How Food Works
You have probably heard of "carbohydrates" and "complex carbohydrates." Carbohydrates provide your body with its basic fuel. Your body thinks about carbohydrates like a car engine thinks about gasoline. The simplest carbohydrate is glucose. Glucose, also called "blood sugar" and "dextrose," flows in the bloodstream so that it is available to every cell in your body. Your cells absorb glucose and convert it into energy to drive the cell. Specifically, a set of chemical reactions on glucose creates ATP (adenosine triphosphate), and a phosphate bond in ATP powers most of the machinery in any human cell. If you drink a solution of water and glucose, the glucose passes directly from your digestive system into the bloodstream. The word "carbohydrate" comes from the fact that glucose is made up of carbon and water. The chemical formula for glucose is: You can see that glucose is made of six carbon atoms (carbo...) and the elements of six water molecules (...hydrate). Glucose is a simple sugar, meaning that to our tongues it tastes sweet. There are other simple sugars that you have probably heard of. Fructose is the main sugar in fruits. Fructose has the same chemical formula as glucose (C6H12O6), but the atoms are arranged slightly differently. The liver converts fructose to glucose. Sucrose, also known as "white sugar" or "table sugar," is made of one glucose and one fructose molecule bonded together. Lactose (the sugar found in milk) is made of one glucose and one galactose molecule bonded together. Galactose, like fructose, has the same chemical components as glucose but the atoms are arranged differently. The liver also converts galactose to glucose. Maltose, the sugar found in malt, is made from two glucose atoms bonded together. Glucose, fructose and galactose are monosa Continue reading >>
Glycogen: Definition, Storage & Breakdown
Glycogen: Definition, Storage & Breakdown Watch short & fun videos Start Your Free Trial Today An error occurred trying to load this video. Try refreshing the page, or contact customer support. You must create an account to continue watching Start Your Free Trial To Continue Watching As a member, you'll also get unlimited access to over 70,000 lessons in math, English, science, history, and more. Plus, get practice tests, quizzes, and personalized coaching to help you succeed. Coming up next: Lipid Bilayer: Definition, Structure & Function Log in or sign up to add this lesson to a Custom Course. Custom Courses are courses that you create from Study.com lessons. Use them just like other courses to track progress, access quizzes and exams, and share content. Organize and share selected lessons with your class. Make planning easier by creating your own custom course. Create a new course from any lesson page or your dashboard. Click "Add to" located below the video player and follow the prompts to name your course and save your lesson. Click on the "Custom Courses" tab, then click "Create course". Next, go to any lesson page and begin adding lessons. Edit your Custom Course directly from your dashboard. Name your Custom Course and add an optional description or learning objective. Create chapters to group lesson within your course. Remove and reorder chapters and lessons at any time. Share your Custom Course or assign lessons and chapters. Share or assign lessons and chapters by clicking the "Teacher" tab on the lesson or chapter page you want to assign. Students' quiz scores and video views will be trackable in your "Teacher" tab. You can share your Custom Course by copying and pasting the course URL. Only Study.com members will be able to access the entire course. Create Continue reading >>
How Sugar, Not Fat, Raises Your Cholesterol
Excess carbohydrates and sugar lead to cholesterol and weight gain, explains Dr. Doni Wilson, which is why balancing blood sugar levels every day is so important. When you go to the doctor and get a cholesterol reading, you may be cautioned against eating high-fat foods. But very little fat from foods becomes cholesterol in your blood. What produces cholesterol is rather the excessive consumption of carbs at any one time. The cholesterol and triglycerides in your bloodstream come not from consuming excess fat, but rather, from consuming excess glucose. I’m not just talking about excess glucose over the course of a week or even a day. I’m talking about what happens when you consume excess glucose in one sitting. Let’s take a closer look at exactly happens when your body gets too many carbs at one particular meal. First, you digest the carb-containing food, breaking it down into the individual glucose molecules that are small enough to cross the cells of your intestinal walls and enter your bloodstream. Because you have eaten too many carbs, you have far too much glucose stuck in your blood. You don’t have enough insulin to move all that glucose into your cells. So what happens to that excess glucose? Some of it is stored in your liver as a substance known as glycogen, to be released when you don’t eat. Harking back to our hunter-gatherer days, our bodies created a backup system to ensure that even if we can’t get any food for a couple of days, we won’t starve to death. The liver can only hold so much glycogen, however. So what about the glucose that doesn’t fit? Your body has three choices: convert the glucose into body fat, which translates into weight gain, most likely around your middle; convert the glucose into lipids (fats), which remain in your bloo Continue reading >>
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Absorbing And Storing Energy: How The Body Controls Glucose
Absorbing and Storing Energy: How the Body Controls Glucose Editors note: Physicians have a special place among the thinkers who have elaborated the argument for intelligent design. Perhaps thats because, more than evolutionary biologists, they are familiar with the challenges of maintaining a functioning complex system, the human body. With that in mind, Evolution News is delighted to offer this series, The Designed Body. For the complete series, see here . Dr. Glicksman practices palliative medicine for a hospice organization. Just like a car needs the energy, in the form of gasoline, to run properly, the body needs the energy in glucose to survive. When we havent eaten for a while, our blood glucose level drops and our stomach is empty, causing the hunger center in our brain to tell us to eat or drink something with calories. As I have explained in my last couple of articles, the complex molecules that are in what we eat and drink enter the gastrointestinal system, where digestive enzymes break them down into simpler molecules so the body can absorb them. Carbohydrates are broken down into simple sugars, like glucose, which are then absorbed into the blood. Tissues, such as the brain and other organs, rapidly absorb some of this glucose, to be used for their immediate energy needs. However, the amount of glucose absorbed after a meal is usually much more than what the tissues can use right away, causing excess. The body is able to chemically link these excess glucose molecules together to form a carbohydrate called glycogen. Most of the glycogen in the body is made and stored in the liver, with smaller amounts in the muscles, kidneys, and other tissues. Once the liver and other tissues have filled up their glycogen stores, any excess glucose is stored as fat, appare Continue reading >>
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Glycogen is a readily mobilized storage form of glucose. It is a very large, branched polymer of glucose residues (Figure 21.1) that can be broken down to yield glucose molecules when energy is needed. Most of the glucose residues in glycogen are linked by α-1,4-glycosidic bonds. Branches at about every tenth residue are created by α-1,6-glycosidic bonds. Recall that α-glycosidic linkages form open helical polymers, whereas β linkages produce nearly straight strands that form structural fibrils, as in cellulose (Section 11.2.3). Glycogen is not as reduced as fatty acids are and consequently not as energy rich. Why do animals store any energy as glycogen? Why not convert all excess fuel into fatty acids? Glycogen is an important fuel reserve for several reasons. The controlled breakdown of glycogen and release of glucose increase the amount of glucose that is available between meals. Hence, glycogen serves as a buffer to maintain blood-glucose levels. Glycogen's role in maintaining blood-glucose levels is especially important because glucose is virtually the only fuel used by the brain, except during prolonged starvation. Moreover, the glucose from glycogen is readily mobilized and is therefore a good source of energy for sudden, strenuous activity. Unlike fatty acids, the released glucose can provide energy in the absence of oxygen and can thus supply energy for anaerobic activity. The two major sites of glycogen storage are the liver and skeletal muscle. The concentration of glycogen is higher in the liver than in muscle (10% versus 2% by weight), but more glycogen is stored in skeletal muscle overall because of its much greater mass. Glycogen is present in the cytosol in the form of granules ranging in diameter from 10 to 40 nm (Figure 21.2). In the liver, glycoge Continue reading >>
Does Carbohydrate Become Body Fat?
Dear Reader, Ah, poor carbohydrates, maligned by diets such as Atkins’ and the ketogenic diet. However, carbohydrates are your body’s main source of energy — in fact your muscles and brain cells prefer carbs more than other sources of energy (triglycerides and fat, for example). To answer your question: research completed over the last several decades suggests that if you are eating a diet that is appropriate for your levels of daily activity, little to no carbohydrate is converted to fat in your body. For most people (unless you have a metabolic disorder) when you eat carbs they are digested, broken down to glucose, and then transported to all the cells in your body. They are then metabolized and used to support cellular processes. If you’re active and eating appropriately for your activity level, most of the carbs you consume are more or less burned immediately. There are two caveats here: first, if you’re eating a lot more calories per day than you are burning, then yes, your liver will convert excess calories from carbohydrate into fats; second, not all carbs are created equal. If you consume too many calories from simple sugars like sucrose and fructose (think sugary sodas sweetened by sugar and high fructose corn syrup) then your body will more readily take some of those sugars and turn them into triglycerides (fat) in your liver. What happens to excess calories that come from carbs? The answer depends on several things: what kind of carbs you consumed, your genetics, as well as how many extra calories we’re talking about. For those who eat a well-balanced diet and have no metabolic disorders, excess dietary carbohydrates are converted by the liver into complex chains of glucose called glycogen. Glycogen is stored in liver and muscle cells and is a sec Continue reading >>
What Happens To Carbohydrates That The Body Does Not Use For Energy?
There are three types of carbohydrates: starch, sugar and fiber. Starches are broken down into sugars, including the glucose that provides your body with energy and is the preferred source of energy for your brain. However, not all carbohydrates are immediately used for energy. Some glucose is stored for later use, and fiber is not used for energy at all. Your body cannot digest fiber, but it provides health benefits, including lowering your risk for high cholesterol, heart disease, diabetes and constipation. While a small amount of fiber is fermented by bacteria in your colon and turned into short-chain fatty acids, which are easily absorbed by your body, most fiber passes through your body undigested and is excreted in your feces. Storage as Glycogen After carbohydrates are broken down in your body, some of the glucose that isn't needed immediately for energy is stored as glycogen in your liver and muscles for later use. Athletes sometimes consume high amounts of carbohydrates prior to major events in an effort to increase their glycogen stores, since glycogen is one of the main types of fuel for exercise. Storage as Fat Once your glycogen stores are filled, excess glucose may be stored as fat. However, storage of extra carbohydrate as fat is not very efficient, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization. Diets high in carbohydrates, especially complex carbohydrates, are less likely to result in fat accumulation than diets high in fat. Considerations The Food and Agriculture Organization recommends getting at least 55 percent of your calories from carbohydrates, and the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends consuming between 45 and 65 percent of your calories as carbohydrates, with most of these carbohydrates coming from nutrient-dense carbohydrate Continue reading >>
Storage Forms Of Glucose In Organisms
When carbohydrates from the foods you consume are digested, glucose is the smallest molecule into which a carbohydrate is broken down. Glucose molecules are absorbed from intestinal cells into the bloodstream. The bloodstream then carries the glucose molecules throughout the body. Glucose enters each cell of the body and is used by the cell’s mitochondrion as fuel. Carbohydrates are in nearly every food, not just bread and pasta, which are known for “carbo loading.” Fruits, vegetables, and meats also contain carbohydrates. Any food that contains sugar has carbohydrates. And, most foods are converted to sugars when they are digested. Once an organism has taken in food, the food is digested, and needed nutrients are sent through the bloodstream. When the organism has used all the nutrients it needs to maintain proper functioning, the remaining nutrients are excreted or stored. You store it: Glycogen Animals (including humans) store some glucose in the cells so that it is available for quick shots of energy. Excess glucose is stored in the liver as the large compound called glycogen. Glycogen is a polysaccharide of glucose, but its structure allows it to pack compactly, so more of it can be stored in cells for later use. If you consume so many extra carbohydrates that your body stores more and more glucose, all your glycogen may be compactly structured, but you no longer will be. Starch it, please: Storing glucose in plants The storage form of glucose in plants is starch. Starch is a polysaccharide. The leaves of a plant make sugar during the process of photosynthesis. Photosynthesis occurs in light (photo = light), such as when the sun is shining. The energy from the sunlight is used to make energy for the plant. So, when plants are making sugar (for fuel, energy) o Continue reading >>
Nutrition Exam 2 Flashcards | Quizlet
Provide Energy, Spare Protein, Prevent Ketosis All of the following are health benefits of soluble fiber Reduces Blood Cholesterol, Delays Gastric Emptying, A highly branched polymer of glucose molecules Polydipsia (excessive thirst), Polyurea (excessive urination), Which hormones INCREASE blood glucose levels? Which of the following food items would have the least amount of lactose? Plants produce carbohydrates by the process of Which of the following would have the highest glycemic index? A meal of refined or simple carbohydrates A 20-ounce bottle of a typical soft drink contains about ________ teaspoons of sugar. Which of the following is a characteristic of Type 1 Diabetes? Inadequate amounts of insulin are produced The majority of carbohydrate digestion occurs in the Carbohydrates can be converted into glycogen for short-term energy storage in the liver and muscle cells. When the capacity for glycogen storage is reached, excess glucose is converted to ________ in the process of lipogenesis. What statements BEST explain carbohydrate digestion? Carbohydrate digestion breaks larger carbohydrates into smaller units, Some chemical reactions occur in the stomach, There is an enzyme in our saliva that begins the digestion of carbohydrates NOT digested by the human digestive tract Glucose is stored in our bodies in the form of glycogen and functions to maintain blood glucose levels between periods of food consumption What occurs when blood glucose levels rise following the ingestion of a glucose-rich meal? The beta cells of the pancreas release insulin Which of the following statements is CORRECT in regard to the role of insulin in blood glucose regulation? Glucose requires insulin to cross cell membranes, Insulin stimulates the storage of glucose as glycogen in the liver Continue reading >>
How Is Excess Glucose Stored?
The human body has an efficient and complex system of storing and preserving energy. Glucose is a type of sugar that the body uses for energy. Glucose is the product of breaking down carbohydrates into their simplest form. Carbohydrates should make up approximately 45 to 65 percent of your daily caloric intake, according to MayoClinic.com. Video of the Day Glucose is a simple sugar found in carbohydrates. When more complex carbohydrates such as polysaccharides and disaccharides are broken down in the stomach, they break down into the monosaccharide glucose. Carbohydrates serve as the primary energy source for working muscles, help brain and nervous system functioning and help the body use fat more efficiently. Function of Glucose Once carbohydrates are absorbed from food, they are carried to the liver for processing. In the liver, fructose and galactose, the other forms of sugar, are converted into glucose. Some glucose gets sent to the bloodstream while the rest is stored for later energy use. Once glucose is inside the liver, glucose is phosphorylated into glucose-6-phosphate, or G6P. G6P is further metabolized into triglycerides, fatty acids, glycogen or energy. Glycogen is the form in which the body stores glucose. The liver can only store about 100 g of glucose in the form of glycogen. The muscles also store glycogen. Muscles can store approximately 500 g of glycogen. Because of the limited storage areas, any carbohydrates that are consumed beyond the storage capacity are converted to and stored as fat. There is practically no limit on how many calories the body can store as fat. The glucose stored in the liver serves as a buffer for blood glucose levels. Therefore, if the blood glucose levels start to get low because you have not consumed food for a period of time Continue reading >>
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10.) What Happens To Excess Glucose? - It Is Eliminated - It Is Ultimately Stored ...
10.) What happens to excess glucose? - it is eliminated - it is ultimately stored as fat -to causes glycogen stores to expand past capacity -it is converted to protein 11.) In times of carb deprivation, the body can create glucose from amino acids in a process called ______ -glycogenesis -gluconeogenesis -cellular uptake -glycogenolysis 12.) What substance does the pancreas secrete when blood glucose falls? -ketone bodies -glucagon -insulin -glycogen 13.) How does dietary fiber reduce blood cholesterol? -it digests the cholesterol -it hydrolyzes the cholesterol -it deactivates the cholesterol -it binds bile acids in the intestinal tract, which increases removal of cholesterol from the blood 14.) Which food would provide the lowes glycemic index? - baked potato with low-fat cheese -ice cream with chocolate syrup -popcorn -white bread with jam 15.) Which food contains the most carbs? - 1 cup of cooked corn -1 tablespoon of peanut butter -1/2 cup of raisins -1 cup low fat milk 17.) Refined grain foods to which vitamins and minerals are added back after processing are called ______ - health foods -processed -fortified -enriched 18.) Foods with natural sugars generally provide _____ compared with foods with added sugars -fewer nutrients and fewer kilocalories - less fiber and fewer kilocalories -more nutrients and more kilocalories -more nutrients and fewer kilocalories 19.) If you haven't eaten for a few (about four) hours, the body initiates _____, using _____ glycogen Torres to increase blood glucose levels -glycogenesis, liver and muscle -gluconeogensis; liver -glycogenolysis; liver -glycogenolysis; muscle 20.) The best place to identify whether sugars have been added to a food product is _____ -nutrient content claim -the ingredients list -the nutrition facts panel -the Continue reading >>
A&p 2 Flashcards
_________is the process in which glucose is converted to _______ which is stored in the _______ and _______ during periods of glucose excess. Glycogenesis, glycogen, skeletal muscle, liver Since the storage capacity for glycogen in the liver is limited, when it is "full" excess glucose is converted to __________ and stored in __________. __________is the process in which _______ is broken down to form ______ during periods when blood glucose levels are low. when glucose levels are low, it may also be formed by the process of ___________, which occurs in the _______. transports dietary lipids to adipose tissue for storage "very low-density lipoproteins" - transports triglycerides synthesized in hepatocytes to adipocytes for storage "low-density lipoproteins" - carry 75% of total cholesterol in blood & deliver it to cells throughout the body for use in repair of cell membraines & synthesis of steroid hormones & bile salts "high-density lipoproteins" - remove excess cholesterol from body cells & the blood & transports it to the liver for elimination compare LDL & HDL in terms of health significance glycerol is converted by many cells of the body to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. It ATP is high, it then is converted into glucose. It ATP is low, it enters the catabolic pathway to pyruvic acid. (glycerol may be converted to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate which can then be converted to glucose or enter the krebs cycle for oxidation) fatty acids undergo beta oxidation & enter the krebs cycle via acetyl CoA or acetyl CoA can become a ketone body by ketogenesis. what is beta oxidation? in what tissues/organs does it occur? a series of reactions that constitute the first stage in fatty acid catabolism, it occurs in the matrix of mitochondria important immediate compounds formed during h Continue reading >>
Multiple Choice Quiz 1
(See related pages) 1 Which one of the following would not be a nutrient? 2 Most vitamins, minerals, and water all have this in common: 3 When the body metabolizes nutrients for energy, fats yield about _______ times the energy as carbohydrates or proteins. 4 A calorie is the amount of energy necessary to raise the temperature of one gram of _________ one degree __________. 5 One piece of apple pie would yield about 6 The disaccharide that most people think of as table sugar is 7 When lactose is digested, it yields two monosaccharides called 8 The complex carbohydrate (polysaccharide) that is digested to the monosaccharide, glucose, and is found in vegetables, fruits, and grains and is called 9 If excess glucose is present in the body, the glucose first will be stored as __________ in muscle and the liver. 10 Triglycerides that contain one or more double covalent bonds between carbon atoms of their fatty acids are called 11 Bubbling hydrogen gas through polyunsaturated vegetable oil will cause the oil to become more 12 The lipid that is a component of the plasma membrane and can be used to form bile salts and steroid hormones is 13 The American Heart Association recommends that saturated fats should contribute no more than 10% of total fat intake. Excess fats, especially cholesterol and saturated fat, can increase the risk of 16 The daily-recommended consumption amount of protein for a healthy adult is about _____% of total kilocalorie intake per day. 20 Inorganic nutrients that are necessary for normal metabolism are called 23 When a molecule loses an electron, that molecule is said to be ___________ and often a(n) _____________ ion is lost along with the electron. 25 When a hydrogen ion and an associated electron are lost from a nutrient molecule, which of the followi Continue reading >>
A&p Chapter 25 Flashcards | Quizlet
water, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins, minerals Which nutrients are required in large quantities? carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and water Which nutrients are required in small quantities? Why do essential nutrients have to be ingested? because the body cannot manufacture them itself or is unable to manufacture adequate amounts What is the energy necessary to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree Celsius? 1 kilocalorie is equal to how many calories? How many kilocalories do a gram of fat, carbs, and protein yield? Glucose, fructose, and galactose are what type of carbs? Sucrose, maltose, and lactose are what type of carbs? Starch, glycogen, and cellulose are what type of carbs? Polysaccharides and disaccharides are converted to _____________ True or False: during digestion, polysaccharides and disaccharides are broken down into monosaccharides before absorption converts monosaccharides into glucose which is then used as an energy source to produce ATP What happens to excess glucose in the body? converted to glycogen and stored in muscles and liver cells What happens to excess glucose beyond storage in muscles and liver cells? triglycerides, cholesterol, linoleic acids, phospholipids forms other molecules (hormones, steriods, bile salts) and is part of the membrane What type of lipids construct myelin sheath? What is the difference between essential and non essential amino acids? What are the functions of protein in the body? protection, regulation, structure, muscle contraction, transportation, and receptors as a coenzyme (combine with an enzyme and make it functional) What is the difference between lipid-soluble and water-soluble vitamins? water--remain in the body for a short time then are excreted Vitamin A, D, E, and K are examples of wh Continue reading >>
What Are The Key Functions Of Carbohydrates?
Biologically speaking, carbohydrates are molecules that contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms in specific ratios. But in the nutrition world, they’re one of the most controversial topics. Some believe eating fewer carbohydrates is the way to optimal health, while others prefer higher-carb diets. Still, others insist moderation is the way to go. No matter where you fall in this debate, it’s hard to deny that carbohydrates play an important role in the human body. This article highlights their key functions. One of the primary functions of carbohydrates is to provide your body with energy. Most of the carbohydrates in the foods you eat are digested and broken down into glucose before entering the bloodstream. Glucose in the blood is taken up into your body’s cells and used to produce a fuel molecule called adenosine triphosphate (ATP) through a series of complex processes known as cellular respiration. Cells can then use ATP to power a variety of metabolic tasks. Most cells in the body can produce ATP from several sources, including dietary carbohydrates and fats. But if you are consuming a diet with a mix of these nutrients, most of your body’s cells will prefer to use carbs as their primary energy source (1). One of the primary functions of carbohydrates is to provide your body with energy. Your cells convert carbohydrates into the fuel molecule ATP through a process called cellular respiration. If your body has enough glucose to fulfill its current needs, excess glucose can be stored for later use. This stored form of glucose is called glycogen and is primarily found in the liver and muscle. The liver contains approximately 100 grams of glycogen. These stored glucose molecules can be released into the blood to provide energy throughout the body and help mai Continue reading >>