Where Is Glucose Converted Into Glycogen?

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Blood Glucose Regulation

Glucose is needed by cells for respiration. It is important that the concentration of glucose in the blood is maintained at a constant level. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that regulates glucose levels in the blood. How glucose is regulated Glucose level Effect on pancreas Effect on liver Effect on glucose level too high insulin secreted into the blood liver converts glucose into glycogen goes down too low insulin not secreted into the blood liver does not convert glucose into glycogen goes up Use the animation to make sure you understand how this works. You have an old or no version of flash - you need to upgrade to view this funky content! Go to the WebWise Flash install guide Glucagon – Higher tier The pancreas releases another hormone, glucagon, when the blood sugar levels fall. This causes the cells in the liver to turn glycogen back into glucose which can then be released into the blood. The blood sugar levels will then rise. Now try a Test Bite- Higher tier. Diabetes is a disorder in which the blood glucose levels remain too high. It can be treated by injecting insulin. The extra insulin allows the glucose to be taken up by the liver and other tissues, so c Continue reading >>

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  1. saint_john

    in terms of pKa, the ketone has a much smaller pKa than a regular alkane.
    Can someone please explain the difference in the acidities of a ketone and an alkane !
    Thanks !

  2. Dan


  3. rohit

    the ketone contains c=o bond where c+ and 0- partial charge is there and the bond is essentially a 1 and a half bond in resonance and hence the hydrogen is loosely attached as the c adjacent to c=o is -ve and hence removing h as h+ is easy whereas alkanes are nonpolar and no such way of removing h.thus ketones are more acidic.remember ease of removing h as h+ is condition for acidity.

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What is GLYCOGEN? What does GLYCOGEN mean? GLYCOGEN meaning, definition & explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. Glycogen is a multibranched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in animals and fungi. The polysaccharide structure represents the main storage form of glucose in the body. In humans, glycogen is made and stored primarily in the cells of the liver and the muscles hydrated with three or four parts of water. Glycogen functions as the secondary long-term energy storage, with the primary energy stores being fats held in adipose tissue. Muscle glycogen is converted into glucose by muscle cells, and liver glycogen converts to glucose for use throughout the body including the central nervous system. Glycogen is the analogue of starch, a glucose polymer that functions as energy storage in plants. It has a structure similar to amylopectin (a component of starch), but is more extensively branched and compact than starch. Both are white powders in their dry state. Glycogen is found in the form of granules in the cytosol/cytoplasm in many cell types, and plays an important role in the glucose cycle. Glycogen forms an energy reserve that can be quickly mobilized to meet a sudden need for glucose, but one that is less compact than the energy reserves of triglycerides (lipids). In the liver, glycogen can comprise from 5 to 6% of its fresh weight (100–120 g in an adult). Only the glycogen stored in the liver can be made accessible to other organs. In the muscles, glycogen is found in a low concentration (1-2% of the muscle mass). The amount of glycogen stored in the body—especially within the muscles, liver, and red blood cells—mostly depends on physical training, basal metabolic rate, and eating habits. Small amounts of glycogen are found in the kidneys, and even smaller amounts in certain glial cells in the brain and white blood cells. The uterus also stores glycogen during pregnancy to nourish the embryo.


Schematic two-dimensional cross-sectional view of glycogen: A core protein of glycogenin is surrounded by branches of glucose units. The entire globular granule may contain around 30,000 glucose units.[1] A view of the atomic structure of a single branched strand of glucose units in a glycogen molecule. Glycogen (black granules) in spermatozoa of a flatworm; transmission electron microscopy, scale: 0.3 µm Glycogen is a multibranched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in humans,[2] animals,[3] fungi, and bacteria. The polysaccharide structure represents the main storage form of glucose in the body. Glycogen functions as one of two forms of long-term energy reserves, with the other form being triglyceride stores in adipose tissue (i.e., body fat). In humans, glycogen is made and stored primarily in the cells of the liver and skeletal muscle.[2][4] In the liver, glycogen can make up from 5–6% of the organ's fresh weight and the liver of an adult weighing 70 kg can store roughly 100–120 grams of glycogen.[2][5] In skeletal muscle, Glycogen is found in a low concentration (1–2% of the muscle mass) and the skeletal muscle of an adult weighing 70 kg c Continue reading >>

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  1. TammieCA

    Hi everyone,
    My name is Tammie and I am new here. I come here today for much needed support and advice.
    As I write this, my 7 year old boy Darius is at the emergency vet. About three months ago, we found out he had diabetes. He's on Lantus, 1 unit, 2x a day. We're still in the process of trying to figure out where his insulin should be and this is all somewhat new to me.
    The day before yesterday, I noticed he was somewhat lethargic and wasn't eating much. I was immediately concerned and got him into our vet. Due to it being a half holiday and they squeezed him in, I don't think he got the attention he really needed. But, his glucose was 207 so that wasn't immediately concerning. Our vet was concerned with him being so lethargic and thought he might have an infection. He ran a full blood panel (had to be sent out, results not in until tomorrow or Tues) and gave him an injectible antibiotic in case he had an infection.
    When we brought him home, he seemed so much worse. He was even more lethargic and just really out of it. I monitored him until the next morning and then I brought him to the emergency vet. This was yesterday morning.
    When they tested him yesterday morning, his glucose had shot up to 460. He wasn't eating or drinking. They immediately put him on fluids. I just saw him about an hour ago and my heart is so broken.He's still so out of it. Barely can open his eyes and isn't moving around a lot. He is getting up to use his litter pan,but he's still not eating. His sugar was back down to 208 today, and they were going to test it again after I left. I'm going back to see him tonight.
    I'm so sad, so scared and just so surprised at how rapid his decline has been. He's definitely in DKA.
    My question to you friends is has your kitty pulled through this? I've read so many horrible things and I'm so scared he's not going to be able fight this thing. Please...I just need a little hope.
    Thanks for listening,
    Tammie and Darius

  2. Karen & Smokey(GA)

    Others will be along soon....
    My Smokey never had DKA, but the short answer is YES....they can survive.
    It sounds like the right things are being done for Darius at the ER.
    I'm sending prayers for you and Darius.

  3. Sue and Oliver (GA)

    I am so sorry you and Darius are going through this, Tammie. As Karen said, lots of cats do survive DKA, but it is very serious.
    The next time you go visit, take a "used"T shirt that smells like you, so the ER will feel a little more like home.

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Entry for Berkeley's Navigating the Gray Engineering Video Contest. Made Possible with the Information Provided by the Following Websites: http://www.globalresearch.ca http://www.nongmoproject.org http://www.actionbioscience.org http://www.scu.edu http://www.responsibletechnology.org http://www.gmfreecymru.org http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov http://www.elsevier.com http://www.sciencebasedmedicine.org http://www.randi.org http://www.monsanto.com http://www.nspe.org Songs used under a creative commons license. A Very Special Thanks to Brittney Duquette and Jodie Howard

How Our Bodies Turn Food Into Energy

All parts of the body (muscles, brain, heart, and liver) need energy to work. This energy comes from the food we eat. Our bodies digest the food we eat by mixing it with fluids (acids and enzymes) in the stomach. When the stomach digests food, the carbohydrate (sugars and starches) in the food breaks down into another type of sugar, called glucose. The stomach and small intestines absorb the glucose and then release it into the bloodstream. Once in the bloodstream, glucose can be used immediately for energy or stored in our bodies, to be used later. However, our bodies need insulin in order to use or store glucose for energy. Without insulin, glucose stays in the bloodstream, keeping blood sugar levels high. Insulin is a hormone made by beta cells in the pancreas. Beta cells are very sensitive to the amount of glucose in the bloodstream. Normally beta cells check the blood's glucose level every few seconds and sense when they need to speed up or slow down the amount of insulin they're making and releasing. When someone eats something high in carbohydrates, like a piece of bread, the glucose level in the blood rises and the beta cells trigger the pancreas to release more insulin in Continue reading >>

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  1. Silky

    I became diabetic (Insulin Dependent) when I was just 10 and I'm now 19 (just turned yesterday actually) and in the past year I have been in hospital 5 TIMES!! with ketones, also had to be put in ICU on one occasion aswell, BIG SCARE! Thought I was going to die
    My diabeties is fairly well controlled but the thing that is worrying me is the fact I keep getting ketones, even though I control my sugars well. It's confusing for me, my doctor said it my of been caused from when I was younger (Between about 15 and 17) and neglected my diabeties and ate sweets and all that.
    Anyways... the thing that scares me the most is;
    1. I keep getting ketones.
    2. The way I have been told to get rid of them is quite dangerous.
    The reason for it being dangerous is because my doctor told me that I should inject insulin, untill the ketones are gone (unless my ketone level is at 3, then I should come into hospital), but the has caused my sugars to drop rapidly and I get shakey, blurred vision etc (you all know the signs)... I tried drinking sips on luzozade sport (my favorite drink), and it seemed to work, and I can successfully get rid of the ketones and also avoid going hypo... but tends to leave my bloods, a bit out of whack untill my next injection, and I tend to wee and drink a lot.
    Has anyone even had this problem? or is currently going through it?
    If so then please chat to me, it's driving me nuts!!

  2. Shelley

    Hiya Silky,
    Sorry l dont know much about T1 apart from what l've read in passing on this board.
    However have you tried just drinking lots of water to flush away ketones (if thats (poss)? - lt was just a thought, l dont really have a clue.
    l know water is good at keeping the kidney's flushed.
    l'm sure someone else will answer you soon, l saw a few of your posts and just thought l'd try.
    Welcome to the Diabetes Daily Forum.

  3. Silky

    thanks for the welcome Shelly.
    Yeah I tried drinking water, doesn't do that much in my opinion... mass' of insulin seems to be the only way and that is why I'm sooo scared! because I know how serious ketones is, the doctors once told me that if I didn't come in hospital when I did, then another hour and I'd be in a coma or worse... but thankfully I'm still here and alive and well.

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