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What Type Of Breathing Results In Acidosis

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Perfecting Your Acid-base Balancing Act

When it comes to acids and bases, the difference between life and death is balance. The body’s acid-base balance depends on some delicately balanced chemical reactions. The hydrogen ion (H+) affects pH, and pH regulation influences the speed of cellular reactions, cell function, cell permeability, and the very integrity of cell structure. When an imbalance develops, you can detect it quickly by knowing how to assess your patient and interpret arterial blood gas (ABG) values. And you can restore the balance by targeting your interventions to the specific acid-base disorder you find. Basics of acid-base balance Before assessing a patient’s acid-base balance, you need to understand how the H+ affects acids, bases, and pH. An acid is a substance that can donate H+ to a base. Examples include hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, ammonium ion, lactic acid, acetic acid, and carbonic acid (H2CO3). A base is a substance that can accept or bind H+. Examples include ammonia, lactate, acetate, and bicarbonate (HCO3-). pH reflects the overall H+ concentration in body fluids. The higher the number of H+ in the blood, the lower the pH; and the lower the number of H+, the higher the pH. A solution Continue reading >>

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Breathing Difficulty- What Is The Acid- Base Imbalance?

Case details An 80-year-old man had a bad cold. After two weeks he said, “It went in to my chest; I am feeling tightness in my chest, I am coughing, suffocated and unable to breathe!” (Figure) Figure- The gaseous exchange is impaired in pulmonary diseases What could be the possible reason? A. Metabolic Acidosis B. Metabolic Alkalosis C. Respiratory Acidosis D. Respiratory Alkalosis E. None of the above. Answer- C- Respiratory acidosis is the correct answer. Respiratory acidosis is CO2 accumulation (hypercapnia) from a decrease in respiratory rate, respiratory volume (hypoventilation), or both. It can be due to severe pulmonary disease, respiratory muscle fatigue, or abnormalities in ventilatory control and is recognized by an increase in PaCO2 and decrease in pH. Respiratory acidosis may be acute or chronic. Distinction is based on the degree of metabolic compensation. In acute respiratory acidosis, there is an immediate compensatory elevation (due to cellular buffering mechanisms) in HCO3–, which increases 1 mmol/L for every 10-mmHg increase in PaCO2. In chronic respiratory acidosis (>24 h), renal adaptation increases the [HCO3–] by 4 mmol/L for every 10-mmHg increase in P Continue reading >>

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Co2, Blood Ph And Respiratory Alkalosis: Causes And Effects

Blood pH is tightly regulated by a system of buffers that continuously maintain it in a normal range of 7.35 to 7.45 (slightly alkaline). Blood pH drop below 7 can lead to a coma and even death due to severe acidosis. This causes depression of the central nervous system. High blood pH (above 7.45) is called alkalosis. Severe alkalosis (when blood pH is more than 8) can also lead to death, as it often happens during last days or hours of life in most people who are chronically and terminally ill. Hyperventilation is the most common cause of respiratory alkalosis. Note that overbreathing is exceptionally common in people with chronic diseases (for clinical studies, see the Homepage of this site). The main mechanisms for blood pH maintenance and control - Carbonic Acid-Bicarbonate Buffer System - Protein Buffer System - Phosphate Buffer System - Elimination of Hydrogen Ions via Kidneys Carbon dioxide plays one of the central roles in respiratory alkalosis. Note, however, that tissue hypoxia due to critically-low carbon dioxide level in the alveoli is usually the main life-threatening factor in the severely sick. As we discussed before, CO2 is crucial for vasodilation and the Bohr effe Continue reading >>

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