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What Type Of Breathing Results In Acidosis

[physioex Chapter 10 Exercise 3] Pex-10-03

[physioex Chapter 10 Exercise 3] Pex-10-03

Solved by ramonistry Exercise 10: Acid-Base Balance: Activity 3: Renal Responses to Respiratory Acidosis and Respiratory Alkalosis Lab Report Pre-lab Quiz Results You scored 100% by answering 4 out of 4 questions correctly. The renal system compensates for You correctly answered: d. both respiratory acidosis and respiratory alkalosis. Respiratory alkalosis is characterized by You correctly answered: a. pH greater than 7.45 and PCO2 less than 35 mm Hg. Respiratory acidosis is characterized by You correctly answered: c. pH less than 7.35 and PCO2 greater than 45 mm Hg. The functional unit of the kidney is the You correctly answered: b. nephron. Experiment Results Predict Question: Predict Question 1: What effect do you think lowering the PCO2 will have on [H+ ] and [HCO3- ] in the urine? Your answer : d. [H+ ] will decrease and [HCO3- ] will increase. Predict Question 2: What effect do you think raising the PCO2 will have on [H+ ] and [HCO3- ] in the urine? Your answer : c. [H+ ] will increase and [HCO3- ] will decrease. Stop & Think Questions: The condition you just simulated is You correctly answered: b. respiratory alkalosis caused by hyperventilation. Can the renal system fully compensate for acidosis or alkalosis? You correctly answered: d. No, neither for respiratory alkalosis nor respiratory acidosis. Experiment Data: PCO2 Blood pH [H+] in Urine [HCO3-] in Urine 40 7.41 normal normal 30 7.58 decreased elevated 60 7.32 elevated decreased Post-lab Quiz Results You scored 100% by answering 4 out of 4 questions correctly. When adjusting the controls, what happens to the blood pH when you lower the PCO2? You correctly answered: a. The pH increases. In uncompensated respiratory alkalosis, the You correctly answered: b. carbon dioxide levels of the blood are low. What typ Continue reading >>

Respiratory Acidosis

Respiratory Acidosis

LABORATORY TESTS The following lab tests can be used to interpret and explain acidosis and alkalosis conditions. All are measured on blood samples. 1. pH: This measures hydrogen ions - Normal pH = 7.35-7.45 2. pCO2= Partial Pressure of Carbon Dioxide: Although this is a pressure measurement, it relates to the concentration of GASEOUS CO2 in the blood. A high pCO2 may indicate acidosis. A low pCO2 may indicate alkalosis. 3. HCO3- = Bicarbonate: This measures the concentration of HCO3- ion only. High values may indicate alkalosis since bicarbonate is a base. Low values may indicate acidosis. 4. CO2 = Carbon Dioxide Content: This is a measure of ALL CO2 liberated on adding acid to blood plasma. This measure both carbon dioxide dissolved and bicarbonate ions and is an older test. Do not confuse with pCO2 Typically, dissolved carbon dioxide = l.2-2.0 mmoles/L and HCO3- = 22-28 mmoles/L Therefore, although it is listed as CO2 content, the lab test really reflects HCO3- concentration. Respiratory Acidosis .ABNORMAL pH IN THE BODY: ACIDOSIS AND ALKALOSIS: INTRODUCTION: Normal blood pH is maintained between 7.35 and 7.45 by the regulatory systems. The lungs regulate the amount of carbon dioxide in the blood and the kidneys regulate the bicarbonate. When the pH decreases to below 7.35 an acidosis condition is present. Acidosis means that the hydrogen ions are increased and that pH and bicarbonate ions are decreased. A greater number of hydrogen ions are present in the blood than can be absorbed by the buffer systems. Alkalosis results when the pH is above 7.45. This condition results when the buffer base (bicarbonate ions) is greater than normal and the concentration of hydrogen ions are decreased. Both acidosis and alkalosis can be of two different types: respiratory and metabol Continue reading >>

A Delicate Balance: Understanding Acid-base Issues In Ems Patients

A Delicate Balance: Understanding Acid-base Issues In Ems Patients

The human body has tremendous capacity to maintain internal balance, or homeostasis, in serious, prolonged situations. However, there are several situations in which an imbalance that is left uncorrected can cause serious harm. EMS providers are trained to recognize that a lack of oxygen or glucose will cause the patient to deteriorate in short order. While harder to detect in the field, derangements in the body's acid-base balance can also be catastrophic. However, a basic understanding of this critical concept can help develop a working field diagnosis and promote early interventions that could reduce morbidity. What are acids and bases? Like all organisms, humans live within a water-based environment. Water contains hydrogen and oxygen (H20). Water freely separates, or dissociates, into positively charged hydrogen ions (H+) and negatively charged hydroxide ions (OH-). Hydrogen ions are a weak acid that interacts with a variety of chemical processes. The number of hydrogen ions within a water solution is expressed through a measurement called the power of hydrogen, or pH. pH is measured using a negative logarithmic scale. This means two things. First, the smaller the pH number, the greater the concentration of hydrogen ions. Second, a change in whole number represents a tenfold change in the number of hydrogen ions. Taking those two concepts together, a fluid with a pH value of 5 is 10 times more acidic than a pH of 6; a pH value of 4 is 100 times more acidic than a pH of 6 (10x10). The range of pH is 1 to 14. Water itself is neutral with a value of 7. A pH number less than 7 is considered acidic, while a number above 7 is considered basic. The human body rests in a slightly basic environment, functioning within a range of 7.35 to 7.45. Acid-base balance within the bo Continue reading >>

Metabolic And Respiratory Acidosis And Alkalosis

Metabolic And Respiratory Acidosis And Alkalosis

There are two main types of pH imbalances in the body: acidosis and alkalosis. An increase in H+ ion levels in the blood causes pH levels to fall resulting in acidosis. A decrease in H+ levels causes pH levels to rise, making the blood more basic, or alkaline. These conditions can be caused by two kinds of disturbances to the buffers that control the body’s pH levels, which alter the acid-base balance. Metabolic and respiratory acidosis and alkalosis are the results of disruptions to the bicarbonate and carbonic acid components of the chemical buffers. Metabolic and respiratory acidosis result when pH levels fall due to an increase in H+ ions or a loss of bases causing the bodily fluids to become slightly acidic. Insufficient bicarbonate levels lower the pH levels of fluids in the digestive tract, resulting in metabolic acidosis. Respiratory acidosis is caused by excessive carbonic acid in the respiratory system, which lowers pH levels through the retention of CO2. Alkalosis is the result of opposite changes to the acid-base balance: excessive bicarbonate levels in the digestive system increases pH as H+ ion concentrations decrease, which causes fluids to become more basic. Insufficient carbonic acid levels are caused by excessive exhalation of CO2, resulting in respiratory alkalosis. Treatment for metabolic and respiratory acidosis and alkalosis varies depending on the underlying cause of the imbalance. Respiratory acidosis caused by hypoventilation can be treated with oxygen therapy and the help of breathing machines to help restore normal oxygen/carbon dioxide exchange, allowing the kidneys time to increase production of bicarbonate and reestablish the acid-base balance of the blood. Respiratory alkalosis caused by hyperventilation can be treated with inhalation of Continue reading >>

What Is Metabolic Acidosis?

What Is Metabolic Acidosis?

Metabolic acidosis happens when the chemical balance of acids and bases in your blood gets thrown off. Your body: Is making too much acid Isn't getting rid of enough acid Doesn't have enough base to offset a normal amount of acid When any of these happen, chemical reactions and processes in your body don't work right. Although severe episodes can be life-threatening, sometimes metabolic acidosis is a mild condition. You can treat it, but how depends on what's causing it. Causes of Metabolic Acidosis Different things can set up an acid-base imbalance in your blood. Ketoacidosis. When you have diabetes and don't get enough insulin and get dehydrated, your body burns fat instead of carbs as fuel, and that makes ketones. Lots of ketones in your blood turn it acidic. People who drink a lot of alcohol for a long time and don't eat enough also build up ketones. It can happen when you aren't eating at all, too. Lactic acidosis. The cells in your body make lactic acid when they don't have a lot of oxygen to use. This acid can build up, too. It might happen when you're exercising intensely. Big drops in blood pressure, heart failure, cardiac arrest, and an overwhelming infection can also cause it. Renal tubular acidosis. Healthy kidneys take acids out of your blood and get rid of them in your pee. Kidney diseases as well as some immune system and genetic disorders can damage kidneys so they leave too much acid in your blood. Hyperchloremic acidosis. Severe diarrhea, laxative abuse, and kidney problems can cause lower levels of bicarbonate, the base that helps neutralize acids in blood. Respiratory acidosis also results in blood that's too acidic. But it starts in a different way, when your body has too much carbon dioxide because of a problem with your lungs. Continue reading >>

Blood Gas Analysis--insight Into The Acid-base Status Of The Patient

Blood Gas Analysis--insight Into The Acid-base Status Of The Patient

Acid-Base Physiology Buffers H+ A- HCO3- CO2 Buffers H+ A- CO2 Cells Blood Kidney Lungs Fluids, Electrolytes, and Acid-Base Status in Critical Illness Blood Gas Analysis--Insight into the Acid-Base status of the Patient The blood gas consists of pH-negative log of the Hydrogen ion concentration: -log[H+]. (also, pH=pK+log [HCO3]/ 0.03 x pCO2). The pH is always a product of two components, respiratory and metabolic, and the metabolic component is judged, calculated, or computed by allowing for the effect of the pCO2, ie, any change in the pH unexplained by the pCO2 indicates a metabolic abnormality. CO +H 0ºº H CO ººHCO + H2 2 2 3 3 - + CO2 and water form carbonic acid or H2CO3, which is in equilibrium with bicarbonate (HCO3-)and hydrogen ions (H+). A change in the concentration of the reactants on either side of the equation affects the subsequent direction of the reaction. For example, an increase in CO2 will result in increased carbonic acid formation (H2CO3) which leads to an increase in both HCO3- and H+ (\pH). Normally, at pH 7.4, a ratio of one part carbonic acid to twenty parts bicarbonate is present in the extracellular fluid [HCO3-/H2CO3]=20. A change in the ratio will affect the pH of the fluid. If both components change (ie, with chronic compensation), the pH may be normal, but the other components will not. pCO -partial pressure of carbon dioxide. Hypoventilation or hyperventilation (ie, minute2 ventilation--tidal volume x respitatory rate--imperfectly matched to physiologic demands) will lead to elevation or depression, respectively, in the pCO2. V/Q (ventilation/perfusion) mismatch does not usually lead to abnormalities in PCO2 because of the linear nature of the CO2 elimination curve (ie, good lung units can make up for bad lung units). Diffus Continue reading >>

Acid-base Balance

Acid-base Balance

Patient professional reference Professional Reference articles are written by UK doctors and are based on research evidence, UK and European Guidelines. They are designed for health professionals to use. You may find the Arterial Blood Gases article more useful, or one of our other health articles. Disorders of acid-base balance can lead to severe complications in many disease states.[1]Arterial blood pH is normally closely regulated to between 7.35 and 7.45. Maintaining the pH within these limits is achieved by bicarbonate, other buffers, the lungs and the kidneys. Primary changes in bicarbonate are metabolic and primary changes in carbon dioxide are respiratory. In the absence of any significant respiratory disease or hyperventilation, the primary cause is much more likely to be metabolic. However, central hypoventilation (eg, caused by CNS disturbance such as stroke, head injury or brain tumour) causes respiratory acidosis. In general, the kidneys compensate for respiratory causes and the lungs compensate for metabolic causes. Therefore, hyperventilation may be a cause of respiratory alkalosis or a compensatory mechanism for metabolic acidosis. Deep sighing respiration (Kussmaul breathing) is a common feature of acidosis (hyperventilation in an attempt to remove carbon dioxide) but may take some hours to appear. Investigations Analysis of arterial blood gases provides: pH: determines whether there is an overall acidosis or alkalosis. Venous pH is in practice as reliable as arterial pH. Carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2): if raised with acidosis then the acidosis is respiratory. If decreased with alkalosis then the alkalosis is respiratory. Otherwise any change is compensatory. Standard bicarbonate (SBCe): analysis of blood gases provides a bicarbonate level whic Continue reading >>

Respiratory Acidosis: Causes And Regulation

Respiratory Acidosis: Causes And Regulation

This lesson will discuss an important relationship between the kidneys and the lungs and how both of them play a role in respiratory acidosis. We'll also discuss some of the major causes of respiratory acidosis. Mutualistic Relationships A mutualistic relationship refers typically to a couple of different species of animals helping one another out. Take, for example, the birds that clean an alligator's teeth. The alligator gets a free dental exam, no insurance necessary, and the birds get a nice meal. It's really weird in a way that a bird and a reptile would rely on one another. They are just so different in terms of their size, function, and appearance, but their relationship is nonetheless very important. Well, the kidneys have a relationship with the lungs that is equally weird but important. I mean, the lungs are much bigger, look totally different, and don't seem to be related to the kidneys at all! But these two organ systems are in a very important mutualistic relationship, only one fourth of which can be discussed in this lesson. A Couple of Important Terms Before we get to everything, I want to clarify some terms. 'Acidemia' refers to an abnormally low pH of the blood. pH is inversely proportional to the concentration of H+ (hydrogen ions, aka protons). Hydrogen ions confer acidity upon a substance. So if we raise the concentration of hydrogen, we actually lower the pH. Acidemia is a result of acidosis. 'Acidosis' refers to a pathological state or process that leads to acidemia. We'll be using these terms later, so keep them in mind. To help remember that acid has a low pH, just think about the fact that gastric acid sits 'down' in your stomach. Therefore, something acidic moves 'down' the pH scale. Respiratory Acidosis Okay, with that out of the way for a bit Continue reading >>

Respiratory Acidosis

Respiratory Acidosis

Respiratory Acidosis Definition Respiratory acidosis is a condition in which a build-up of carbon dioxide in the blood produces a shift in the body's pH balance and causes the body's system to become more acidic. This condition is brought about by a problem either involving the lungs and respiratory system or signals from the brain that control breathing. Description Respiratory acidosis is an acid imbalance in the body caused by a problem related to breathing. In the lungs, oxygen from inhaled air is exchanged for carbon dioxide from the blood. This process takes place between the alveoli (tiny air pockets in the lungs) and the blood vessels that connect to them. When this exchange of oxygen for carbon dioxide is impaired, the excess carbon dioxide forms an acid in the blood. The condition can be acute with a sudden onset, or it can develop gradually as lung function deteriorates. Causes and symptoms Respiratory acidosis can be caused by diseases or conditions that affect the lungs themselves, such as emphysema, chronic bronchitis, asthma, or severe pneumonia. Blockage of the airway due to swelling, a foreign object, or vomit can induce respiratory acidosis. Drugs like anesthetics, sedatives, and narcotics can interfere with breathing by depressing the respiratory center in the brain. Head injuries or brain tumors can also interfere with signals sent by the brain to the lungs. Such neuromuscular diseases as Guillain-Barré syndrome or myasthenia gravis can impair the muscles around the lungs making it more difficult to breathe. Conditions that cause chronic metabolic alkalosis can also trigger respiratory acidosis. The most notable symptom will be slowed or difficult breathing. Headache, drowsiness, restlessness, tremor, and confusion may also occur. A rapid heart rate Continue reading >>

The Quick And Dirty Guide To Acid Base Balance | Medictests.com

The Quick And Dirty Guide To Acid Base Balance | Medictests.com

Your patient has a ph of 6.9 Is he acidic or alkalotic? Your patient has a ph of 7.4 Is he acidic or alkalotic? Your patient has a ph of 7.7 Is he acidic or alkalotic? Your patient has a ph of 7.25 Is he acidic or alkalotic? Your patient has a ph of 7.43 Is he acidic or alkalotic? Your patient has a ph of 8.0 Is he acidic or alkalotic? 1. acidic 2. normal 3. Alkaline 4. Acidic 5. Normal 6. Alkaline You take in oxygen by inhaling, your body turns oxygen into carbon dioxide, you exhale and remove the carbon dioxide from your body. Carbon dioxide is "respiratory acid."When you're not breathing adequately, you are not getting rid of this "respiratory acid" and it builds up in the tissues. The extra CO2 molecules combine with water in your body to form carbonic acid and makes your pH go up. This is bad. We can measure the amount of respiratory acid in the arterial blood using blood gases. They measure the amount of each gas in your blood. We measure the pH, the amount of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) and the amount of oxygen in the blood (PaO2). PaCO2 is the partial pressure of carbon dioxide. We can measure it to see how much respiratory acid (CO2) there is in the blood. We use arterial blood gas tests to check it. How much respiratory acid (CO2) should there be? The normal value is 35-45 mmHg (mmHg just means millimeters of mercury, its a measurement of pressure.) The (a) in PaCO2 just stands for arterial. If you measured venous blood gasses, the levels are different and PvCO2 is used. If CO2 is HIGH, it means there is a buildup of respiratory acids because he's not breathing enough CO2 away. If your pH is acidic, and your CO2 is HIGH, its considered respiratory acidosis. If CO2 is LOW, it means there are not enough respiratory acids because he's probably hyperventilating too mu Continue reading >>

Shared Flashcard Set

Shared Flashcard Set

Details Title Acid Base Balance Description Acid Base Balance Total Cards 214 Subject Nursing Level Undergraduate 2 Created 10/14/2012 Click here to study/print these flashcards. Create your own flash cards! Sign up here. Additional Nursing Flashcards Cards Term An opioid drug overdose would put a patient at most risk for what acid/base imbalance? Definition Respiratory Acidosis Term Pulmonary Edema would put a patient at most risk for what acid/base imbalance? Definition Respiratory Acidosis Term Chest trauma would put a patient at most risk for what acid/base imbalance? Definition Respiratory Acidosis Term Neuromuscular disease would put a patient at most risk for what acid/base imbalance? Definition Respiratory Acidosis Term COPD would put a patient at most risk for what acid/base imbalance? Definition Respiratory Acidosis Term Airway obstruction would put a patient at most risk for what acid/base imbalance? Definition Respiratory Acidosis Term Pneumonia would put a patient at most risk for what acid/base imbalance? Definition Respiratory Acidosis Term TB would put a patient at most risk for what acid/base imbalance? Definition Respiratory Acidosis Term Emphysema would put a patient at most risk for what acid/base imbalance? Definition Respiratory Acidosis Term Asthma would put a patient at most risk for what acid/base imbalance? Definition Respiratory Acidosis Term Cigarrette smoking would put a patient at most risk for what acid/base imbalance? Definition Respiratory Acidosis Term Pleural effusion would put a patient at most risk for what acid/base imbalance? Definition Respiratory Acidosis Term What is pleural effusion? Definition excess fluid that accumulates in the pleura, the fluid-filled space that surrounds the lungs Pleural effusion is excess fluid that accu Continue reading >>

The Four Primary Disturbances Of Acid-base Balance

The Four Primary Disturbances Of Acid-base Balance

Primary Respiratory Acidosis initiating event: V�A (hypoventilation) chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) weak respiratory muscles (neuromuscular diseases) barbiturate poisoning (central nervous system depression) resultant effects: CO2 retention PaCO2, [H+] and pH compensations: 2� metabolic alkalosis HCO3- retention via PaCO2 effect on renal proximal tubules Primary Respiratory Alkalosis initiating event: V�A (hyperventilation) salicylate intoxication (over-aggressive aspirin therapy) hyperexcitability psychogenic paroxysmal hyperventilation ("brown paper bag" therapy) artificial ventilation resultant effects: CO2 elimination PaCO2, [H+] and pH compensations: 2� metabolic acidosis HCO3- retention via reverse PaCO2 effect on renal proximal tubules Primary Metabolic Acidosis initiating events: renal and extrarenal diabetes mellitus and ketoacidosis (larger than normal anion gap) severe shock or heart failure and lactic acidosis (larger than normal anion gap) diarrhea and loss of bicarbonate ions (normal anion gap) renal tubular acidosis and retention of hydrogen ions (normal anion gap) resultant effects: [H+] and/or [HCO3-], pH compensations: 2� respiratory alkalosis (with renal participation if possible) CO2 elimination via acid drive on ventilation Kussmaul respiration (characteristic deep labored breathing) Primary Metabolic Alkalosis initiating events: renal and extrarenal chronic potassium ion depletion (aggressive diuretic therapy, hyperaldosteronism) protracted vomiting (pyloric obstruction, gastric ulcers) and loss of gastric acids dehydration and depletion of extracellular fluid volume (contraction alkalosis) resultant effects: [H+] and/or [HCO3-], pH urine pH will be paradoxically low (acidic) if there is chronic depletion of potassium ions c Continue reading >>

Perfecting Your Acid-base Balancing Act

Perfecting Your Acid-base Balancing Act

When it comes to acids and bases, the difference between life and death is balance. The body’s acid-base balance depends on some delicately balanced chemical reactions. The hydrogen ion (H+) affects pH, and pH regulation influences the speed of cellular reactions, cell function, cell permeability, and the very integrity of cell structure. When an imbalance develops, you can detect it quickly by knowing how to assess your patient and interpret arterial blood gas (ABG) values. And you can restore the balance by targeting your interventions to the specific acid-base disorder you find. Basics of acid-base balance Before assessing a patient’s acid-base balance, you need to understand how the H+ affects acids, bases, and pH. An acid is a substance that can donate H+ to a base. Examples include hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, ammonium ion, lactic acid, acetic acid, and carbonic acid (H2CO3). A base is a substance that can accept or bind H+. Examples include ammonia, lactate, acetate, and bicarbonate (HCO3-). pH reflects the overall H+ concentration in body fluids. The higher the number of H+ in the blood, the lower the pH; and the lower the number of H+, the higher the pH. A solution containing more base than acid has fewer H+ and a higher pH. A solution containing more acid than base has more H+ and a lower pH. The pH of water (H2O), 7.4, is considered neutral. The pH of blood is slightly alkaline and has a normal range of 7.35 to 7.45. For normal enzyme and cell function and normal metabolism, the blood’s pH must remain in this narrow range. If the blood is acidic, the force of cardiac contractions diminishes. If the blood is alkaline, neuromuscular function becomes impaired. A blood pH below 6.8 or above 7.8 is usually fatal. pH also reflects the balance between the p Continue reading >>

Acid-base Balance

Acid-base Balance

Your blood needs the right balance of acidic and basic (alkaline) compounds to function properly. This is called the acid-base balance. Your kidneys and lungs work to maintain the acid-base balance. Even slight variations from the normal range can have significant effects on your vital organs. Acid and alkaline levels are measured on a pH scale. An increase in acidity causes pH levels to fall. An increase in alkaline causes pH levels to rise. When the levels of acid in your blood are too high, it’s called acidosis. When your blood is too alkaline, it is called alkalosis. Respiratory acidosis and alkalosis are due to a problem with the lungs. Metabolic acidosis and alkalosis are due to a problem with the kidneys. Each of these conditions is caused by an underlying disease or disorder. Treatment depends on the cause. When you breathe, your lungs remove excess carbon dioxide from your body. When they cannot do so, your blood and other fluids become too acidic. Symptoms of respiratory acidosis Symptoms may include fatigue, shortness of breath, and confusion. Causes of respiratory acidosis There are several different causes of respiratory acidosis including: chest deformities or injuries chronic lung and airway diseases overuse of sedatives obesity Types of respiratory acidosis There are no noticeable symptoms of chronic respiratory acidosis. This is due to the fact that your blood slowly becomes acidic and your kidneys adjust to compensate, returning your blood to a normal pH balance. Acute respiratory acidosis comes on suddenly, leaving the kidneys no time to adjust. Those with chronic respiratory acidosis may experience acute respiratory acidosis due to another illness that causes the condition to worsen. Diagnosis of respiratory acidosis A complete physical examination Continue reading >>

Merck And The Merck Manuals

Merck And The Merck Manuals

Acidosis is caused by an overproduction of acid in the blood or an excessive loss of bicarbonate from the blood (metabolic acidosis) or by a buildup of carbon dioxide in the blood that results from poor lung function or depressed breathing (respiratory acidosis). If an increase in acid overwhelms the body's acid-base control systems, the blood will become acidic. As blood pH drops (becomes more acidic), the parts of the brain that regulate breathing are stimulated to produce faster and deeper breathing (respiratory compensation). Breathing faster and deeper increases the amount of carbon dioxide exhaled. The kidneys also try to compensate by excreting more acid in the urine. However, both mechanisms can be overwhelmed if the body continues to produce too much acid, leading to severe acidosis and eventually heart problems and coma. The acidity or alkalinity of any solution, including blood, is indicated on the pH scale. Metabolic acidosis develops when the amount of acid in the body is increased through ingestion of a substance that is, or can be broken down (metabolized) to, an acid—such as wood alcohol (methanol), antifreeze (ethylene glycol), or large doses of aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid). Metabolic acidosis can also occur as a result of abnormal metabolism. The body produces excess acid in the advanced stages of shock and in poorly controlled type 1 diabetes mellitus (diabetic ketoacidosis). Even the production of normal amounts of acid may lead to acidosis when the kidneys are not functioning normally and are therefore not able to excrete sufficient amounts of acid in the urine. Major Causes of Metabolic Acidosis Diabetic ketoacidosis (buildup of ketoacids) Drugs and substances such as acetazolamide, alcohols, and aspirin Lactic acidosis (buildup of lactic acid Continue reading >>

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