Entry for Berkeley's Navigating the Gray Engineering Video Contest. Made Possible with the Information Provided by the Following Websites: http://www.globalresearch.ca http://www.nongmoproject.org http://www.actionbioscience.org http://www.scu.edu http://www.responsibletechnology.org http://www.gmfreecymru.org http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov http://www.elsevier.com http://www.sciencebasedmedicine.org http://www.randi.org http://www.monsanto.com http://www.nspe.org Songs used under a creative commons license. A Very Special Thanks to Brittney Duquette and Jodie Howard
How Our Bodies Turn Food Into Energy
All parts of the body (muscles, brain, heart, and liver) need energy to work. This energy comes from the food we eat. Our bodies digest the food we eat by mixing it with fluids (acids and enzymes) in the stomach. When the stomach digests food, the carbohydrate (sugars and starches) in the food breaks down into another type of sugar, called glucose. The stomach and small intestines absorb the glucose and then release it into the bloodstream. Once in the bloodstream, glucose can be used immediately for energy or stored in our bodies, to be used later. However, our bodies need insulin in order to use or store glucose for energy. Without insulin, glucose stays in the bloodstream, keeping blood sugar levels high. Insulin is a hormone made by beta cells in the pancreas. Beta cells are very sensitive to the amount of glucose in the bloodstream. Normally beta cells check the blood's glucose level every few seconds and sense when they need to speed up or slow down the amount of insulin they're making and releasing. When someone eats something high in carbohydrates, like a piece of bread, the glucose level in the blood rises and the beta cells trigger the pancreas to release more insulin in
What is CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM? What does CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM mean? CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM meaning - CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM definition - CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. Carbohydrate metabolism denotes the various biochemical processes responsible for the formation, breakdown and interconversion of carbohydrates in living organisms. The most important carbohydrate is glucose, a simple sugar (monosaccharide) that is metabolized by nearly all known organisms. Glucose and other carbohydrates are part of a wide variety of metabolic pathways across species: plants synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water by photosynthesis, storing the absorbed energy internally, often in the form of starch or lipids. Plant components are consumed by animals and fungi, and used as fuel for cellular respiration. Oxidation of one gram of carbohydrate yields approximately 4 kcal of energy, while the oxidation of one gram of lipids yields about 9 kcal. Energy obtained from metabolism (e.g., oxidation of glucose) is usually stored temporarily within cells in the form of ATP. Organisms capable of aerobic respiration metabolize glucose and oxygen to release energy with carbon dioxide and water as byproducts. Carbohydrates can be chemically divided into two types: complex and simple. Simple carbohydrates consist of single or double sugar units (monosaccharides and disaccharides, respectively). Sucrose or table sugar (a disaccharide) is a common example of a simple carbohydrate. Complex carbohydrates contain three or more sugar units linked in a chain, with most containing hundreds to thousands of sugar units. They are digested by enzymes to release the simple sugars. Starch, for example, is a polymer of glucose units and is typically broken down to glucose. Cellulose is also a polymer of glucose but it cannot be digested by most organisms. Bacteria that produce enzymes to digest cellulose live inside the gut of some mammals, such as cows, and when these mammals eat plants, the cellulose is broken down by the bacteria and some of it is released into the gut. Doctors and scientists once believed that eating complex carbohydrates instead of sugars would help maintain lower blood glucose. Numerous studies suggest, however, that both sugars and starch produce an unpredictable range of glycemic and insulinemic responses. While some studies support a more rapid absorption of sugars relative to starches other studies reveal that many carbohydrates such as those found in white bread, some types of white rice, and potatoes have glycemic indices similar to simple carbohydrates such as sucrose. Sucrose, for example, has a glycemic index (83) lower than expected because the sucrose molecule is half fructose, which has little effect on blood glucose. The value of classifying carbohydrates as simple or complex is questionable. The glycemic index is a better predictor of a carbohydrate's effect on blood glucose. Carbohydrates are a superior short-term fuel for organisms because they are simpler to metabolize than fats or those amino acids (components of proteins) that can be used for fuel. In animals, the most important carbohydrate is glucose. The concentration of glucose in the blood is used as the main control for the central metabolic hormone, insulin. Starch, and cellulose in a few organisms (e.g., some animals (such as termites) and some microorganisms (such as protists and bacteria)), both being glucose polymers, are disassembled during digestion and absorbed as glucose. Some simple carbohydrates have their own enzymatic oxidation pathways, as do only a few of the more complex carbohydrates. The disaccharide lactose, for instance, requires the enzyme lactase to be broken into its monosaccharide components; many animals lack this enzyme in adulthood. Carbohydrates are typically stored as long polymers of glucose molecules with glycosidic bonds for structural support (e.g. chitin, cellulose) or for energy storage (e.g. glycogen, starch). However, the strong affinity of most carbohydrates for water makes storage of large quantities of carbohydrates inefficient due to the large molecular weight of the solvated water-carbohydrate complex.
Does Carbohydrate Become Body Fat?
Dear Reader, Ah, poor carbohydrates, maligned by diets such as Atkins’ and the ketogenic diet. However, carbohydrates are your body’s main source of energy — in fact your muscles and brain cells prefer carbs more than other sources of energy (triglycerides and fat, for example). To answer your question: research completed over the last several decades suggests that if you are eating a diet that is appropriate for your levels of daily activity, little to no carbohydrate is converted to fat in your body. For most people (unless you have a metabolic disorder) when you eat carbs they are digested, broken down to glucose, and then transported to all the cells in your body. They are then metabolized and used to support cellular processes. If you’re active and eating appropriately for your activity level, most of the carbs you consume are more or less burned immediately. There are two caveats here: first, if you’re eating a lot more calories per day than you are burning, then yes, your liver will convert excess calories from carbohydrate into fats; second, not all carbs are created equal. If you consume too many calories from simple sugars like sucrose and fructose (think sugary
Processes involved in storing glucose as glycogen and subsequent retrieval
Glucose Storage In People
Now, all you wiseacres out there probably said on the shelf, or in a jar - and I guess that could answer the question! But how does your BODY (or Monomer Mouse's little body) store glucose so that it can get to it fast and easy for quick energy? We make a polymer called glycogen, which is a lot like starch. It's made out of repeating glucose units put together just like starch, and it has a lot of branches - (more than starch does). Like starch, glycogen curls around and forms a big globby structure. Because it's branched and globby, glycogen has ends sticking out all over. Enzymes can attach onto those ends and break the glycogen down fast into glucose units, that can be broken down further (by a bunch of other enzymes) to make ENERGY! So, where would you expect glycogen to be? Where you need it the most - in your muscles so you can run fast with a burst of energy. (Glycogen is also in your liver.) Glycogen is really short-term storage. For long-term storage of energy, your body turns that glucose into fat. Fat is a pretty big molecule, but it's not a polymer. Fat can be stored compactly in special cells (called adipose) because it doesn't dissolve in water - it forms droplets in
The Main Storage of Carbohydrates in the Human Body Most carbohydrates are eventually stored as glycogen in the muscles of the body. Found in foods such as grains, fruit and vegetables, carbohydrates make up the body's go-to energy supply. Every cell in the body requires energy to function, so you must have a steady source of energy -- even when carbohydrates arent immediately available. To provide that steady energy, the body stores any excess ...
Schematic two-dimensional cross-sectional view of glycogen: A core protein of glycogenin is surrounded by branches of glucose units. The entire globular granule may contain around 30,000 glucose units. A view of the atomic structure of a single branched strand of glucose units in a glycogen molecule. Glycogen (black granules) in spermatozoa of a flatworm; transmission electron microscopy, scale: 0.3 µm Glycogen is a multibranched polysacchari ...
Absorbing and Storing Energy: How the Body Controls Glucose Editors note: Physicians have a special place among the thinkers who have elaborated the argument for intelligent design. Perhaps thats because, more than evolutionary biologists, they are familiar with the challenges of maintaining a functioning complex system, the human body. With that in mind, Evolution News is delighted to offer this series, The Designed Body. For the complete serie ...
Per the usual disclaimer, always consult with your doctor before experimenting with your diet (seriously, go see a doctor, get data from blood tests, etc.). Please feel free to comment below if you’re aware of anything that should be updated; I’d appreciate knowing and I’ll update the content quickly. My goal here is to help a scientifically curious audience know the basic story and where to dive in for further study. If I’m successful, t ...
Glycogen: Definition, Storage & Breakdown Watch short & fun videos Start Your Free Trial Today An error occurred trying to load this video. Try refreshing the page, or contact customer support. You must create an account to continue watching Start Your Free Trial To Continue Watching As a member, you'll also get unlimited access to over 70,000 lessons in math, English, science, history, and more. Plus, get practice tests, quizzes, and personaliz ...
Tweet Glucose is the key source of energy for the human body. Supply of this vital nutrient is carried through the bloodstream to many of the body’s cells. The liver produces, stores and releases glucose depending on the body’s need for glucose, a monosaccharide. This is primarily indicated by the hormones insulin - the main regulator of sugar in the blood - and glucagon. In fact, the liver acts as the body’s glucose reservoir and helps to ...