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Which Insulin For Ketoacidosis

Ketosis

Ketosis

Tweet Ketosis is a state the body may find itself in either as a result of raised blood glucose levels or as a part of low carb dieting. Low levels of ketosis is perfectly normal. However, high levels of ketosis in the short term can be serious and the long term effects of regular moderate ketosis are only partially known at the moment. What is ketosis? Ketosis is a state the body goes into if it needs to break down body fat for energy. The state is marked by raised levels of ketones in the blood which can be used by the body as fuel. Ketones which are not used for fuel are excreted out of the body via the kidneys and the urine. Is ketosis the same as ketoacidosis? There is often confusion as to the difference between ketosis and ketoacidosis. Ketosis is the state whereby the body is producing ketones. In ketosis, the level of ketones in the blood can be anything between normal to very high. Diabetic ketoacidosis, also known as DKA, only describes the state in which the level of ketones is either high or very high. In ketoacidosis, the amount of ketones in the blood is sufficient to turn the blood acidic, which is a dangerous medical state. When does ketosis occur? Ketosis will take place when the body needs energy and there is not sufficient glucose available for the body. This can typically happen when the body is lacking insulin and blood glucose levels become high. Other causes can be the result of being on a low carb diet. A low level of carbohydrate will lead to low levels of insulin, and therefore the body will produce ketones which do not rely on insulin to get into and fuel the body’s cells. A further cause of ketosis, less relevant to people with diabetes, is a result of excessive alcohol consumption. Is ketosis dangerous? The NHS describes ketosis as a pote Continue reading >>

> Hyperglycemia And Diabetic Ketoacidosis

> Hyperglycemia And Diabetic Ketoacidosis

When blood glucose levels (also called blood sugar levels) are too high, it's called hyperglycemia. Glucose is a sugar that comes from foods, and is formed and stored inside the body. It's the main source of energy for the body's cells and is carried to each through the bloodstream. But even though we need glucose for energy, too much glucose in the blood can be unhealthy. Hyperglycemia is the hallmark of diabetes — it happens when the body either can't make insulin (type 1 diabetes) or can't respond to insulin properly (type 2 diabetes). The body needs insulin so glucose in the blood can enter the cells to be used for energy. In people who have developed diabetes, glucose builds up in the blood, resulting in hyperglycemia. If it's not treated, hyperglycemia can cause serious health problems. Too much sugar in the bloodstream for long periods of time can damage the vessels that supply blood to vital organs. And, too much sugar in the bloodstream can cause other types of damage to body tissues, which can increase the risk of heart disease and stroke, kidney disease, vision problems, and nerve problems in people with diabetes. These problems don't usually show up in kids or teens with diabetes who have had the disease for only a few years. However, they can happen in adulthood in some people, particularly if they haven't managed or controlled their diabetes properly. Blood sugar levels are considered high when they're above someone's target range. The diabetes health care team will let you know what your child's target blood sugar levels are, which will vary based on factors like your child's age. A major goal in controlling diabetes is to keep blood sugar levels as close to the desired range as possible. It's a three-way balancing act of: diabetes medicines (such as in Continue reading >>

Long-acting Insulin On The Road To Recovery With Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Long-acting Insulin On The Road To Recovery With Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetes mellitus, caused by a deficiency of the pancreatic hormone insulin, affects millions of individuals every year. In the United States, 29.1 million people had a diagnosis of diabetes in 2012 (9.3% of the US population). Worldwide, the World Health Organization reported 415 million adults with diabetes.1 As the seventh leading cause of death in the United States, diabetes claimed 69 071 lives in 2012.2 Many complications and comorbid conditions are associated with diabetes including myocardial infarction (1.8 times higher risk), stroke (1.5 times higher risk), and cardiovascular deaths (1.7 times higher risk). In adults, diabetes is the most common cause of nontraumatic lower-limb amputations, kidney failure that results in the need for chronic dialysis or kidney transplant, and vision loss/impairment.3 Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is the most serious acute metabolic complication of diabetes. Hospitalizations for DKA in the United States are on the rise. According to epidemiological studies, DKA increased 35% from 1996 to 2006, with primary diagnoses of DKA totaling 136 500 in 2006. Two-thirds of DKA patients are type 1 diabetics, with the majority either between 18 and 44 years old or more than 65 years old. Although overall mortality is low (< 1%), higher mortality is seen in older adults and those with life-threatening conditions.4,5 In addition, the direct and indirect costs incurred for the acute management of DKA exceed $2 billion annually.6,7 Successful treatment of DKA requires correction of dehydration, hyperglycemia, and electrolyte imbalances. Hyperglycemia during acute illness results from increased hepatic glucose production and impaired glucose use in peripheral tissues. Excess counter-regulatory hormones such as glucagon, cortisol, and catecholamine Continue reading >>

Why Doesn't Regular Insulin Therapy Cause Hypokalemia In Patient With Diabetes Mellitus?

Why Doesn't Regular Insulin Therapy Cause Hypokalemia In Patient With Diabetes Mellitus?

Hypokalemia is low potassium. Your potassium level is maintained within a range. As part of your electrolytes that move in and out of the cells as needed. Insulin reduces serum K+ from ECF to ICF mainly because insulin increases the activity of the sodium-potassium pump. insulin is the first-line defense against hyperkalemia. a rise in plasma k+ stimulates insulin release by the pancreatic beta cell. insulin, in turn, enhances cellular potassium uptake, returning plasma k+ towards normal. the enhanced cellular uptake of k+ that results from increased insulin levels is thought to be largely due to the ability of insulin to stimulate activity of the sodium potassium atpase located in cell plasma membranes. the insulin induced cellular uptake of potassium is not dependent on the uptake of glucose caused by insulin. insulin deficiency allows a mild rise in plasma k+ chronically and makes the subject to severe hyperkalemia if a potassium load is given. conversely, potassium deficiency may cause decreased insulin release. thus plasma potassium and insulin participate in a feedback control mechanism. Continue reading >>

Case Report Severe Allergic Reaction To Human Insulin In The Patient With Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Case Report Severe Allergic Reaction To Human Insulin In The Patient With Diabetic Ketoacidosis

1. Introduction Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a potentially fatal crisis of diabetes mellitus (DM). In the treatment of DKA, fluid resuscitation, insulin therapy, and electrolyte replacement are important. Rarely, insulin allergies can be developed in the patient treated with insulin. The most common symptoms of insulin allergies are localized and limited. Life-threatening allergic reactions are rarely reported. Insulin allergies can be managed safely and successfully by desensitization treatment.1,2 We present treatment of a patient with DKA who developed an insulin allergy. In this case report, we aimed to discuss DKA treatment options in patient with insulin allergies. 2. Case report A 45-year-old male was brought to our emergency department with chest pain and hyperglycemia. He had a history of type 2 DM and had been using an oral antidiabetic drug for two years, but he had been stopped using for a month. HIs past medical history did not show any drug allergies. His vitals were measured: 1.) blood pressure of 166/98 mmHg; 2.) pulse 100/min; 3.) respiration number 24/min; 4.) O2 saturation 98%; and 5.) temperature 36.0 °C. His electrocardiograms (ECG's) were normal. His blood glucose level was 405 mg/dL, urinary ketones 15 mmol/L, pH was 6.8, HCO3 4.7 mmol/L, and lactate 3.6 mmol/L. Regular insulin (0.1unit/kg IV bolus) was initiated in addition to 2000 mL of intravenous saline, and a 0.1 unit/kg/hour infusion was started. He developed a generalized skin rash, hoarseness, and uvular edema at the 30th minute of treatment, which then expanded to the soft palate. The vital findings were normal except for the presence of tachycardia. At that moment his vitals were measured: 1.) blood pressure 126/75 mmHg; 2.) pulse 104/min; 3.) respiration number 24/min; 4.) O2 saturat Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis - Symptoms

Diabetic Ketoacidosis - Symptoms

A A A Diabetic Ketoacidosis Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) results from dehydration during a state of relative insulin deficiency, associated with high blood levels of sugar level and organic acids called ketones. Diabetic ketoacidosis is associated with significant disturbances of the body's chemistry, which resolve with proper therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis usually occurs in people with type 1 (juvenile) diabetes mellitus (T1DM), but diabetic ketoacidosis can develop in any person with diabetes. Since type 1 diabetes typically starts before age 25 years, diabetic ketoacidosis is most common in this age group, but it may occur at any age. Males and females are equally affected. Diabetic ketoacidosis occurs when a person with diabetes becomes dehydrated. As the body produces a stress response, hormones (unopposed by insulin due to the insulin deficiency) begin to break down muscle, fat, and liver cells into glucose (sugar) and fatty acids for use as fuel. These hormones include glucagon, growth hormone, and adrenaline. These fatty acids are converted to ketones by a process called oxidation. The body consumes its own muscle, fat, and liver cells for fuel. In diabetic ketoacidosis, the body shifts from its normal fed metabolism (using carbohydrates for fuel) to a fasting state (using fat for fuel). The resulting increase in blood sugar occurs, because insulin is unavailable to transport sugar into cells for future use. As blood sugar levels rise, the kidneys cannot retain the extra sugar, which is dumped into the urine, thereby increasing urination and causing dehydration. Commonly, about 10% of total body fluids are lost as the patient slips into diabetic ketoacidosis. Significant loss of potassium and other salts in the excessive urination is also common. The most common Continue reading >>

Diabetes: What Is Ketoacidosis And How Can Be Avoided & Treated?

Diabetes: What Is Ketoacidosis And How Can Be Avoided & Treated?

Good question! According to Wikipedia: Diabetic ketoacidosis is a potentially life-threatening complication in patients with diabetes mellitus. In order to define ketoacidosis a little better, let's go back to the source: diabetes. Someone who is diabetic is unable to produce insulin, a hormone necessary for the transfer of sugar from the bloodstream to the cells, which in turn produce energy. If this progression is disrupted, through lack of insulin for example, the body has to try to compensate by creating energy elsewhere. And so the body starts to burn fat and muscle to meet its energy needs. Unfortunately, this chemical reaction produces molecules known as ketone bodies. In small quantities, these are fine, and it is in fact normal to have traces of them in your blood (approximately 1mg/dl). However, if the quantity of ketones surpasses this threshold by too much, it starts to affect the pH of your blood (which becomes progressively more acidic). Even the slightest drop in pH can have dangerous effects: as the quantity of the ketones in your blood increases, and the blood pH diminishes, your kidneys start having problems. Eventually, if the ketoacidosis is left untreated, your kidneys can fail and you can die from dehydration, tachycardia and hypotension. A number of other symptoms can appear in extreme cases. Fortunately for us, the quantity of ketones has to be consequential, and it usually takes a while before individuals start manifesting symptoms. In my case, my diabetes went undiagnosed for a month and a half before it was discovered, and even then my ketone levels were relatively normal. If you're a diabetic, ketoacidosis can be easily avoided by controlling your blood sugar levels and maintaining a healthy lifestyle. Some doctors, preferring to stay on the Continue reading >>

What You Should Know About Diabetic Ketoacidosis

What You Should Know About Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a buildup of acids in your blood. It can happen when your blood sugar is too high for too long. It could be life-threatening, but it usually takes many hours to become that serious. You can treat it and prevent it, too. It usually happens because your body doesn't have enough insulin. Your cells can't use the sugar in your blood for energy, so they use fat for fuel instead. Burning fat makes acids called ketones and, if the process goes on for a while, they could build up in your blood. That excess can change the chemical balance of your blood and throw off your entire system. People with type 1 diabetes are at risk for ketoacidosis, since their bodies don't make any insulin. Your ketones can also go up when you miss a meal, you're sick or stressed, or you have an insulin reaction. DKA can happen to people with type 2 diabetes, but it's rare. If you have type 2, especially when you're older, you're more likely to have a condition with some similar symptoms called HHNS (hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic syndrome). It can lead to severe dehydration. Test your ketones when your blood sugar is over 240 mg/dL or you have symptoms of high blood sugar, such as dry mouth, feeling really thirsty, or peeing a lot. You can check your levels with a urine test strip. Some glucose meters measure ketones, too. Try to bring your blood sugar down, and check your ketones again in 30 minutes. Call your doctor or go to the emergency room right away if that doesn't work, if you have any of the symptoms below and your ketones aren't normal, or if you have more than one symptom. You've been throwing up for more than 2 hours. You feel queasy or your belly hurts. Your breath smells fruity. You're tired, confused, or woozy. You're having a hard time breathing. Continue reading >>

Management Of Adult Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Management Of Adult Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Go to: Abstract Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a rare yet potentially fatal hyperglycemic crisis that can occur in patients with both type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus. Due to its increasing incidence and economic impact related to the treatment and associated morbidity, effective management and prevention is key. Elements of management include making the appropriate diagnosis using current laboratory tools and clinical criteria and coordinating fluid resuscitation, insulin therapy, and electrolyte replacement through feedback obtained from timely patient monitoring and knowledge of resolution criteria. In addition, awareness of special populations such as patients with renal disease presenting with DKA is important. During the DKA therapy, complications may arise and appropriate strategies to prevent these complications are required. DKA prevention strategies including patient and provider education are important. This review aims to provide a brief overview of DKA from its pathophysiology to clinical presentation with in depth focus on up-to-date therapeutic management. Keywords: DKA treatment, insulin, prevention, ESKD Go to: Introduction In 2009, there were 140,000 hospitalizations for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) with an average length of stay of 3.4 days.1 The direct and indirect annual cost of DKA hospitalizations is 2.4 billion US dollars. Omission of insulin is the most common precipitant of DKA.2,3 Infections, acute medical illnesses involving the cardiovascular system (myocardial infarction, stroke) and gastrointestinal tract (bleeding, pancreatitis), diseases of the endocrine axis (acromegaly, Cushing’s syndrome), and stress of recent surgical procedures can contribute to the development of DKA by causing dehydration, increase in insulin counter-regulatory hor Continue reading >>

Treatment Of Insulin-resistant Diabetic Ketoacidosis With Insulin-like Growth Factor I In An Adolescent With Insulin-dependent Diabetes

Treatment Of Insulin-resistant Diabetic Ketoacidosis With Insulin-like Growth Factor I In An Adolescent With Insulin-dependent Diabetes

INSULIN plays a central part in the regulation of carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism. Severe insulin resistance, in which treatment with large doses of insulin does not result in adequate metabolic control, is uncommon. Such resistance occurs in the presence of circulating insulin or insulin-receptor antibodies,1 , 2 insulin-receptor abnormalities,3 and episodically in patients with previously typical insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM).4 The therapeutic options in patients with severe insulin resistance have been limited, since insulin has been the only available hormone with insulin-like metabolic effects. Recombinant human insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), which shares considerable sequence homology as well as biologic properties with insulin,5 has recently become available and has been used in treating patients with Mendenhall's syndrome.6 We describe the use of IGF-I in the treatment of a 16-year-old girl with IDDM complicated by severe episodic insulin resistance. Administration of massive doses of insulin (more than 1000 U per hour) during these episodes failed to achieve glycemic control or reverse ketoacidosis. Treatment with IGF-I rapidly reversed the hyperglycemia and ketoacidosis, and subsequent weekly intravenous infusions of IGF-I markedly improved the degree of insulin sensitivity. The patient was a 16-year-old girl who had had IDDM since the age of 3. She was treated with twice-daily injections of regular and bovine or porcine isophane insulin suspension until the age of seven, at which time she began to receive human insulin. Her glycemic control subsequently improved. At the age of 13, she began to have increasingly frequent (two to three times monthly) episodes of severe hyperglycemia, usually without ketoacidosis. Her serum glucose Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis Explained

Diabetic Ketoacidosis Explained

Twitter Summary: DKA - a major complication of #diabetes – we describe what it is, symptoms, who’s at risk, prevention + treatment! One of the most notorious complications of diabetes is diabetic ketoacidosis, or DKA. First described in the late 19th century, DKA represented something close to the ultimate diabetes emergency: In just 24 hours, people can experience an onset of severe symptoms, all leading to coma or death. But DKA also represents one of the great triumphs of the revolution in diabetes care over the last century. Before the discovery of insulin in 1920, DKA was almost invariably fatal, but the mortality rate for DKA dropped to below 30 percent within 10 years, and now fewer than 1 percent of those who develop DKA die from it, provided they get adequate care in time. Don’t skip over that last phrase, because it’s crucial: DKA is very treatable, but only as long as it’s diagnosed promptly and patients understand the risk. Table of Contents: What are the symptoms of DKA? Does DKA occur in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes? What Can Patients do to Prevent DKA? What is DKA? Insulin plays a critical role in the body’s functioning: it tells cells to absorb the glucose in the blood so that the body can use it for energy. When there’s no insulin to take that glucose out of the blood, high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) results. The body will also start burning fatty acids for energy, since it can’t get that energy from glucose. To make fatty acids usable for energy, the liver has to convert them into compounds known as ketones, and these ketones make the blood more acidic. DKA results when acid levels get too high in the blood. There are other issues too, as DKA also often leads to the overproduction and release of hormones like glucagon and adrenaline Continue reading >>

Which Insulin For Diabetic Ketoacidosis?

Which Insulin For Diabetic Ketoacidosis?

The Lancet Choice is a new payment option that gives you the freedom and flexibility to access any 5 premium articles of your choice from across The Lancet family of journals - all for a one-off payment of $49.00 USD. Simply purchase your Lancet Choice pass from the Summary or Full Text page of an article you wish to access. This will count as the first of 5 article credits, or ‘Allowances’, and you can use your 4 remaining Allowances to access other articles from any of The Lancet journals. Continue reading >>

How Dka Happens And What To Do About It

How Dka Happens And What To Do About It

Certified Diabetes Educator Gary Scheiner offers an overview of diabetic ketoacidosis. (excerpted from Think Like A Pancreas: A Practical Guide to Managing Diabetes With Insulin by Gary Scheiner MS, CDE, DaCapo Press, 2011) Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) is a condition in which the blood becomes highly acidic as a result of dehydration and excessive ketone (acid) production. When bodily fluids become acidic, some of the body’s systems stop functioning properly. It is a serious condition that will make you violently ill and it can kill you. The primary cause of DKA is a lack of working insulin in the body. Most of the body’s cells burn primarily sugar (glucose) for energy. Many cells also burn fat, but in much smaller amounts. Glucose happens to be a very “clean” form of energy—there are virtually no waste products left over when you burn it up. Fat, on the other hand, is a “dirty” source of energy. When fat is burned, there are waste products produced. These waste products are called “ketones.” Ketones are acid molecules that can pollute the bloodstream and affect the body’s delicate pH balance if produced in large quantities. Luckily, we don’t tend to burn huge amounts of fat at one time, and the ketones that are produced can be broken down during the process of glucose metabolism. Glucose and ketones can “jump into the fire” together. It is important to have an ample supply of glucose in the body’s cells. That requires two things: sugar (glucose) in the bloodstream, and insulin to shuttle the sugar into the cells. A number of things would start to go wrong if you have no insulin in the bloodstream: Without insulin, glucose cannot get into the body’s cells. As a result, the cells begin burning large amounts of fat for energy. This, of course, Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka) - Topic Overview

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka) - Topic Overview

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a life-threatening condition that develops when cells in the body are unable to get the sugar (glucose) they need for energy because there is not enough insulin. When the sugar cannot get into the cells, it stays in the blood. The kidneys filter some of the sugar from the blood and remove it from the body through urine. Because the cells cannot receive sugar for energy, the body begins to break down fat and muscle for energy. When this happens, ketones, or fatty acids, are produced and enter the bloodstream, causing the chemical imbalance (metabolic acidosis) called diabetic ketoacidosis. Ketoacidosis can be caused by not getting enough insulin, having a severe infection or other illness, becoming severely dehydrated, or some combination of these things. It can occur in people who have little or no insulin in their bodies (mostly people with type 1 diabetes but it can happen with type 2 diabetes, especially children) when their blood sugar levels are high. Your blood sugar may be quite high before you notice symptoms, which include: Flushed, hot, dry skin. Feeling thirsty and urinating a lot. Drowsiness or difficulty waking up. Young children may lack interest in their normal activities. Rapid, deep breathing. A strong, fruity breath odor. Loss of appetite, belly pain, and vomiting. Confusion. Laboratory tests, including blood and urine tests, are used to confirm a diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis. Tests for ketones are available for home use. Keep some test strips nearby in case your blood sugar level becomes high. When ketoacidosis is severe, it must be treated in the hospital, often in an intensive care unit. Treatment involves giving insulin and fluids through your vein and closely watching certain chemicals in your blood (electrolyt Continue reading >>

Original Contribution Utility Of Initial Bolus Insulin In The Treatment Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Original Contribution Utility Of Initial Bolus Insulin In The Treatment Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Abstract Current guidelines for treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) recommend administration of an intravenous bolus dose of insulin followed by a continuous infusion. This study was designed to investigate whether the initial bolus dose is of significant benefit to adult patients with DKA and if it is associated with increased complications. This was a non-concurrent, prospective observational cohort study of adult patients who presented with DKA in a 12-month period. Charts were divided into two groups depending on whether they received an initial bolus dose of insulin. Data on glucose levels, anion gap (AG), intravenous fluid administration (IVF), and length of stay (LOS) were collected. Primary outcome was hypoglycemia (need for administration of 50% dextrose). Of 157 charts, 78 received a bolus of insulin and were designated the treatment group, the remaining 79 formed the control group. Groups were similar at baseline and received equivalent IVF and insulin drips. There were no statistically significant differences in the incidence of hypoglycemia (6% vs. 1%, respectively, p = 0.12), rate of change of glucose (60 vs. 56 mg/dL/h, respectively, p = 0.54) or AG (1.9 vs. 1.9 mEq/L/h, respectively, p = 0.66), LOS in the Emergency Department (8 vs. 7 h, respectively, p = 0.37) or hospital (5.6 vs. 5.9 days, p = 0.81). Equivalence testing revealed no clinically relevant differences in IVF change, rate of change of glucose, or AG. Administration of an initial bolus dose of insulin was not associated with significant benefit to patients with DKA and demonstrated equivalent changes in clinically relevant endpoints when compared to patients not administered the bolus. Continue reading >>

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