diabetestalk.net

When Glycogen Stores Are Full Excess Glucose Is Converted To What In The Process Of Lipogenesis

Metabolic States Of The Body

Metabolic States Of The Body

The Absorptive State The absorptive state, or the fed state, occurs after a meal when your body is digesting the food and absorbing the nutrients (catabolism exceeds anabolism). Digestion begins the moment you put food into your mouth, as the food is broken down into its constituent parts to be absorbed through the intestine. The digestion of carbohydrates begins in the mouth, whereas the digestion of proteins and fats begins in the stomach and small intestine. The constituent parts of these carbohydrates, fats, and proteins are transported across the intestinal wall and enter the bloodstream (sugars and amino acids) or the lymphatic system (fats). From the intestines, these systems transport them to the liver, adipose tissue, or muscle cells that will process and use, or store, the energy. Depending on the amounts and types of nutrients ingested, the absorptive state can linger for up to 4 hours. The ingestion of food and the rise of glucose concentrations in the bloodstream stimulate pancreatic beta cells to release insulin into the bloodstream, where it initiates the absorption of blood glucose by liver hepatocytes, and by adipose and muscle cells. Once inside these cells, glucose is immediately converted into glucose-6-phosphate. By doing this, a concentration gradient is established where glucose levels are higher in the blood than in the cells. This allows for glucose to continue moving from the blood to the cells where it is needed. Insulin also stimulates the storage of glucose as glycogen in the liver and muscle cells where it can be used for later energy needs of the body. Insulin also promotes the synthesis of protein in muscle. As you will see, muscle protein can be catabolized and used as fuel in times of starvation. If energy is exerted shortly after eatin Continue reading >>

Ntr Ch. 7 Flashcards | Quizlet

Ntr Ch. 7 Flashcards | Quizlet

Cells that are the most versatile and metabolically active Reactions in which small molecules are put together to build large ones Chemical reaction that uses ATP to combine smaller molecules like glucose into larger compounds like glycogen and release small amounts of heat Stores excess kilocalories as glycogen and adipose tissue Includes making of glycogen, triglycerides, and proteins, each requiring varying levels of energy Breaks down larger molecules into smaller compounds Releases energy in the form of ATP and heat When the body needs energy, breaks down amino acids glucose, fatty acids, and glycerol Most of energy released is captured in the bond of ATP Complex organic molecules that aren't protein Without it the ?, an enzyme cannot function Necessary for metabolic reactions to facilitate their actions Most important macronutrient for energy (ATP) production Glucose is an important energy source for the Derived from ingestion, digestion, and absorption of carb-rich food Glucose broken down from glycogen stores in process called Glucose can also be converted from amino acids, glycerol and lactate through Broken into glycerol and other fatty acids Builds and breaks down triglycerides, phospholipids, and cholesterol Manufactures nonessential amino acids that are in short supply Protein removers from circulation amino acids that are in excess of need and converts them to Other amino acids or deaminates them and converts them to glucose or fatty acid Removes ammonia from blood and converts it to urea to be sent to the kidneys for excretion Protein makes compounds the body needs containing compounds of Glycolysis is the first step in forming _______ from _______ Ten-step catabolic process that produces 2 molecules of ATP, 2 of pyruvate, and 2 hydrogen ions that are tr Continue reading >>

A&p 2 Flashcards

A&p 2 Flashcards

_________is the process in which glucose is converted to _______ which is stored in the _______ and _______ during periods of glucose excess. Glycogenesis, glycogen, skeletal muscle, liver Since the storage capacity for glycogen in the liver is limited, when it is "full" excess glucose is converted to __________ and stored in __________. __________is the process in which _______ is broken down to form ______ during periods when blood glucose levels are low. when glucose levels are low, it may also be formed by the process of ___________, which occurs in the _______. transports dietary lipids to adipose tissue for storage "very low-density lipoproteins" - transports triglycerides synthesized in hepatocytes to adipocytes for storage "low-density lipoproteins" - carry 75% of total cholesterol in blood & deliver it to cells throughout the body for use in repair of cell membraines & synthesis of steroid hormones & bile salts "high-density lipoproteins" - remove excess cholesterol from body cells & the blood & transports it to the liver for elimination compare LDL & HDL in terms of health significance glycerol is converted by many cells of the body to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. It ATP is high, it then is converted into glucose. It ATP is low, it enters the catabolic pathway to pyruvic acid. (glycerol may be converted to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate which can then be converted to glucose or enter the krebs cycle for oxidation) fatty acids undergo beta oxidation & enter the krebs cycle via acetyl CoA or acetyl CoA can become a ketone body by ketogenesis. what is beta oxidation? in what tissues/organs does it occur? a series of reactions that constitute the first stage in fatty acid catabolism, it occurs in the matrix of mitochondria important immediate compounds formed during h Continue reading >>

Fcfn 340 Quiz 4 Flashcards | Quizlet

Fcfn 340 Quiz 4 Flashcards | Quizlet

Glucose, fructose, and galactose all have how many atoms of carbon? Galactose is composed of a molecule of glucose and a molecule of sucrose. All of the following are considered simple carbohydrates except The hormone glucagon acts on the liver to stimulate What effect do ketone bodies have on blood pH? Which of the following statements is false regarding type 2 diabetes? Which of the following sugars is the sweetest? Which of the following sugars is a disaccharide? Once absorbed, the monosaccharides are all converted to ________ by the liver. Of the following dairy foods, which has the least amount of lactose? The risk of developing of type 2 diabetes can be significantly reduced by adopting a healthy lifestyle. Which of the following foods provides carbohydrate but NOT dietary fiber? According to the DRIs, adults and children should consume at least 130 grams of carbohydrate per day. A 20-ounce bottle of a typical soft drink contains ________ teaspoons of sugar. Which of the following sweeteners should NOT be consumed by individuals with the disease phenylketonuria? When glycogen stores are full, excess glucose is converted to ________ in the process of lipogenesis. Refined grains contain which of the following? Brush border enzymes break down maltose into two molecules of glucose. Inadequate amounts of insulin are produced Which of the following is a characteristic of type 1 diabetes? Continue reading >>

Why Are Carbohydrates Important Post-workout?

Why Are Carbohydrates Important Post-workout?

Why Are Carbohydrates Important Post-Workout? Why Are Carbohydrates Important Post-Workout? We are all aware of the importance of protein post workout to upregulate muscle protein synthesis, reduce protein degradation and increase amino acid utilisation, but some may not be aware of the importance and benefits provided by carbohydrates after your training. Carbohydrates host a whole variety of functions within the human body. First and foremost, they are responsible for supplying energy to the muscular and central nervous system. Secondly, once carbohydrates are digested and converted to glucose through various bodily processes, they are then stored as glycogen within the liver and muscle cells. replenishing depleted stores that have been used within the body during both training and typical daily tasks. Last but not least, if muscle and liver glycogen stores are full, and glucose is not required for immediate energy, the excess glucose may be stored as fat through a process known as lipogenesis. Throughout the duration of our training sessions, the muscles utilise metabolic fuels such as glucose, fatty acids and amino acids at a much more accelerated rate than when at rest. Leaving our body in a depleted state, resulting in a catabolic environment which is not optimal for those looking to build muscle, furthermore whilst in a catabolic state the body is unable to partake in anabolic processes such as replenishing glycogen or protein synthesising. Ultimately we want to spend as little time possible in this catabolic environment, which is where the importance of post workout carbohydrates along with adequate, fast digesting protein comes into play. So just how will consuming Post-Workout carbohydrates benefit your overall recovery and muscle growth? Firstly, ingested ca Continue reading >>

Salt-inducible Kinase Regulates Hepatic Lipogenesis By Controlling Srebp-1c Phosphorylation*

Salt-inducible Kinase Regulates Hepatic Lipogenesis By Controlling Srebp-1c Phosphorylation*

Liver plays a major role in regulating energy homeostasis in mammals. During feeding conditions, excessive glucose is converted into a preferred storage form of energy sources as triacylglycerol in liver via a collective metabolic pathway termed lipogenesis. Sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c is a master regulator for this process by activating number of enzyme genes, such as Fasn or Acaca, that are involved in this pathway at the transcriptional level. Here we show that the salt-inducible kinase (SIK) family of proteins regulates the hepatic lipogenesis by modulating SREBP-1c activity. Overexpression of SIK1 inhibits hepatic expression of lipogenic genes, such as Fasn, whereas knockdown of SIK1 in liver greatly enhances their expression. Regulation of the Fasn gene by SIK kinases is mediated at the level of transcription via phosphorylation and inactivation of nuclear SREBP-1c. Among candidate sites for SIK-dependent regulation of SREBP-1c, the serine 329 residue is shown to be a critical regulatory site for SIK-mediated repression of SREBP-1c activity by in vitro kinase assay and reverse transcription-PCR analysis in primary hepatocytes. Finally, reduced hepatic triacylglycerol levels and lipogenic gene expression by adenoviral SIK1 transgenic expression are restored to normal levels by co-infection of mutant SREBP-1c, suggesting that SIK-dependent regulation of hepatic lipogenesis is indeed mediated through the phosphorylation of SREBP-1c in vivo. The process for the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver involves de novo lipogenesis via the activation of SREBP-1c. Modulation of SREBP-1c activity by SIK proteins would provide an attractive means for the regulation of such diseases. The mammalian liver is a primary organ for regulating energy homeostasis. Continue reading >>

Nutrition Exam 2 Flashcards | Quizlet

Nutrition Exam 2 Flashcards | Quizlet

Provide Energy, Spare Protein, Prevent Ketosis All of the following are health benefits of soluble fiber Reduces Blood Cholesterol, Delays Gastric Emptying, A highly branched polymer of glucose molecules Polydipsia (excessive thirst), Polyurea (excessive urination), Which hormones INCREASE blood glucose levels? Which of the following food items would have the least amount of lactose? Plants produce carbohydrates by the process of Which of the following would have the highest glycemic index? A meal of refined or simple carbohydrates A 20-ounce bottle of a typical soft drink contains about ________ teaspoons of sugar. Which of the following is a characteristic of Type 1 Diabetes? Inadequate amounts of insulin are produced The majority of carbohydrate digestion occurs in the Carbohydrates can be converted into glycogen for short-term energy storage in the liver and muscle cells. When the capacity for glycogen storage is reached, excess glucose is converted to ________ in the process of lipogenesis. What statements BEST explain carbohydrate digestion? Carbohydrate digestion breaks larger carbohydrates into smaller units, Some chemical reactions occur in the stomach, There is an enzyme in our saliva that begins the digestion of carbohydrates NOT digested by the human digestive tract Glucose is stored in our bodies in the form of glycogen and functions to maintain blood glucose levels between periods of food consumption What occurs when blood glucose levels rise following the ingestion of a glucose-rich meal? The beta cells of the pancreas release insulin Which of the following statements is CORRECT in regard to the role of insulin in blood glucose regulation? Glucose requires insulin to cross cell membranes, Insulin stimulates the storage of glucose as glycogen in the liver Continue reading >>

De Novo Lipogenesis - Waitalk

De Novo Lipogenesis - Waitalk

I've been reading some about the term de novo lipogenesis but not really understood its exact meaning. I read it's the process of converting excessive carbohydrates into fat, but are they actually implying that glucose can itself be converted into fatty acids? According to Wai's article called Food Causing Diabetes , glucose cannot be converted directly into adipose tissue without at least some fatty acids available in the blood. From what I understood, fatty acids can only be provided either by dietary fat or by certain amino acids that can be converted into fatty acids. That's why we should ingest fat together with carbohydrates, to guarantee that excessive glucose in the blood can always be converted into body fat rather than exhausting our insulin system. I have tried to search for more information and scientific data on the fat conversion process, as this should be easy to prove, but have been without success so far. I've been reading some about the term de novo lipogenesis but not really understood its exact meaning. Its indeed the conversion of glucose into fatty acids (via pyruvate). It particularly happens when liver glycogen stores are full (400 to 500 kcal) According to Wai's article ... glucose cannot be converted directly into adipose tissue without at least some fatty acids available in the blood. Directly is the key word here. (our article is unclear, indeed!) When fatty acids are available, the glucose can be stored (as glycerol) in adipose tissue without stimulating the conversion of glucose into fatty acids by insulin. It has been shown that the more adipose fat is already present, the less effective glucose is converted into fatty acids, thus creating an extra load on the insulin system. From what I understood, fatty acids can only be provided either Continue reading >>

Ketosis, Ketones, And How It All Works

Ketosis, Ketones, And How It All Works

Ketosis is a process that the body does on an everyday basis, regardless of the number of carbs you eat. Your body adapts to what is put in it, processing different types of nutrients into the fuels that it needs. Proteins, fats, and carbs can all be processed for use. Eating a low carb, high fat diet just ramps up this process, which is a normal and safe chemical reaction. When you eat carbohydrate based foods or excess amounts of protein, your body will break this down into sugar – known as glucose. Why? Glucose is needed in the creation of ATP (an energy molecule), which is a fuel that is needed for the daily activities and maintenance inside our bodies. If you’ve ever used our keto calculator to determine your caloric needs, you will see that your body uses up quite a lot of calories. It’s true, our bodies use up much of the nutrients we intake just to maintain itself on a daily basis. If you eat enough food, there will likely be an excess of glucose that your body doesn’t need. There are two main things that happen to excess glucose if your body doesn’t need it: Glycogenesis. Excess glucose will be converted to glycogen and stored in your liver and muscles. Estimates show that only about half of your daily energy can be stored as glycogen. Lipogenesis. If there’s already enough glycogen in your muscles and liver, any extra glucose will be converted into fats and stored. So, what happens to you once your body has no more glucose or glycogen? Ketosis happens. When your body has no access to food, like when you are sleeping or when you are on a ketogenic diet, the body will burn fat and create molecules called ketones. We can thank our body’s ability to switch metabolic pathways for that. These ketones are created when the body breaks down fats, creating Continue reading >>

How Are Carbohydrates Converted Into Fat Deposits?

How Are Carbohydrates Converted Into Fat Deposits?

How are carbohydrates converted into fat deposits? There are two ways that carbohydrates and body fat interact. One is directly by turning into body fat, and the other is via insulin. Turning into body fat is like adding fat into the fat cells, whereas carbohydrates spiking insulin does not add anything to fat cells per se, but hinders the release. The former is like a + equation, where the latter is a double negative which results in something that seems positive. There is a process called de novo lipogenesis (literally: Creation of fat from non-fat sources) that can occur in the body. This process turns glucose into lipids, which are then stored as body fat. This process is normally quite inefficient in the body [1] , which suggests that carbohydrates cannot be stored as fat to a high degree. The process can be upregulated (enhanced) if dietary fat comprised almost none of the diet (lesser than 10%, as a rough estimate), if carbohydrate intake is excessively high for a period of a few days, or if one follows an obesogenic diet (diet that is likely to make you fat) for a prolonged period of time. [1] [2] [3] Carbohydrates spike insulin , which is a hormone that mediates glucose metabolism. Insulin is not good or bad, insulin is insulin. It can be thought of as a lever that switches the body from fat burning mode into carbohydrate burning mode. This allows carbohydrates (and glycogen) to be burnt at a greater rate, but directly reduces the ability of fat to be lost. Overall metabolic rate (calories burnt over the course of a day) does not change significantly, just where the calories come from. When insulin is spiked in presence of ingested dietary fat, the dietary fat can go into body fat stores and not be released since glucose from glycogen is being used in place of Continue reading >>

Chapter 4

Chapter 4

Sort Fatty Acids Carbohydrates can be converted into glycogen for short-term energy storage in the liver and muscle cells. When the capacity for glycogen storage is reached, excess glucose is converted to ________ in the process of lipogenesis Fatty Acids Amino Acids Starch None of The Above Continue reading >>

Liver Glucose Metabolism In Humans

Liver Glucose Metabolism In Humans

Find articles by Carlos Fernndez-Fernndez Find articles by Cristbal Donapetry-Garca *Nephrology Division, Hospital General Juan Cardona, c/ Pardo Bazn s/n, 15406 Ferrol, Spain 1To whom correspondence should be addressed (email [email protected] ). Received 2016 Sep 6; Revised 2016 Sep 19; Accepted 2016 Oct 4. This is an open access article published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society and distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licence 4.0 (CC BY) . This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Information about normal hepatic glucose metabolism may help to understand pathogenic mechanisms underlying obesity and diabetes mellitus. In addition, liver glucose metabolism is involved in glycosylation reactions and connected with fatty acid metabolism. The liver receives dietary carbohydrates directly from the intestine via the portal vein. Glucokinase phosphorylates glucose to glucose 6-phosphate inside the hepatocyte, ensuring that an adequate flow of glucose enters the cell to be metabolized. Glucose 6-phosphate may proceed to several metabolic pathways. During the post-prandial period, most glucose 6-phosphate is used to synthesize glycogen via the formation of glucose 1-phosphate and UDPglucose. Minor amounts of UDPglucose are used to form UDPglucuronate and UDPgalactose, which are donors of monosaccharide units used in glycosylation. A second pathway of glucose 6-phosphate metabolism is the formation of fructose 6-phosphate, which may either start the hexosamine pathway to produce UDP-N-acetylglucosamine or follow the glycolytic pathway to generate pyruvate and then acetyl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA may enter the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle to be oxidized or may be exported to the cytosol to synthesize fatty acids, when excess glu Continue reading >>

Lipogenesis

Lipogenesis

Lipogenesis is the process by which acetyl-CoA is converted to fatty acids. The former is an intermediate stage in metabolism of simple sugars, such as glucose, a source of energy of living organisms. Through lipogenesis and subsequent triglyceride synthesis, the energy can be efficiently stored in the form of fats. Lipogenesis encompasses both the process of fatty acid synthesis and triglyceride synthesis (where fatty acids are esterified to glycerol).[1] The products are secreted from the liver in the form of very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL). VLDL particles are secreted directly into blood, where they mature and function to deliver the endogenously derived lipids to peripheral tissues. Fatty acid synthesis[edit] Main article: Fatty acid synthesis Fatty acids synthesis starts with acetyl-CoA and builds up by the addition of two-carbon units. The synthesis occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell, in contrast to the degradation (oxidation), which occurs in the mitochondria. Many of the enzymes for the fatty acid synthesis are organized into a multienzyme complex called fatty acid synthase.[2] The major sites of fatty acid synthesis are adipose tissue and the liver.[3] Control and regulation[edit] Hormonal regulation[edit] Insulin is a peptide hormone that is critical for managing the body's metabolism. Insulin is released by the pancreas when blood sugar levels rise, and it has many effects that broadly promote the absorption and storage of sugars, including lipogenesis. Insulin stimulates lipogenesis primarily by activating two enzymatic pathways. Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), converts pyruvate into acetyl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), converts acetyl-CoA produced by PDH into malonyl-CoA. Malonyl-CoA provides the two-carbon building blocks that are used to create l Continue reading >>

Lipolysis And Lipogenesis

Lipolysis And Lipogenesis

Triglyceride, a fatty acyl ester derivative of glycerol, is the major energy depot of all eukaryotic cells. Lipolysis is the enzymic process by which triacylglycerol, stored in cellular lipid droplets, is hydrolytically cleaved to generate glycerol and free fatty acids. The free fatty acids can be subsequently used as energy substrates, essential precursors for lipid and membrane synthesis, or mediators in cell signaling processes. The complete oxidation of free fatty acids to generate ATP occurs in the mitochondria by the processes of β-oxidation which is described in the related article Fatty acid oxidation and synthesis. It involves the sequential degradation of fatty acids to multiple units of acetyl-CoA which can then be completely oxidized via the tricarboxylic acid cycle (Krebs Cycle) and electron transport chain. Lipogenesis is the process by which glycerol is esterified with free fatty acids to form triglyceride. Dietary fat (triglycerides), when ingested with food, is absorbed by the gut. Being apolar (poorly water-soluble), triglycerides are transported in the form of plasma-lipoproteins called chylomicrons. Lipids are released from their carrier lipoproteins through the local activity of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and subsequently split into their constituent fatty acids and glycerol. These are taken up by adipose tissue where the triglycerides are resynthesized and stored in cytoplasmic lipid droplets. Lipogenesis also includes the anabolic process by which triglycerides are formed in the liver from excess glucose. Here fatty acids of varying length are synthesised by the sequential addition of two-carbon units derived from acetyl CoA as discussed in the related article Fatty acid oxidation and synthesis. Fatty acids generated by lipogenesis in the liver, ar Continue reading >>

Practice Exam Chap 6-8

Practice Exam Chap 6-8

Some nutrients, such as vitamins A, D, and E, require dietary fat to be absorbed. Corn oil is composed of largely unsaturated fatty acids that cannot pack closely together and tend to have a higher melting point. The presence of cholesterol keeps fatty acid chains separate within the membrane, thereby maintaining membrane fluidity. Postmenopausal women continue to have a lower risk of developing heart disease when compared with men. Which of the following food groups contains the highest amounts of naturally occurring trans fatty acids? A.vegetable oils Martin was watching his cholesterol intake carefully. He was 45 years old and his family had a history of developing heart disease early. Which of the following foods has the highest amount of cholesterol per serving? A. the nonessential amino acid that is in abundant supply. B. the essential amino acid that is in shortest supply. C. the nonessential amino acid that is in shortest supply. D. the essential amino acid that is in abundant supply. B. the essential amino acid that is in shortest supply. A. the composition of a protein's essential and nonessential amino acids compared to itself. B. the composition of a protein's essential and nonessential amino acids compared to a standard. C. the composition of a protein's nonessential amino acids compared to a standard. D. the composition of a protein's essential amino acids compared to a standard. D. the composition of a protein's essential amino acids compared to a standard. Which of the following foods from the MyPlate protein group is the best source of protein? Continue reading >>

More in ketosis