Frontiers | Suboptimal Light Conditions Influence Source-sink Metabolism During Flowering | Plant Science
Front. Plant Sci., 03 March 2016 | Suboptimal Light Conditions Influence Source-Sink Metabolism during Flowering 1Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium 2PCS Ornamental Plant Research, Destelbergen, Belgium 3Plant Sciences Unit, Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research, Melle, Belgium Reliance on carbohydrates during flower forcing was investigated in one early and one late flowering cultivar of azalea (Rhododendron simsii hybrids). Carbohydrate accumulation, invertase activity, and expression of a purported sucrose synthase gene (RsSUS) was monitored during flower forcing under suboptimal (natural) and optimal (supplemental light) light conditions, after a cold treatment (7C + dark) to break flower bud dormancy. Post-production sucrose metabolism and flowering quality was also assessed. Glucose and fructose concentrations and invertase activity increased in petals during flowering, while sucrose decreased. In suboptimal light conditions RsSUS expression in leaves increased as compared to optimal light conditions, indicating that plants in suboptimal light conditions have a strong demand for carbohydrates. However, carbohydrates in leaves were markedly lower in suboptimal light conditions compared to optimal light conditions. This resulted in poor flowering of plants in suboptimal light conditions. Post-production flowering relied on the stored leaf carbon, which could be accumulated under optimal light conditions in the greenhouse. These results show that flower opening in azalea relies on carbohydrates imported from leaves and is source-limiting under suboptimal light conditions. Azalea hybrids in the genus Rhododendron are well known for their beautiful flowers. Complete flower opening is dependen Continue reading >>
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Storage And Use Of Glucose
The glucose produced in photosynthesis may be used in various ways by plants and algae. Storage Glucose is needed by cells for respiration. However, it is not produced at night when it is too dark for photosynthesis to happen. Plants and algae store glucose as insoluble products. These include: Use Some glucose is used for respiration to release energy. Some is used to produce: Plants also need nitrates to make proteins. These are absorbed from the soil as nitrate ions. Three factors can limit the speed of photosynthesis: light intensity, carbon dioxide concentration and temperature. Without enough light, a plant cannot photosynthesise very quickly, even if there is plenty of water and carbon dioxide. Increasing the light intensity will boost the speed of photosynthesis. Sometimes photosynthesis is limited by the concentration of carbon dioxide in the air. Even if there is plenty of light, a plant cannot photosynthesise if there is insufficient carbon dioxide. If it gets too cold, the rate of photosynthesis will decrease. Plants cannot photosynthesise if it gets too hot. If you plot the rate of photosynthesis against the levels of these three limiting factors, you get graphs like the ones above. In practice, any one of these factors could limit the rate of photosynthesis. Farmers can use their knowledge of factors limiting the rate of photosynthesis to increase crop yields. This is particularly true in greenhouses, where the conditions are more easily controlled than in the open air outside: The use of artificial light allows photosynthesis to continue beyond daylight hours. Bright lights also provide a higher-than-normal light intensity. The use of artificial heating allows photosynthesis to continue at an increased rate. The use of additional carbon dioxide released i Continue reading >>
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Plants and food photosynthesis chlorophyll carbon dioxide oxygen glucose molecule conditions anchorage microbes fertile Green plants are just like factories! They make food for themselves and every animal on earth using sunlight energy, water and the gas carbon dioxide. They also recycle the air and make oxygen for us to breathe. Scientists have found out exactly how plants are able to do all all these things. Let's take a closer look at how scientists did this and see how plants make food for themselves and us. The process of photosynthesis The word photosynthesis is actually has two parts: photo =light and synthesis s =to make or put together. So it means to use light to make something (in this case, food). Scientists have a term for substances like chlorophyll that have a colour. They call them pigments. There are other pigments in plants. Can you think of their colours? There are pigments in your body too! Where do you find them? What do they do? These holes also allow other gasses and water to enter or leave the plant. They do the same job as your mouth and nose when you breath! The same job as the pores in your skin when you sweat! The photosynthesis song. Photosynthesis is the process that plants use to change the energy from sunlight into energy for food. Plants change light energy from the sun into food energy. Photosynthesis happens in all green parts of a plant. Leaves are usually the greenest parts. So plants do this mostly in their leaves. There are some important requirements for photosynthesis to happen: 1. Chlorophyll: Chlorophyll is a green substance that plants use to capture light energy from the sun. Chlorophyll is very important. Without chlorophyll plants cannot use the sunlight energy to make food. Also, oxygen levels in the air will go down. If t Continue reading >>
Photosynthesis And Respiration In Plants
Disclosure: I get a small commission for purchases made through some of the links in this post. All living things use a process called respiration to get energy to stay alive. Cellular respiration in plants is the process used by plants to convert nutrients obtained from soil into energy which fuels the plants cellular activities. On the other hand, photosynthesis is the process where light energy is converted into chemical energy stored in glucose that can later be used in respiration. on the green parts of the plant that contain chlorophyll. During respiration, plants consume nutrients to keep plant cells alive while during photosynthesis, plants create their own food. Plant Respiration And Photosynthesis Formula oxygen + glucose -> carbon dioxide + water + heat energy carbon dioxide + water+ light energy -> oxygen + glucose Plants respire all the time, day and night. But photosynthesis only occurs during the day when there is sunlight. Depending on theamount of sunlight, plants can give out or take in oxygen and carbon dioxide as follows. Dark Only respiration takes place. Oxygen is consumed while carbon dioxide is released. Dim sunlight Photosynthesis rate equals respiration rate. A plant consumes all the oxygen photosynthesis generates. It also uses all the carbon dioxide respiration creates. As a result, no gas exchange takes place with the environment. Bright sunlight Photosynthesis uses carbon dioxide and makes oxygen faster than respiration produces carbon dioxide and consumes oxygen. Extra oxygen is released into the atmosphere. During daytime, photosynthesis produces oxygen and glucose faster than respiration consumes it. Photosynthesis also uses carbon dioxide faster than respiration produces it. Oxygen surplus is released into the air and unused glucose st Continue reading >>
What Part Of Plant Can Store Extra Food As Sugar Or Starch?
Healthy plants tend to create much more food than they can immediately use. The excess food is stored as sugars and starches in various parts of the plants. These stores provide a source of energy not only for the plants, but also for the animals and humans that eat them. Plant Foods Carbohydrates are the simplest types of foods manufactured and stored by plants. Sugar and starch are two types of carbohydrates. Plant food is made in the leaves, where the green compound chlorophyll absorbs energy from the sun in a process called photosynthesis. Glucose Glucose is a simple sugar that is stored in large quantities in the stems of some plants. One example is the thick stems of the corn plant. Fructose Fructose is another simple sugar. Its chemical composition is slightly different from that of glucose and usually is stored in fruit. For this reason, it commonly is called fruit sugar. Complex Sugars Some plants, such as sugar cane and sugar beets, are very efficient at creating and storing complex sugars. These plants take the simple sugars, glucose and fructose, and create a higher form of sugar that is stored in either the stems, such as in the cane, or the roots, as in the sugar beet. Starch Starch is a common reserve food in green plants. Unlike sugars, which are soluble in water, starches must be digested before being usable. Starch is stored in grains, such as in rice or wheat plants. Starches are an important staple in the human diet. Fun Fact The onion bulb that we eat is actually made up of leaves that are specially designed to store water and food sugars underground. Continue reading >>
Green plants use the process of photosynthesis to make carbohydrates. Using sunlight as the energy source, plants can change water, carbon dioxide and minerals into oxygen and glucose. Not only do plants depend on photosynthesis for survival and growth, humans depend on plants and photosynthesis, also. Photosynthesis makes the oxygen needed by humans and animals. As the cycle continues, humans and animals will also provide the carbon dioxide that plants need for photosynthesis. As a plant grows in the soil, moisture falls on and around the plant in the form of rain or supplementary watering from a watering can. The plant's roots absorb the water and move it throughout the roots, stems, and leaves. Instead of veins to transport water through plants, plants have xylem that serves the same purpose. The plant also takes in carbon dioxide through the leaves. Leaves contain chlorophyll, which gives them a green color. Chlorophyll also works to trap the sun's energy so the plant can use it. Plants use a special mixture of the molecules in carbon dioxide and water, along with energy from the sun, to make the carbohydrates needed for life and growth. These carbohydrates -- also called glucose -- help the plant to give off oxygen into the air through the leaves. Plants also place some of these carbohydrates into storage, which they can use later, if necessary. Photosynthesis happens in chloroplasts within plants, which typically are found in the green parts. Other parts, like the flower petals in a peony bouquet , would not have chloroplasts, and do not collect energy this way. Chloroplasts are organelles in plants and some algae. Chloroplasts are responsible for making food within cells. Special membranes within the chloroplast collect chlorophyll molecules. A reaction happens Continue reading >>
Transport Of Materials In A Flowering Plant
Transport of Materials in a Flowering Plant 1. Take in water, mineral salts, and carbon dioxide. 2. Eliminate waste water and oxygen. 3. Distribute food within the plant after it is made in the leaves. The following will discuss how the plant does these things. A. Carried out by root hairs located at the zone of differentiation. B. Many root hairs increase the surface area available for water absorption. C. Fugal hyphae attached to roots also absorb water and pass it on to roots. D. The process of water intake at the roots is called osmosis. Osmosis is the movement of a substance through a membrane. Water moves because the overall water potential (amount of water) in the soil is higher than the water potential in the roots and plant parts. Water continues to diffuse from the inside of the root hairs, through the ground tissue and into the xylem of the root. The water can then travel up through the xylem of the root and stem, into the petiole, and into the leaves of the plant. Upward Movement of Water Within the Plant There are 2 processes that enable the water to move up a plant. They are root pressure and transpiration. 1. Root Pressure: Water moves into the roots. As new water moves into the roots it causes the water to move up the plant. Root pressure is capable, under ideal atmospheric conditions, of pushing water one or two feet above the ground.Since root pressure is not strong enough to move water up very high another process is needed to enable the water to continue up the plant. This is transpiration. 2. Transpiration- Transpiration is the loss of water through the leaves and other parts of the plant. Most transpiration occurs through openings, called stomata, on the underside of the leaves. Water moves, because of root pressure, up into the stem. Because wate Continue reading >>
Photosynthesis article provided by Encarta Encyclopedia 2000 INTRODUCTION Photosynthesis, process by which green plants and certain other organisms use the energy of light to convert carbon dioxide and water into the simple sugar glucose. In so doing, photosynthesis provides the basic energy source for virtually all organisms. An extremely important byproduct of photosynthesis is oxygen, on which most organisms depend. Photosynthesis occurs in green plants, seaweeds, algae, and certain bacteria. These organisms are veritable sugar factories, producing millions of new glucose molecules per second. Plants use much of this glucose, a carbohydrate, as an energy source to build leaves, flowers, fruits, and seeds. They also convert glucose to cellulose, the structural material used in their cell walls. Most plants produce more glucose than they use, however, and they store it in the form of starch and other carbohydrates in roots, stems, and leaves. The plants can then draw on these reserves for extra energy or building materials. Each year, photosynthesizing organisms produce about 170 billion metric tons of extra carbohydrates, about 30 metric tons for every person on earth. Photosynthesis has far-reaching implications. Like plants, humans and other animals depend on glucose as an energy source, but they are unable to produce it on their own and must rely ultimately on the glucose produced by plants. Moreover, the oxygen humans and other animals breathe is the oxygen released during photosynthesis. Humans are also dependent on ancient products of photosynthesis, known as fossil fuels, for supplying most of our modern industrial energy. These fossil fuels, including natural gas, coal, and petroleum, are composed of a complex mix of hydrocarbons, the remains of organisms that Continue reading >>
Carbohydrate Status Of Tulip Bulbs During Cold-induced Flower Stalk Elongation And Flowering.
Carbohydrate Status of Tulip Bulbs during Cold-Induced Flower Stalk Elongation and Flowering. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. The effect of a cold treatment on the carbohydrate status of the scales and flower stalk of Tulipa gesneriana L. cv Apeldoorn bulbs during growth after planting was studied and compared with bulbs not given cold treatment. Bulbs were stored dry for 12 weeks at 5[deg]C (precooled) or 17[deg]C (noncooled). Only the 5[deg]C treatment led to rapid flower stalk elongation and flowering following planting at higher temperatures. Precooling enhanced mobilization of starch, fructans, and sucrose in the scales. The cold-stimulated starch breakdown was initially accompanied by increased [alpha]-amylase activity per scale. In noncooled bulbs, [alpha]-amylase activity slightly decreased or remained more or less constant. Cold-induced flower stalk elongation was partially accompanied by a decrease in the sucrose content and an increase in the glucose content and invertase activity per g dry weight. The starch content in internodes initially decreased and subsequently increased; [alpha]-amylase activity per g dry weight of the lowermost internode showed a peak pattern during starch breakdown and increased thereafter. The internodes of noncooled bulbs, on the contrary, accumulated sucrose. Their glucose content and invertase activity per g dry weight remained low. Starch breakdown was not found and [alpha]-amylase activity per g dry weight of the lowermost internode remained at a low level. Precooling of tulip bulbs thus favors reserve mobilization in the scales and flower stalk and glucose accumulation in the elongating internodes. Continue reading >>
All About Plants : Usda Ars
Plants can be found all over the Earth. You can find them at the top of mountains and in the oceans. They grow in the cold polar regions, in the hot dry deserts and everywhere in between. All life on Earth depends on plants. If there were no plants, there would be no life. Plants provide us with food, clothing, shelter, medicine, and energy. They produce gases for our atmosphere and help to keep it clean. I guess you could say that plants are important. In order for plants to grow and be healthy they need six things. They need light, nutrients, water, the right temperature, space to grow and gases in the air. Plants get all of these things from their environment. Plants that come from seeds have four main structures that help them get what they need from their environment. From the bottom up, they have roots, stems, leaves, and flowers. Two of the things a plant needs, water and nutrients, are retrieved from the soil through the root system. Nitrogen and minerals such as calcium, sulfur, potassium, magnesium, and phosphorus dissolve in water and are absorbed by the roots of a plant through root hairs. Most plants have billions of root hairs which are tiny structures near the end of the roots. The end of the root is called the root tip. It has a slimy cap to help the root push through the soil as it grows. A plant's root system is generally about as big as the rest of the plant. It anchors and stabilizes the plant. There are two kinds of plant root systems: fibrous root systems and taproot systems. A fibrous root system looks like a tangled up wad of string. It's actually a network of branching roots. In a fibrous root system there is no main root. Grass is a good example of a plant with this type of root system. In a taproot system there is a long, thick main root that Continue reading >>
Flowers And Grass Kids Guide To Photosynthesis - Synthetic Grass Warehouse
What do plants and kids have in common? They both need food to help them grow and be healthy! But how does a plant eat if it doesnt have a mouth or teeth or hands? Because a plant isnt a person like you, it doesnt need those things to eat. When it comes to food, plants need something called photosynthesis. Thats a big word, and its very important when it comes to how plants are able to grow and be strong. When youre hungry, your parents or a trusted adult cooks or buys your food. Green plants, including trees and grass, get hungry, too. Unfortunately, they cant ask someone to make their food for them. That means plants have to feed themselves by making their own food. How do they do that? They use photosynthesis! Photosynthesis is a process that allows green plants, like turf and most flowering plants, to turn the energy from sunlight into food. This food is a type of sugar, and it is called glucose. Photosynthesis needs certain ingredients to make food for plants, kind of like a recipe. Sun is one of the ingredients, but its not the only one. Plants also need a gas thats called carbon dioxide, and they need water. They get carbon dioxide from the air, and their roots soak up water from the ground. The plants leaves take in the energy from the sun. They are able to do this with the help of chlorophyll. Chlorophyll is the reason why leaves and grass are green, and it is located in leaves in what is called chloroplasts. So the recipe for photosynthesis is carbon dioxide, water, chlorophyll, and energy from the sun. When these ingredients are present, the plant can create glucose and release the oxygen that we breathe into the air. Photosynthesis works when the sun shines down on grass or the leaves of a plant. The chlorophyll allows the leaves to collect the energy thats Continue reading >>
Biochemistry - In Flowering Plants Food Is Transported In Which Form? - Biology Stack Exchange
closed as off-topic by AliceD , griffinevo , March Ho , James , Remi.b May 2 '16 at 21:41 This question appears to be off-topic. The users who voted to close gave this specific reason: "Homework questions are off-topic on Biology unless you have shown your attempt at an answer. For more information see our homework policy ." AliceD, griffinevo, March Ho, James, Remi.b If this question can be reworded to fit the rules in the help center , please edit the question . Is this a homework question? another 'Homo sapien' Apr 19 '16 at 10:53 why r u asking that ? user23312 Apr 19 '16 at 10:55 Because homework questions are off-topic here unless you show your effort for answer. Do some research on the topic, and if you are still confused, show us the line/paragraph/article (that you read during research) which is confusing you. another 'Homo sapien' Apr 19 '16 at 10:57 i hav dun my research nd still not got my answer .... :( user23312 Apr 19 '16 at 10:57 nd y r homework questions not allowed......afterall they r also a part of biology ?? user23312 Apr 19 '16 at 10:58 Continue reading >>
Storage Forms Of Glucose In Organisms
When carbohydrates from the foods you consume are digested, glucose is the smallest molecule into which a carbohydrate is broken down. Glucose molecules are absorbed from intestinal cells into the bloodstream. The bloodstream then carries the glucose molecules throughout the body. Glucose enters each cell of the body and is used by the cell’s mitochondrion as fuel. Carbohydrates are in nearly every food, not just bread and pasta, which are known for “carbo loading.” Fruits, vegetables, and meats also contain carbohydrates. Any food that contains sugar has carbohydrates. And, most foods are converted to sugars when they are digested. Once an organism has taken in food, the food is digested, and needed nutrients are sent through the bloodstream. When the organism has used all the nutrients it needs to maintain proper functioning, the remaining nutrients are excreted or stored. You store it: Glycogen Animals (including humans) store some glucose in the cells so that it is available for quick shots of energy. Excess glucose is stored in the liver as the large compound called glycogen. Glycogen is a polysaccharide of glucose, but its structure allows it to pack compactly, so more of it can be stored in cells for later use. If you consume so many extra carbohydrates that your body stores more and more glucose, all your glycogen may be compactly structured, but you no longer will be. Starch it, please: Storing glucose in plants The storage form of glucose in plants is starch. Starch is a polysaccharide. The leaves of a plant make sugar during the process of photosynthesis. Photosynthesis occurs in light (photo = light), such as when the sun is shining. The energy from the sunlight is used to make energy for the plant. So, when plants are making sugar (for fuel, energy) o Continue reading >>
Photosynthesis & Respiration
Photosynthesis Light interception by leaves powers photosynthesis All organisms, animals and plants, must obtain energy to maintain basic biological functions for survival and reproduction. Plants convert energy from sunlight into sugar in a process called photosynthesis. Photosynthesis uses energy from light to convert water and carbon dioxide molecules into glucose (sugar molecule) and oxygen (Figure 2). The oxygen is released, or “exhaled”, from leaves while the energy contained within glucose molecules is used throughout the plant for growth, flower formation, and fruit development. There are several structures within a leaf that have important roles in the movement of nutrients and water throughout a plant. Each plant contains a branched system of tubes called xylem, which is responsible for water transport from the roots (where it is taken up) to the leaves (where it is used in photosynthesis). Water flows up from the roots, through the trunk and branches, to the leaves, where it is used in photosynthesis. Alongside xylem is another system of tubes called phloem, which transports the glucose formed in photosynthesis into the branches, fruit, trunk and roots of the tree. The ends of both the xylem and phloem transport systems can be seen within each leaf vein (Figure 3). The structure of xylem and phloem in a plant is analogous to arteries and veins in humans, which move blood to and from the heart and lungs. For more information regarding the structure and function of xylem and phloem, review the Irrigation and Rootstock sections. Leaves contain water which is necessary to convert light energy into glucose through photosynthesis. Leaves have two structures that minimize water loss, the cuticle and stomata. The cuticle is a waxy coating on the top and bottom of Continue reading >>
Why Does Sugar Help Cut Flowers Live Longer?
Why Does Sugar Help Cut Flowers Live Longer? Flowers cut in early morning or late evening have the most stored sugars. 4 Does Aspirin Affect the Life of Cut Flowers in Vases? Caring for an arrangement of cut flowers properly can lengthen the attractive life of the flowers by days or weeks. One aspect of proper cut flower maintenance involves the judicious use of a commercially available or homemade flora preservative. One key ingredient in an effective floral preservative is sucrose, a type of sugar. While still attached to a plant, the flower benefits from the sugars that the plant's leaves manufacture through the process of photosynthesis. Once the flower is cut from the plant, the number of leaves providing food is greatly limited, as is the amount of light available for food production. As a result, the amount of food available to the flower is drastically reduced. To make up for this loss, sucrose is added to the water the flower stems are placed into to ensure the continued development of the flower and greater longevity. Other Ingredients in Floral Preservatives While a sugar solution essentially "feeds" the cut flowers, it also encourages the growth of bacteria, which makes the water appear cloudy and smell bad and interrupts the stem's uptake of water. To combat bacterial and fungal growth, a microorganism growth inhibitor is added to the solution. An acidifier lowers the pH of the water so is closer to the pH of the plant sap and stabilizes the color of the flower. Commercially available preservatives may also contain a respiratory inhibitor. Instructions for mixing the preservative with water are included with store-bought floral preservatives. However, if making a homemade floral preservative, using an appropriate amount of each type of ingredient is necess Continue reading >>