. I was in the Soho Theatre bar last Saturday night with my daughter, Polly, drinking tea and waiting to see the brilliant Pajama Men. We got chatting to a guy who shared our table and, when he discovered I was a nutritional therapist, he had just one question: “Should I be eating carbs?” Where to begin? For starters, diet is genuinely a completely individual thing. Some peopole cope well with carbs and others struggle. It depends on your genes, your metabolism, your stress levels, your environment, your exercise regime, and – in particular – your insulin response. Just from looking at him I knew he could benefit from eating fewer carby foods for a while, but witho Continue reading >>

South Beach Diet Vs. Ketogenic Diet

South Beach Diet Vs. Ketogenic Diet

Energy can’t be created or destroyed. Just ask someone trying to lose weight. As much as we may want to destroy stored energy (body fat), the truth is, this energy needs to be converted. In order to convert energy stored as body fat to something else, an energy shift has to take place. This shift can be initiated through diet or exercise or both. Energy in the form of bodyfat is a lot like money. Stored fat is like cash locked up in a steel safe. In order to use money to buy something you want, you’ll need to unlock the safe and remove the cash in order to make an exchange. This exchange can be viewed much like losing weight. Energy has to be made available in order to spend it. Unlocking the “safe” through diet or exercise or a combination of the two allows fat to be used to power the demands of the body. Using fat as fuel is called Ketosis. The goal of a Ketogenic diet is to unlock stored fat and use it for energy without replacing energy through the regular pathway of glycolysis. Basically, fat is the “currency” of choice in a ketogenic diet. Ketosis from a mitochondrial perspective, means a shift in “energy currency”. Mitochondria, the body’s energy factories, prefer glucose, or carbohydrates as a main energy source, converting glucose molecules quickly and effectively to ATP, or useable human energy. Interestingly, a ketogenic diet increases the number of mitochondria in brain cells. A recent study found enhanced expression of genes encoding for mitochondrial enzymes and energy metabolism in the hippocampus, a part of the brain important for learning and memory. Brain cells often degenerate in age-related brain diseases, leading to cognitive dysfunction and memory loss. With increased energy reserve, neurons may be able to ward off disease stresso Continue reading >>

Ketosis, Ketones, And How It All Works

Ketosis, Ketones, And How It All Works

Ketosis is a process that the body does on an everyday basis, regardless of the number of carbs you eat. Your body adapts to what is put in it, processing different types of nutrients into the fuels that it needs. Proteins, fats, and carbs can all be processed for use. Eating a low carb, high fat diet just ramps up this process, which is a normal and safe chemical reaction. When you eat carbohydrate based foods or excess amounts of protein, your body will break this down into sugar – known as glucose. Why? Glucose is needed in the creation of ATP (an energy molecule), which is a fuel that is needed for the daily activities and maintenance inside our bodies. If you’ve ever used our keto calculator to determine your caloric needs, you will see that your body uses up quite a lot of calories. It’s true, our bodies use up much of the nutrients we intake just to maintain itself on a daily basis. If you eat enough food, there will likely be an excess of glucose that your body doesn’t need. There are two main things that happen to excess glucose if your body doesn’t need it: Glycogenesis. Excess glucose will be converted to glycogen and stored in your liver and muscles. Estimates show that only about half of your daily energy can be stored as glycogen. Lipogenesis. If there’s already enough glycogen in your muscles and liver, any extra glucose will be converted into fats and stored. So, what happens to you once your body has no more glucose or glycogen? Ketosis happens. When your body has no access to food, like when you are sleeping or when you are on a ketogenic diet, the body will burn fat and create molecules called ketones. We can thank our body’s ability to switch metabolic pathways for that. These ketones are created when the body breaks down fats, creating Continue reading >>

Diet Against Disease

Diet Against Disease

“Tell me what you eat, and I will tell you what you are,” Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin, 1826. What you consume not only affects the health and appearance of your body, but also the integrity of the mind. Recently, researchers are beginning to appreciate this and have found that many neurological diseases are associated with the deterioration of energy metabolism. Metabolism involves the exchange between resource intake and energy output, and the main way to affect metabolism is through what you eat. Diet has been used as a therapeutic against a variety of neurological diseases with varying success, but only recently are researchers beginning to explore the mechanism. Dietary therapy in Epilepsy The ketogenic diet, a high fat but low carbohydrate regimen, has been used since the 1920’s to treat epilepsy. For almost 100 years, it has been known that the ketogenic diet can improve quality of life in epileptic patients by reducing seizures, defined as a sudden surge of disorganized electrical activity in the brain, but the reason why is still being explored. In the ketogenic diet, a lack of carbohydrate reduces blood glucose levels and forces the liver to break down fat for energy, thus bypassing glycolysis, the metabolic pathway that breaks down glucose. Breaking down fat generates ketone bodies which are then converted into energy via oxidization in the mitochondria. Essentially you can turn on the energy-making machinery in a cell (mitochondria) by either breaking down glucose, or breaking down fat. When you follow the ketogenic diet, or simply reduce the amount of calories you consume, you breakdown more fat. Benefits to epileptic patients are believed to arise from two key features of these diets: reduction in glycolysis and optimization of mitochondrial functio Continue reading >>

Ketosis For Cancer Treatment

Ketosis For Cancer Treatment

DISCLAIMER: The information provided here is for discussion purposes only. In no way should it be considered as offering medical advice. Perfect Keto assumes no responsibility for how this material is used. Please check with a physician if you suspect you are ill. We’ve talked about the benefits of ketosis for many aspects of the body and brain, so you might be wondering whether ketosis could support those who are dealing with a cancer diagnosis or going through treatment. This is a complicated topic, so this article will explore ketosis for cancer treatment and any connections we’ve seen on the subject. Ketosis for Supplementing Treatment Cancer affects so many people worldwide, and diagnoses have unfortunately only gone up in recent years. Could a change in diet that spurs ketosis help in the treatment process? Let’s look at some aspects of cancer and how it might relate to the effects of ketosis on our cells: The Warburg Effect Besides being able to live in environments where normal cells can not, cancer cells have many differences from healthy ones. Understanding these differences helps researchers in developing possible effective cancer treatments. One example of this is the Warburg effect. The Warburg effect is a well-known and recognized biochemical observation in which most cancer cells are seen to make energy differently than normal cells. Cancer Cells vs Normal Cells: Cancer cells produce energy through a high rate of glycolysis (when glucose is broken down for energy) followed by the fermentation of lactic acid within the liquid inside cells. Normal cells break down glucose at a slower rate. Tumor cells that are rapidly growing can have rates of glycolysis that are up to 200 times higher than the normal cells. The Warburg Hypothesis The Warburg effect h Continue reading >>

What’s The Difference Between Paleo And Keto?

What’s The Difference Between Paleo And Keto?

Both diets are effective, but would you rather give up cheese or fruit? If you’ve spent 15 seconds in a CrossFit box, you know what Paleo is. If you’ve spent 30 seconds, you’ve probably already cooked your first batch of Brussels sprouts and bacon on a bed of purple potatoes. But what is this “keto” thing that’s popping up all over the Internet (and in many a CrossFitter’s kitchen)? The staples of the two diets are actually pretty similar, and the limitations line up almost exactly. People on both diets are constantly eating butter by the pound — in their coffee, on their steaks and sometimes on its own like a slice of quadruple-cream brie (hold the cracker). Paleo vs. keto The real difference is why you restrict what you eat. Let’s start with Paleo. The goal is to eat the way people ate when our digestive systems were evolving. This means you want whole, unprocessed foods and no grains. Essentially, Paleo prohibits all the products of modern farming, which has evolved faster than our bodies. It’s a bit more complicated than that, but you get the idea. The high levels of protein in a Paleo diet make it ideal for anyone serious about building muscle. Plus, it makes you feel damn good. Keto, on the other hand, is for serious body hackers. This is for all of you out there who are looking past the community of CrossFit, beyond the easier-to-understand shorthand rules of the Paleo diet. Keto is all about ratios — high fat, moderate protein and basically zero carbs. We’re scientific about our WODs, so let’s get scientific about our nutrition, too. Interestingly, because of the “no grains” rule, a lot of Paleo eaters tend to consume few carbohydrates anyway and might actually find themselves eating ketogenically without realizing it. The true litm Continue reading >>

Ketosis And Lchf- Must You Be In Ketosis On The Low Carb Diet?

Ketosis And Lchf- Must You Be In Ketosis On The Low Carb Diet?

Ketosis and LCHF- Must you be in ketosis on the low carb diet? Today on the Ask Prof Noakes Podcast we discuss ketosis and the role it plays on the LCHF diet. Is it vital to be in a state of ketosis in order to get the full benefits of the Low Carb High Fat/Banting diet? The simple answer is no you do not. To be in complete ketosis is hard to achieve, and you also don’t need to be in this state to benefit from the LCHF diet. Ketosis is a metabolic state where most of the body’s energy supply comes from ketone bodies in the blood. This is in contrast to a state of glycolysis where blood glucose provides most of the energy. What is Ketosis and what role does it play During the usual overnight fast the body’s metabolism naturally switches into ketosis, and will switch back to glycolysis after a carbohydrate-rich meal. Part of the benefit of Low Carb High Fat diets is that you reduce the amount of carbohydrate from your system, thus forcing the body to use fat and not glucose for energy. For this reason ketosis is sometimes referred to as the body’s “fat burning” mode. The ketogenic diet is a high-fat, adequate-protein, low-carbohydrate diet that in medicine is used primarily to treat difficult-to-control (refractory) epilepsy in children. It is very extreme, even by the LCHF diets standards. Ketosis is not required For this reason, unless you are looking to use it to treat epilepsy, it really isn’t required and shouldn’t be a diet you should look at. You don’t need to be in a permanent state of ketosis. Continue reading >>

The Fat-fueled Brain: Unnatural Or Advantageous?

The Fat-fueled Brain: Unnatural Or Advantageous?

Disclaimer: First things first. Please note that I am in no way endorsing nutritional ketosis as a supplement to, or a replacement for medication. As you’ll see below, data exploring the potential neuroprotective effects of ketosis are still scarce, and we don’t yet know the side effects of a long-term ketogenic diet. This post talks about the SCIENCE behind ketosis, and is not meant in any way as medical advice. The ketogenic diet is a nutritionist’s nightmare. High in saturated fat and VERY low in carbohydrates, “keto” is adopted by a growing population to paradoxically promote weight loss and mental well-being. Drinking coffee with butter? Eating a block of cream cheese? Little to no fruit? To the uninitiated, keto defies all common sense, inviting skeptics to wave it off as an unnatural “bacon-and-steak” fad diet. Yet versions of the ketogenic diet have been used to successfully treat drug-resistant epilepsy in children since the 1920s – potentially even back in the biblical ages. Emerging evidence from animal models and clinical trials suggest keto may be therapeutically used in many other neurological disorders, including head ache, neurodegenerative diseases, sleep disorders, bipolar disorder, autism and brain cancer. With no apparent side effects. Sound too good to be true? I feel ya! Where are these neuroprotective effects coming from? What’s going on in the brain on a ketogenic diet? Ketosis in a nutshell In essence, a ketogenic diet mimics starvation, allowing the body to go into a metabolic state called ketosis (key-tow-sis). Normally, human bodies are sugar-driven machines: ingested carbohydrates are broken down into glucose, which is mainly transported and used as energy or stored as glycogen in liver and muscle tissue. When deprived of d Continue reading >>

Ketosis: Metabolic Flexibility In Action

Ketosis: Metabolic Flexibility In Action

Ketosis is an energy state that your body uses to provide an alternative fuel when glucose availability is low. It happens to all humans when fasting or when carbohydrate intake is lowered. The process of creating ketones is a normal metabolic alternative designed to keep us alive if we go without food for long periods of time. Eating a diet low in carb and higher in fat enhances this process without the gnawing hunger of fasting. Let’s talk about why ketones are better than glucose for most cellular fuel needs. Legionella Testing Lab - High Quality Lab Results CDC ELITE & NYSDOH ELAP Certified - Fast Results North America Lab Locations legionellatesting.com Body Fuel Basics Normal body cells metabolize food nutrients and oxygen during cellular “respiration”, a set of metabolic pathways in which ATP (adenosine triphosphate), our main cellular energy source is created. Most of this energy production happens in the mitochondria, tiny cell parts which act as powerhouses or fueling stations. There are two primary types of food-based fuel that our cells can use to produce energy: The first cellular fuel is glucose, which is commonly known as blood sugar. Glucose is a product of the starches and sugars (carbohydrates) and protein in our diet. This fuel system is necessary, but it has a limitation. The human body can only store about 1000-1600 calories of glucose in the form of glycogen in our muscles and liver. The amounts stored depend on how much muscle mass is available. Men will be able to store more because they have a greater muscle mass. Since most people use up about 2000 calories a day just being and doing normal stuff, you can see that if the human body depended on only sugar to fuel itself, and food weren’t available for more than a day, the body would run Continue reading >>

Oxidative Metabolism: Glucose Versus Ketones.

Oxidative Metabolism: Glucose Versus Ketones.

Abstract The coupling of upstream oxidative processes (glycolysis, beta-oxidation, CAC turnover) to mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) under the driving conditions of energy demand by the cell results in the liberation of free energy as ATP. Perturbations in glycolytic CAC or OXPHOS can result in pathology or cell death. To better understand whole body energy expenditure during chronic ketosis, we used a diet-induced rat model of ketosis to determine if high-fat-carbohydrate-restricted "ketogenic" diet results in changes in total energy expenditure (TEE). Consistent with previous reports of increased energy expenditure in mice, we hypothesized that rats fed ketogenic diet for 3 weeks would result in increased resting energy expenditure due to alterations in metabolism associated with a "switch" in energy substrate from glucose to ketone bodies. The rationale is ketone bodies are a more efficient fuel than glucose. Indirect calorimetric analysis revealed a moderate increase in VO2 and decreased VCO2 and heat with ketosis. These results suggest ketosis induces a moderate uncoupling state and less oxidative efficiency compared to glucose oxidation. Continue reading >>

How To Workout On Keto Diet

How To Workout On Keto Diet

To get into ketosis you need to go through a period of adaptation. To do that you have to either fast or restrict your carbohydrate intake to a bare minimum. For faster results, you can also exercise. But there are different ways how to workout on keto. Our body can use various fuel sources. The most preferred one is glucose, which is basically carbohydrate or sugar molecules, that gets absorbed very quickly. Next, to that, there are free fatty acids that can either be derived from dietary fat intake or our own body fat. Lastly, the third ones are called ketone bodies that are like “superfuel”, reigning supreme over the other two. By default, we’re hardwired to use glucose as our main fuel. This is reinforced even more by the high amounts of them in our diet. To create energy sugar enters the Krebs cycle during the process called glycolysis. What comes out is pyruvate that gets converted to ATP. The body can store about 2000 calories of glycogen (15g are circulating the blood stream, 150g are stored in the liver and 300-500g in muscle cells). Liver glycogen stores can be depleted already after an overnight fast. It’s our first fuel tank. To release glucose from muscle cells we need a lot more. This supply is scarce and used only when there’s no other way. When we would have to run from a lion or sprint after the bus. Muscle glycogen stores get tapped into only during very intense and glycolytic activities. When in an anaerobic mode we’re utilizing solely glucose for fuel to produce ATP with no oxygen. Free fatty acids, on the other hand, are almost infinite in terms of caloric storage. We can deposit as many triglycerides in our adipose tissue as we can possibly consume. Despite glucose being the body’s primary fuel source, most of the time we’re using f Continue reading >>

Your Brain On Ketones

Your Brain On Ketones

The modern prescription of high carbohydrate, low fat diets and eating snacks between meals has coincided with an increase in obesity, diabetes, and and increase in the incidence of many mental health disorders, including depression, anxiety, and eating disorders. In addition, many of these disorders are striking the population at younger ages. While most people would agree that diet has a lot to do with the development of obesity and diabetes, many would disagree that what we eat has much to do with our mental health and outlook. I believe that what we eat has a lot to do with the health of our brains, though of course mental illness (like physical illness) has multifactorial causes, and by no means should we diminish the importance of addressing all the causes in each individual. But let's examine the opposite of the modern high carbohydrate, low fat, constant snacking lifestyle and how that might affect the brain. The opposite of a low fat, snacking lifestyle would be the lifestyle our ancestors lived for tens of thousands of generations, the lifestyle for which our brains are primarily evolved. It seems reasonable that we would have had extended periods without food, either because there was none available, or we were busy doing something else. Then we would follow that period with a filling meal of gathered plant and animal products, preferentially selecting the fat. During the day we might have eaten a piece of fruit, or greens, or a grub we dug up, but anything filling or high in calories (such as a starchy tuber) would have to be killed, butchered, and/or carefully prepared before eating. Fortunately, we have a terrific system of fuel for periods of fasting or low carbohydrate eating, our body (and brain) can readily shift from burning glucose to burning what ar Continue reading >>

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