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Which Insulin For Ketoacidosis

How Dka Happens And What To Do About It

How Dka Happens And What To Do About It

Certified Diabetes Educator Gary Scheiner offers an overview of diabetic ketoacidosis. (excerpted from Think Like A Pancreas: A Practical Guide to Managing Diabetes With Insulin by Gary Scheiner MS, CDE, DaCapo Press, 2011) Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) is a condition in which the blood becomes highly acidic as a result of dehydration and excessive ketone (acid) production. When bodily fluids become acidic, some of the body’s systems stop functioning properly. It is a serious condition that will make you violently ill and it can kill you. The primary cause of DKA is a lack of working insulin in the body. Most of the body’s cells burn primarily sugar (glucose) for energy. Many cells also burn fat, but in much smaller amounts. Glucose happens to be a very “clean” form of energy—there are virtually no waste products left over when you burn it up. Fat, on the other hand, is a “dirty” source of energy. When fat is burned, there are waste products produced. These waste products are called “ketones.” Ketones are acid molecules that can pollute the bloodstream and affect the body’s delicate pH balance if produced in large quantities. Luckily, we don’t tend to burn huge amounts of fat at one time, and the ketones that are produced can be broken down during the process of glucose metabolism. Glucose and ketones can “jump into the fire” together. It is important to have an ample supply of glucose in the body’s cells. That requires two things: sugar (glucose) in the bloodstream, and insulin to shuttle the sugar into the cells. A number of things would start to go wrong if you have no insulin in the bloodstream: Without insulin, glucose cannot get into the body’s cells. As a result, the cells begin burning large amounts of fat for energy. This, of course, Continue reading >>

How Can I Survive Type 1 Diabetes Without Insulin?

How Can I Survive Type 1 Diabetes Without Insulin?

This week, Wil offers some thoughts on that universal question: “How long can I really go without insulin?” Please take a read; his findings might surprise you and even bust a myth or two. Jake, type 1 from Minneapolis, writes: I’ve had diabetes for 18 years and I had someone ask me a question the other day that I didn’t really have an answer to. The question was how long I would be able to survive without any insulin. I told them 3–4 days, but I don’t know if this is true. Any info from a cinnamon whiskey swizzling T1? Wil@Ask D’Mine answers: If Tom Hanks’ character in Castaway had been one of us, he would’ve never lived long enough to go half-crazy and end up talking to a volleyball named Wilson. OK, so that’s a mixed blessing. But I guess the lesson there is: don’t get washed up on a deserted island if you can avoid it. To be honest, like you, I had always pegged my zero-insulin survival time in the “couple of days” zone; but once I got to thinking about your question I realized that I didn’t know how I knew that, where I learned it, or if it was even correct at all. Now, as background for you sugar-normals, type 2s, and type 3sin type 1s like Jake and me, if we run out of insulin hyperglycemia sets in. That leads to diabetic ketoacidosis (known as DKA by its friends), which then (untreated) leads to death. Well, there are a number of variables, the most critical being: Are you really out of insulin, or just low on insulin? Some type 1s use basal insulin, which has some effect for a full day or more after the last shot. Others of us PWDs use pumps, and the insulin from the pump only lasts for four hours. The bottom line here is that if two type 1s were captured by terrorists (hey, it could happen!), and if the terrorists took away their in Continue reading >>

Treatment Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis With Insulin Aspart Injections Vs. Iv Regular Insulin Avoids Icu Care, Cutting Hospital Costs Nearly 40 Percent, Study Shows

Treatment Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis With Insulin Aspart Injections Vs. Iv Regular Insulin Avoids Icu Care, Cutting Hospital Costs Nearly 40 Percent, Study Shows

Other study shows people with diabetes prefer combination of insulin aspart and FlexPen® by more than eight-to-one over other rapid-acting insulin and pen delivery device New Orleans, LA June 14, 2003 — Treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis with the rapid-acting human insulin analog insulin aspart (rDNA origin) injection (brand name, NovoLog®), instead of with intravenous regular insulin, can reduce admissions to intensive care units (ICUs), thereby cutting hospital costs nearly 40 percent, according to findings[1] presented here at the 63rd annual meeting of the American Diabetes Association. "Diabetic ketoacidosis is an emergency condition requiring immediate attention, so it is currently recommended[2] that treatment with regular insulin be administered intravenously, because its onset of action is delayed by about 30 minutes when injected subcutaneously," said lead investigator Guillermo Umpierrez, M.D., associate professor of medicine and section chief, Regional Medical Center at the University of Tennessee in Memphis. "However, when injected, insulin aspart has a more rapid onset of action than regular insulin. Our study showed subcutaneous injection of insulin aspart was equally effective to intravenous infusion of regular insulin in treating DKA, suggesting it represents a cost-effective alternative," he said. Primarily affecting people with type 1 diabetes, diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a potentially life-threatening condition caused by insufficient insulin and soaring levels of blood glucose (250 mg/dL or higher), often in response to some stress such as an infection or other illness. The condition has a rapid onset, and the resulting dehydration and increased acid in the bloodstream can result in breathing difficulty, weakness, confusion, nausea, extreme th Continue reading >>

Subcutaneous Rapid-acting Insulin Analogues For Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Subcutaneous Rapid-acting Insulin Analogues For Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Review question What are the effects of subcutaneous rapid-acting insulin analogues compared with standard intravenous infusion of regular insulin for the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis? Background Rapid-acting insulin analogues (artificial insulin such as insulin lispro, insulin aspart, or insulin glulisine) act more quickly than regular human insulin. In people with a specific type of life-threatening diabetic coma due to uncontrolled diabetes, called diabetic ketoacidosis, prompt administration of intravenous regular insulin is standard therapy. The rapid-acting insulin analogues, if injected subcutaneously, act faster than subcutaneously administered regular insulin. The need for a continuous intravenous infusion, an intervention that usually requires admission to an intensive care unit, can thereby be avoided. This means that subcutaneously given insulin analogues for diabetic ketoacidosis might be applied in the emergency department and a general medicine ward. Study characteristics We found five randomised controlled trials (clinical studies where people are randomly put into one of two or more treatment groups) with a total of 201 participants. Most trials did not report on type of diabetes. Younger diabetic participants and children were underrepresented in our included trials (one trial only). Participants in four trials received treatment with insulin lispro, and one trial with 45 participants investigated insulin aspart. The average follow-up as measured by mean hospital stay ranged between two and seven days. The study authors termed the diabetic ketoacidosis being treated with insulin analogues or regular insulin as mild or moderate. This evidence is up to date as of October 2015. Key results Our results are most relevant for adults with mild or modera Continue reading >>

Diabetic Emergencies, Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Adults, Part 3

Diabetic Emergencies, Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Adults, Part 3

Clinical Management Treatment consists of rehydration with intravenous fluids, the administration of insulin, and replacement of electrolytes. General medical care and close supervision by trained medical and nursing staff is of paramount importance in the management of patients with DKA. A treatment flowchart (Table 1.3) should be used and updated meticulously. A urine catheter is necessary if the patient is in coma or if no urine is passed in the first 4 hours…. Replacement of water deficit Patients with DKA have severe dehydration. The amount of fluid needing to be administered depends on the degree of dehydration (Table 1.4). Fluid replacement aims at correction of the volume deficit and not to restore serum osmolality to normal. Isotonic solution NaCl (0.9%) (normal saline; osmolality 308 mOsm/kg) should be administered even in patients with high serum osmolality since this solution is hypotonic compared to the extracellular fluid of the patient. 10 The initial rate of fluid administration depends on the degree of volume depletion and underlying cardiac and renal function. In a young adult with normal cardiac and/or renal function 1 L of normal saline is administered intravenously within the first half- to one hour. In the second hour administer another 1 L, and between the third and the fifth hours administer 0.5–1 L per hour. Thus, the total volume in the first 5 hours should be 3.5–5 L [1]. If the patient is in shock or blood pressure does not respond to normal saline infusion, colloid solutions together with normal saline may be used.1,6 Some authors suggest replacement of normal saline with hypotonic (0.45%) saline solution after stabilization of the hemodynamic status of the patient and when corrected serum sodium levels are normal.8 However, this appro Continue reading >>

Which Insulin For Diabetic Ketoacidosis?

Which Insulin For Diabetic Ketoacidosis?

The Lancet Choice is a new payment option that gives you the freedom and flexibility to access any 5 premium articles of your choice from across The Lancet family of journals - all for a one-off payment of $49.00 USD. Simply purchase your Lancet Choice pass from the Summary or Full Text page of an article you wish to access. This will count as the first of 5 article credits, or ‘Allowances’, and you can use your 4 remaining Allowances to access other articles from any of The Lancet journals. Continue reading >>

Basal Insulin In The Management Of Patients With Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)

Basal Insulin In The Management Of Patients With Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is the most serious emergency in patients with diabetes. With an estimated 100,000 admissions per year in the United States, DKA is also the leading cause of death in children with type 1 diabetes, and accounts for a significant proportion of admissions in adult patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The mainstay in the treatment of DKA involves the continuous intravenous (IV) infusion of regular insulin or the frequent subcutaneous (SC) injections of regular or rapid-acting insulin analogs. Multiple studies have reported successful protocols for insulin administration during the acute management of DKA, but they have failed to address the transition phase from IV to SC maintenance insulin regimen. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) position statement recommends the use of split-mixed insulin combination of regular and intermediate-acting insulin (NPH). This regimen, however, are associated with a high rate of hyperglycemia shortly after discontinuation of IV insulin and a risk of hypoglycemia during the hospital stay. Recently, the long-acting "basal" insulin glargine (Lantus®, Sanofi Aventis Pharmaceuticals) has been shown to facilitate glycemic control with lower rate of hypoglycemic events than intermediate-acting insulin in subjects with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. This study aims i) to determine the effects of giving a dose of glargine insulin shortly after starting an intravenous insulin infusion on glycemic control, time to resolve DKA, and rate of hypoglycemia in patients with DKA, and ii) to compare the safety and efficacy of basal/bolus (glargine/glulisine) insulin versus the standard split-mixed insulin regimen of NPH and regular insulin after the resolution of DKA. The hypothesis is that basal (lantus®) insulin as compa Continue reading >>

Management Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Severe Insulin Resistance

Management Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Severe Insulin Resistance

Syndromes of severe insulin resistance (IR) include mutations of or autoantibodies to the insulin receptor and lipodystrophy (1). Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), although rare, can occur in these patients, even in the context of hyperinsulinemia, due to impaired insulin signaling. DKA can be extremely challenging to treat, and few clinicians are experienced or comfortable in using the high doses of insulin required. We describe aggressive management of DKA in three patients with syndromic severe IR. CASE 1 An 18-year-old man with compound heterozygous mutation of the insulin receptor presented with DKA. He had poorly controlled diabetes (A1C 14% [130 mmol/mol]) treated with U-500 insulin (1,500 units/day), metreleptin (recombinant human methionyl leptin as an experimental drug), and metformin (2 g/day). Two weeks prior, he underwent a root canal for an abscessed tooth but did not take the prescribed antibiotics. Antibiotics were subsequently initiated. One day after discharge, he developed abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and worsening jaw pain and swelling. Two days later, he developed fatigue, malaise, and Kussmaul respirations. He presented to an outside hospital with DKA with a pH of 7.08, partial pressure CO2 of 27 mmHg, and bicarbonate of 8 mmol/L. He received fluid resuscitation for an estimated 10% dehydration. In collaboration with National Institutes of Health (NIH) physicians, an insulin drip was started at 100 units/h that was gradually increased to 1,000 units/h on the first day and 2,000 units/h on the second day, without improvement of acidosis (Fig. 1A). Because of the lack of improvement despite massive doses of insulin (>50,000 units/day) and intravenous antibiotics, bicarbonate was given and dental extraction performed. He improved thereafter on 2,000 u Continue reading >>

My Site - Chapter 15: Hyperglycemic Emergencies In Adults

My Site - Chapter 15: Hyperglycemic Emergencies In Adults

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) should be suspected in ill patients with diabetes. If either DKA or HHS is diagnosed, precipitating factors must be sought and treated. DKA and HHS are medical emergencies that require treatment and monitoring for multiple metabolic abnormalities and vigilance for complications. A normal blood glucose does not rule out DKA in pregnancy. Ketoacidosis requires insulin administration (0.1 U/kg/h) for resolution; bicarbonate therapy should be considered only for extreme acidosis (pH7.0). Note to readers: Although the diagnosis and treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in adults and in children share general principles, there are significant differences in their application, largely related to the increased risk of life-threatening cerebral edema with DKA in children and adolescents. The specific issues related to treatment of DKA in children and adolescents are addressed in the Type 1 Diabetes in Children and Adolescents chapter, p. S153. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) are diabetes emergencies with overlapping features. With insulin deficiency, hyperglycemia causes urinary losses of water and electrolytes (sodium, potassium, chloride) and the resultant extracellular fluid volume (ECFV) depletion. Potassium is shifted out of cells, and ketoacidosis occurs as a result of elevated glucagon levels and absolute insulin deficiency (in the case of type 1 diabetes) or high catecholamine levels suppressing insulin release (in the case of type 2 diabetes). In DKA, ketoacidosis is prominent, while in HHS, the main features are ECFV depletion and hyperosmolarity. Risk factors for DKA include new diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, insulin omission, infection, myocardial infarc Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka) - Topic Overview

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka) - Topic Overview

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a life-threatening condition that develops when cells in the body are unable to get the sugar (glucose) they need for energy because there is not enough insulin. When the sugar cannot get into the cells, it stays in the blood. The kidneys filter some of the sugar from the blood and remove it from the body through urine. Because the cells cannot receive sugar for energy, the body begins to break down fat and muscle for energy. When this happens, ketones, or fatty acids, are produced and enter the bloodstream, causing the chemical imbalance (metabolic acidosis) called diabetic ketoacidosis. Ketoacidosis can be caused by not getting enough insulin, having a severe infection or other illness, becoming severely dehydrated, or some combination of these things. It can occur in people who have little or no insulin in their bodies (mostly people with type 1 diabetes but it can happen with type 2 diabetes, especially children) when their blood sugar levels are high. Your blood sugar may be quite high before you notice symptoms, which include: Flushed, hot, dry skin. Feeling thirsty and urinating a lot. Drowsiness or difficulty waking up. Young children may lack interest in their normal activities. Rapid, deep breathing. A strong, fruity breath odor. Loss of appetite, belly pain, and vomiting. Confusion. Laboratory tests, including blood and urine tests, are used to confirm a diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis. Tests for ketones are available for home use. Keep some test strips nearby in case your blood sugar level becomes high. When ketoacidosis is severe, it must be treated in the hospital, often in an intensive care unit. Treatment involves giving insulin and fluids through your vein and closely watching certain chemicals in your blood (electrolyt Continue reading >>

Management Of Adult Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Management Of Adult Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Go to: Abstract Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a rare yet potentially fatal hyperglycemic crisis that can occur in patients with both type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus. Due to its increasing incidence and economic impact related to the treatment and associated morbidity, effective management and prevention is key. Elements of management include making the appropriate diagnosis using current laboratory tools and clinical criteria and coordinating fluid resuscitation, insulin therapy, and electrolyte replacement through feedback obtained from timely patient monitoring and knowledge of resolution criteria. In addition, awareness of special populations such as patients with renal disease presenting with DKA is important. During the DKA therapy, complications may arise and appropriate strategies to prevent these complications are required. DKA prevention strategies including patient and provider education are important. This review aims to provide a brief overview of DKA from its pathophysiology to clinical presentation with in depth focus on up-to-date therapeutic management. Keywords: DKA treatment, insulin, prevention, ESKD Go to: Introduction In 2009, there were 140,000 hospitalizations for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) with an average length of stay of 3.4 days.1 The direct and indirect annual cost of DKA hospitalizations is 2.4 billion US dollars. Omission of insulin is the most common precipitant of DKA.2,3 Infections, acute medical illnesses involving the cardiovascular system (myocardial infarction, stroke) and gastrointestinal tract (bleeding, pancreatitis), diseases of the endocrine axis (acromegaly, Cushing’s syndrome), and stress of recent surgical procedures can contribute to the development of DKA by causing dehydration, increase in insulin counter-regulatory hor Continue reading >>

Understanding And Treating Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Understanding And Treating Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious metabolic disorder that can occur in animals with diabetes mellitus (DM).1,2 Veterinary technicians play an integral role in managing and treating patients with this life-threatening condition. In addition to recognizing the clinical signs of this disorder and evaluating the patient's response to therapy, technicians should understand how this disorder occurs. DM is caused by a relative or absolute lack of insulin production by the pancreatic b-cells or by inactivity or loss of insulin receptors, which are usually found on membranes of skeletal muscle, fat, and liver cells.1,3 In dogs and cats, DM is classified as either insulin-dependent (the body is unable to produce sufficient insulin) or non-insulin-dependent (the body produces insulin, but the tissues in the body are resistant to the insulin).4 Most dogs and cats that develop DKA have an insulin deficiency. Insulin has many functions, including the enhancement of glucose uptake by the cells for energy.1 Without insulin, the cells cannot access glucose, thereby causing them to undergo starvation.2 The unused glucose remains in the circulation, resulting in hyperglycemia. To provide cells with an alternative energy source, the body breaks down adipocytes, releasing free fatty acids (FFAs) into the bloodstream. The liver subsequently converts FFAs to triglycerides and ketone bodies. These ketone bodies (i.e., acetone, acetoacetic acid, b-hydroxybutyric acid) can be used as energy by the tissues when there is a lack of glucose or nutritional intake.1,2 The breakdown of fat, combined with the body's inability to use glucose, causes many pets with diabetes to present with weight loss, despite having a ravenous appetite. If diabetes is undiagnosed or uncontrolled, a series of metab Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis - Symptoms

Diabetic Ketoacidosis - Symptoms

A A A Diabetic Ketoacidosis Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) results from dehydration during a state of relative insulin deficiency, associated with high blood levels of sugar level and organic acids called ketones. Diabetic ketoacidosis is associated with significant disturbances of the body's chemistry, which resolve with proper therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis usually occurs in people with type 1 (juvenile) diabetes mellitus (T1DM), but diabetic ketoacidosis can develop in any person with diabetes. Since type 1 diabetes typically starts before age 25 years, diabetic ketoacidosis is most common in this age group, but it may occur at any age. Males and females are equally affected. Diabetic ketoacidosis occurs when a person with diabetes becomes dehydrated. As the body produces a stress response, hormones (unopposed by insulin due to the insulin deficiency) begin to break down muscle, fat, and liver cells into glucose (sugar) and fatty acids for use as fuel. These hormones include glucagon, growth hormone, and adrenaline. These fatty acids are converted to ketones by a process called oxidation. The body consumes its own muscle, fat, and liver cells for fuel. In diabetic ketoacidosis, the body shifts from its normal fed metabolism (using carbohydrates for fuel) to a fasting state (using fat for fuel). The resulting increase in blood sugar occurs, because insulin is unavailable to transport sugar into cells for future use. As blood sugar levels rise, the kidneys cannot retain the extra sugar, which is dumped into the urine, thereby increasing urination and causing dehydration. Commonly, about 10% of total body fluids are lost as the patient slips into diabetic ketoacidosis. Significant loss of potassium and other salts in the excessive urination is also common. The most common Continue reading >>

> Hyperglycemia And Diabetic Ketoacidosis

> Hyperglycemia And Diabetic Ketoacidosis

When blood glucose levels (also called blood sugar levels) are too high, it's called hyperglycemia. Glucose is a sugar that comes from foods, and is formed and stored inside the body. It's the main source of energy for the body's cells and is carried to each through the bloodstream. But even though we need glucose for energy, too much glucose in the blood can be unhealthy. Hyperglycemia is the hallmark of diabetes — it happens when the body either can't make insulin (type 1 diabetes) or can't respond to insulin properly (type 2 diabetes). The body needs insulin so glucose in the blood can enter the cells to be used for energy. In people who have developed diabetes, glucose builds up in the blood, resulting in hyperglycemia. If it's not treated, hyperglycemia can cause serious health problems. Too much sugar in the bloodstream for long periods of time can damage the vessels that supply blood to vital organs. And, too much sugar in the bloodstream can cause other types of damage to body tissues, which can increase the risk of heart disease and stroke, kidney disease, vision problems, and nerve problems in people with diabetes. These problems don't usually show up in kids or teens with diabetes who have had the disease for only a few years. However, they can happen in adulthood in some people, particularly if they haven't managed or controlled their diabetes properly. Blood sugar levels are considered high when they're above someone's target range. The diabetes health care team will let you know what your child's target blood sugar levels are, which will vary based on factors like your child's age. A major goal in controlling diabetes is to keep blood sugar levels as close to the desired range as possible. It's a three-way balancing act of: diabetes medicines (such as in Continue reading >>

Insulin Dosing In Diabetic Ketoacidosis: Less May Be More

Insulin Dosing In Diabetic Ketoacidosis: Less May Be More

PICO Question: Among children ≤12 years old with diabetic ketoacidosis, does low dosing of regular insulin achieve equally effective outcomes compared to standard dosing? Question type: Treatment Study design: Randomized controlled trial Investigators from the Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research in India conducted a randomized controlled trial to determine if a dosing of regular insulin that is lower than the currently recommended dose could be safely and effectively used in children with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Eligible participants were children ≤12 years of age who presented to the emergency department of a tertiary teaching hospital with DKA. DKA was defined as the presence of hyperglycemia (blood glucose [BG] ≥200 mg/dL), acidosis (a pH <7.3 or bicarbonate <15 mEq/L), and ketonuria (urine dipstick ≥2+). Children with … View Full Text Continue reading >>

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