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Where Is Glucose Stored In The Body

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How Our Bodies Turn Food Into Energy

All parts of the body (muscles, brain, heart, and liver) need energy to work. This energy comes from the food we eat. Our bodies digest the food we eat by mixing it with fluids (acids and enzymes) in the stomach. When the stomach digests food, the carbohydrate (sugars and starches) in the food breaks down into another type of sugar, called glucose. The stomach and small intestines absorb the glucose and then release it into the bloodstream. Once in the bloodstream, glucose can be used immediately for energy or stored in our bodies, to be used later. However, our bodies need insulin in order to use or store glucose for energy. Without insulin, glucose stays in the bloodstream, keeping blood sugar levels high. Insulin is a hormone made by beta cells in the pancreas. Beta cells are very sensitive to the amount of glucose in the bloodstream. Normally beta cells check the blood's glucose level every few seconds and sense when they need to speed up or slow down the amount of insulin they're making and releasing. When someone eats something high in carbohydrates, like a piece of bread, the glucose level in the blood rises and the beta cells trigger the pancreas to release more insulin in Continue reading >>

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  1. AnnieC

    Keto insomnia?

    I've been doing this for 5 days now and I had a lot of trouble sleeping unlike before where I had no trouble falling asleep. Have any of you experienced this?

  2. maresf16

    Yea when I was "adjusting" I kept getting massive headaches and feverish. I woke up every two hours if I was sleeping reasonably well, and sometimes I just drifted in and out of consciousness by the minutes. It's passed now, but I don't remember it taking 5 days.

  3. AnnieC

    Originally Posted by maresf16
    Yea when I was "adjusting" I kept getting massive headaches and feverish. I woke up every two hours if I was sleeping reasonably well, and sometimes I just drifted in and out of consciousness by the minutes. It's passed now, but I don't remember it taking 5 days.

    How long have you been doing it?
    Maybe it takes longer for me because my metabolism is more screwed up eheh. I've been a mega-sugar addict all my life. This is a HUGE change for me. At least, I don't feel as sluggish now as I did on day 3 so that's pretty good!

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What is CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM? What does CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM mean? CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM meaning - CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM definition - CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. Carbohydrate metabolism denotes the various biochemical processes responsible for the formation, breakdown and interconversion of carbohydrates in living organisms. The most important carbohydrate is glucose, a simple sugar (monosaccharide) that is metabolized by nearly all known organisms. Glucose and other carbohydrates are part of a wide variety of metabolic pathways across species: plants synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water by photosynthesis, storing the absorbed energy internally, often in the form of starch or lipids. Plant components are consumed by animals and fungi, and used as fuel for cellular respiration. Oxidation of one gram of carbohydrate yields approximately 4 kcal of energy, while the oxidation of one gram of lipids yields about 9 kcal. Energy obtained from metabolism (e.g., oxidation of glucose) is usually stored temporarily within cells in the form of ATP. Organisms capable of aerobic respiration metabolize glucose and oxygen to release energy with carbon dioxide and water as byproducts. Carbohydrates can be chemically divided into two types: complex and simple. Simple carbohydrates consist of single or double sugar units (monosaccharides and disaccharides, respectively). Sucrose or table sugar (a disaccharide) is a common example of a simple carbohydrate. Complex carbohydrates contain three or more sugar units linked in a chain, with most containing hundreds to thousands of sugar units. They are digested by enzymes to release the simple sugars. Starch, for example, is a polymer of glucose units and is typically broken down to glucose. Cellulose is also a polymer of glucose but it cannot be digested by most organisms. Bacteria that produce enzymes to digest cellulose live inside the gut of some mammals, such as cows, and when these mammals eat plants, the cellulose is broken down by the bacteria and some of it is released into the gut. Doctors and scientists once believed that eating complex carbohydrates instead of sugars would help maintain lower blood glucose. Numerous studies suggest, however, that both sugars and starch produce an unpredictable range of glycemic and insulinemic responses. While some studies support a more rapid absorption of sugars relative to starches other studies reveal that many carbohydrates such as those found in white bread, some types of white rice, and potatoes have glycemic indices similar to simple carbohydrates such as sucrose. Sucrose, for example, has a glycemic index (83) lower than expected because the sucrose molecule is half fructose, which has little effect on blood glucose. The value of classifying carbohydrates as simple or complex is questionable. The glycemic index is a better predictor of a carbohydrate's effect on blood glucose. Carbohydrates are a superior short-term fuel for organisms because they are simpler to metabolize than fats or those amino acids (components of proteins) that can be used for fuel. In animals, the most important carbohydrate is glucose. The concentration of glucose in the blood is used as the main control for the central metabolic hormone, insulin. Starch, and cellulose in a few organisms (e.g., some animals (such as termites) and some microorganisms (such as protists and bacteria)), both being glucose polymers, are disassembled during digestion and absorbed as glucose. Some simple carbohydrates have their own enzymatic oxidation pathways, as do only a few of the more complex carbohydrates. The disaccharide lactose, for instance, requires the enzyme lactase to be broken into its monosaccharide components; many animals lack this enzyme in adulthood. Carbohydrates are typically stored as long polymers of glucose molecules with glycosidic bonds for structural support (e.g. chitin, cellulose) or for energy storage (e.g. glycogen, starch). However, the strong affinity of most carbohydrates for water makes storage of large quantities of carbohydrates inefficient due to the large molecular weight of the solvated water-carbohydrate complex.

Does Carbohydrate Become Body Fat?

Dear Reader, Ah, poor carbohydrates, maligned by diets such as Atkins’ and the ketogenic diet. However, carbohydrates are your body’s main source of energy — in fact your muscles and brain cells prefer carbs more than other sources of energy (triglycerides and fat, for example). To answer your question: research completed over the last several decades suggests that if you are eating a diet that is appropriate for your levels of daily activity, little to no carbohydrate is converted to fat in your body. For most people (unless you have a metabolic disorder) when you eat carbs they are digested, broken down to glucose, and then transported to all the cells in your body. They are then metabolized and used to support cellular processes. If you’re active and eating appropriately for your activity level, most of the carbs you consume are more or less burned immediately. There are two caveats here: first, if you’re eating a lot more calories per day than you are burning, then yes, your liver will convert excess calories from carbohydrate into fats; second, not all carbs are created equal. If you consume too many calories from simple sugars like sucrose and fructose (think sugary Continue reading >>

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  1. kamaboko

    Hello,
    I've been on a Keto diet now for nine weeks. I am not diabetic. I'd just like to burn off some stomach fat. That said, I am simply starving at 20g of carbs per day. I've been using keto sticks to measure my ketosis levels (and yes I am aware that these sticks may not be the most accurate testing measure, but I'm not going to get a blood analysis every week). If I go beyond 20g per day, according to the keto stick results, I get thrown out of ketosis. How on earth does one stay at or below 20g of carbs per day? I should also say, prior to this diet, I was rarely a meat eater. I don't like bacon (pork or chicken varieties). Chicken and fish was always my choice.
    Prior to every meal I drink an 8oz glass of water with apple cider vinegar. I read this helps with digestion. I also drink lemon water throughout the day.
    Vegetables such as spinach or broccoli take my stomach forever to breakdown. I'm constantly bloated.
    Honestly, this has been a living Hell. What am I doing wrong?
    Typical day...
    Breakfast: Three AA large eggs and three slices of bacon.
    Lunch: Three cups of spinach. A half pound of ground beef with taco seasoning mix. Two tbsp of sour cream.
    Dinner. Three cups of spinach. Five ounces of chicken. One avocado. One roma tomato.
    Snacks are usually mozzarella or cheddar cheese sticks.

    Thanks,
    K



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  2. Brook

    This is going to be counterintuitive, but try going zero carb. Decide on a period of time like 3 weeks or 30 days, and eat no plant material at all for that period, then reassess. Some people find zero carb much easier to do than trying to stay very low carb. Figure you are going to est 2-3 times your current amount of meat. Eat all you want whenever you are hungry, but strictly from the animal kingdom. As much as you want of meat, fish, eggs. You can also have small amounts of cream, and full fat cheese, but view them as sides to meat, fish, or eggs.

  3. Jeff

    Fat to satiety. If you're hungry, add more fat. It's a wonderful way to deal with hunger pangs. I eat salami with cream cheese until I feel full. More bacon, butter with your avocado, or fatty cheeses. Don't be afraid to add more fat! Wishing you well.

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Processes involved in storing glucose as glycogen and subsequent retrieval

Glucose Storage In People

Now, all you wiseacres out there probably said on the shelf, or in a jar - and I guess that could answer the question! But how does your BODY (or Monomer Mouse's little body) store glucose so that it can get to it fast and easy for quick energy? We make a polymer called glycogen, which is a lot like starch. It's made out of repeating glucose units put together just like starch, and it has a lot of branches - (more than starch does). Like starch, glycogen curls around and forms a big globby structure. Because it's branched and globby, glycogen has ends sticking out all over. Enzymes can attach onto those ends and break the glycogen down fast into glucose units, that can be broken down further (by a bunch of other enzymes) to make ENERGY! So, where would you expect glycogen to be? Where you need it the most - in your muscles so you can run fast with a burst of energy. (Glycogen is also in your liver.) Glycogen is really short-term storage. For long-term storage of energy, your body turns that glucose into fat. Fat is a pretty big molecule, but it's not a polymer. Fat can be stored compactly in special cells (called adipose) because it doesn't dissolve in water - it forms droplets in Continue reading >>

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  1. Celeriac

    Last week, I had a few of MrCeleriac's Ricola sugar-free sweets. I had higher BG but I didn't think that I had kicked myself out of ketosis, but it seems like I did.
    When I did my popcorn experiment in August it was an eye-opening failure, but even with much higher BG for longer, I didn't feel rough. The sweets didn't make much of a blip but I've felt rough, really dehydrated.
    I seem to have the sniffles since last week also, but I'm getting dry mouth, headaches, brain fog. Even though I'm getting better numbers eg 5.1 FBGand 5.5 before lunch today, I just feel so thirsty and er knackered. Does it take a lot of water to get back into ketosis ? Weirdly I'm not gelling yellow cloudy pee etc (sorry for TMI).

  2. Robbity

    @Celeriac, what did the sweets have in them? I think they'd need to be pretty high carb (and the digestible variety rather than the un-digestible sugar alcohol, polyol variety) to really knock and keep you out of ketosis. Have you got any way of testing for ketones to confirm that this has happened? If not get thee to a chemists and get a pack of Ketostix. They're not ideal as they can also not show any ketones if you're well into ketosis and no longer disposing of surplus ones, but may be a guide.
    The best advice I can give is to go very low carb - i.e. max 20g carbs a day (from veggies) and maybe extra fat for a while to be sure you are in ketosis again. Essentially you need to be sure that there are few enough carbs in your body to make it switch (back) to fat burning mode. It's quite possible to go in and out of ketosis over short periods (e.g, over the course of a day) , and you body can also be doing this without a low carb diet and without people necessarily knowing about it - it's a natural process. This switching in and out can happen even if you're well into ketosis, aka "keto adapted", so as a result shouldn't cause any side effects - your body already knows how to do this. I've seen this happening, and my ketone levels certainly can go up and sometimes right down to apparently none, depending on what I've eaten, when I last ate, and what my activity level's been, etc.
    I've never come across anything about requiring water to get you (back) into ketosis, so can't help you with that. But you certainly do need plenty of water, and possbily extra minerals (e.g. salt, potassium) on all low carb diets to replace those you've possibly lost as your kidneys are flushing stuff out at a faster rate.
    Robbity

  3. Celeriac

    Hi @Robbity
    Soo.. bought another meter, because that's actually cheaper than buying the control solution and not showing wild differences to the other one. Have ordered ketostix which I'll pick up from pharmacy tomorrow (they were out of stock).
    The sugar free sweets were the polypol kind. The headaches have gone, I'm not feeling as dehydrated as I was, I don't suppose having sniffles has helped, or the 6.4g poppadum I had last night which kicked me up to nearly 7 very briefly.
    BG has been back in range since Monday despite the poppadum and got 4.8 early evening today.
    Am eating creme fraiche every night to stop liver dumps (works for me) and have had more ghee, coconut oil, palm oil and olive oil. Evian contains magnesium and potassium, I should check whether it adds up to enough with food. I'm considering buying an organic meal replacement powder with loads of vitamins rather than tablets. I'm really unsure that bouillon powder, even organic is that nutritious. The Marigold Engevita nutritional yeast that I mix in with it is tho.
    Don't normally eat carbs which aren't non-starchy veg or dairy. I reckon I don't usually go over 25g but I'll work them out as that's a good idea thanks.
    The sugar free sweets and the poppadum were experiments. I probably should avoid doing them, but if I didn't experiment I wouldn't have discovered that creme fraiche prevents Dawn Phenomenon liver dumps for me - it's the difference between 5.5 and 17.1 !
    I've been eating low carb since 2008 and not experienced the dehydration-thirst thing before but it certainly does seem to have improved a lot this evening. I don't remember ever getting anything like this before.
    I've not used ketostix, here's hoping I don't drop the thing down the loo !

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