Why Are Only Certain Organs Damaged?
Copyright 1996 by Diabetes Services, Inc. Cell health depends on a steady supply of fuel from glucose and free fatty acids. These two major fuels are both regulated by insulin released directly into the blood from beta cells in the pancreas. From the blood, an insulin molecule crosses the blood vessel wall and attaches to an insulin receptor on the outer wall of a muscle, liver or fat cell. This attachment triggers the movement of glucose into the interior of the cell, where it can be converted into energy for metabolism, repair and defense. In contrast to the complicated transport system for glucose, and to the chagrin of many, fat moves easily across cell membranes. If insulin levels are too low, less glucose enters cells, but more glucose is released by the liver and more fat is released from fat cells. So a low insulin level causes not only a high blood sugar but it also causes more fat to enter the blood. Cells in the muscle, liver, and fat need insulin to receive glucose. The first group of cells that need insulin, those in muscle, liver, and fat, do not become exposed to high internal glucose levels when the blood sugars are high and insulin levels are low. The lack of insulin slows the movement of glucose into these cells, and probably spares them from damage when blood sugars are high. However, other cells such as those in the brain, nervous system, heart, blood vessels and kidneys pick up glucose directly from the blood without using insulin. These cells, except the brain, are more prone to damage from high blood sugars because they become exposed to high internal levels of glucose. This is one reason why damage tends to occur in these areas of the body, such as in nerve and kidney cells, and in small blood vessels like those in the eyes. They always have the Continue reading >>
Diabetes Prescription Insulin Medications (cont.)
font size A A A Previous 1 2 3 4 5 Next What are the side effects of the diabetes drug insulin? The main side effects of insulin have to do with taking too little or too much of the drug. The former can result in high blood sugar, or hyperglycemia. A person with diabetes who has hyperglycemia frequently or for long periods of time may suffer damage to the blood vessels, nerves, and organs. In a worst-case scenario, hyperglycemia can lead to diabetic ketoacidosis, a potentially life-threatening condition. Loss of appetite, thirst, flushing, drowsiness, and a fruity odor on the breath are the first signs of diabetic ketoacidosis. Low blood sugar, or hypoglycemia can result from taking too much insulin, although missing meals and exercising excessively can also bring it on. This, too, can be a life-threatening. Initial signs of hypoglycemia include dizziness, sweating, tremor, confusion, and hunger. It's important to intervene before symptoms progress. High doses of insulin can lower levels of potassium. If potassium gets too low, it can cause muscle aches or weakness, abnormal heart rhythms and even death. Other side effects of insulin include break down of fat at the injection site, the injection site might be depressed or raised, and allergic reactions, which can be local or involve the entire body. The latter may be life-threatening. lower your blood sugar Amputations. INVOKANA® may increase your risk of lower-limb amputations. Amputations mainly involve removal of the toe or part of the foot; however, amputations involving the leg, below and above the knee, have also occurred. Some people had more than one amputation, some on both sides of the body. You may be at a higher risk of lower-limb amputation if you: have a history of amputation, have heart disease or are at Continue reading >>
The Effects Of Diabetes On Your Body
When you hear the word “diabetes,” your first thought is likely about high blood sugar. Blood sugar is an often-underestimated component of your health. When it’s out of whack over a long period of time, it could develop into diabetes. Diabetes affects your body’s ability to produce or use insulin, a hormone that allows your body to turn glucose (sugar) into energy. Here’s what symptoms may occur to your body when diabetes takes effect. Diabetes can be effectively managed when caught early. However, when left untreated, it can lead to potential complications that include heart disease, stroke, kidney damage, and nerve damage. Normally after you eat or drink, your body will break down sugars from your food and use them for energy in your cells. To accomplish this, your pancreas needs to produce a hormone called insulin. Insulin is what facilitates the process of pulling sugar from the blood and putting it in the cells for use, or energy. If you have diabetes, your pancreas either produces too little insulin or none at all. The insulin can’t be used effectively. This allows blood glucose levels to rise while the rest of your cells are deprived of much-needed energy. This can lead to a wide variety of problems affecting nearly every major body system. The effects of diabetes on your body also depends on the type you have. There are two main types of diabetes: type 1 and type 2. Type 1, also called juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, is an immune system disorder. Your own immune system attacks the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, destroying your body’s ability to make insulin. With type 1 diabetes, you must take insulin to live. Most people are diagnosed as a child or young adult. Type 2 is related to insulin resistance. It used to occur i Continue reading >>
Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)
Tweet Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a dangerous complication faced by people with diabetes which happens when the body starts running out of insulin. DKA is most commonly associated with type 1 diabetes, however, people with type 2 diabetes that produce very little of their own insulin may also be affected. Ketoacidosis is a serious short term complication which can result in coma or even death if it is not treated quickly. Read about Diabetes and Ketones What is diabetic ketoacidosis? DKA occurs when the body has insufficient insulin to allow enough glucose to enter cells, and so the body switches to burning fatty acids and producing acidic ketone bodies. A high level of ketone bodies in the blood can cause particularly severe illness. Symptoms of DKA Diabetic ketoacidosis may itself be the symptom of undiagnosed type 1 diabetes. Typical symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis include: Vomiting Dehydration An unusual smell on the breath –sometimes compared to the smell of pear drops Deep laboured breathing (called kussmaul breathing) or hyperventilation Rapid heartbeat Confusion and disorientation Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis usually evolve over a 24 hour period if blood glucose levels become and remain too high (hyperglycemia). Causes and risk factors for diabetic ketoacidosis As noted above, DKA is caused by the body having too little insulin to allow cells to take in glucose for energy. This may happen for a number of reasons including: Having blood glucose levels consistently over 15 mmol/l Missing insulin injections If a fault has developed in your insulin pen or insulin pump As a result of illness or infections High or prolonged levels of stress Excessive alcohol consumption DKA may also occur prior to a diagnosis of type 1 diabetes. Ketoacidosis can occasional Continue reading >>
Pathophysiology Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis
Diabetic ketoacidosis is one of the potentially life-threatening acute complications of diabetes mellitus. In the past, diabetic ketoacidosis was considered as the hallmark of Type I diabetes, but current data show that it can be also diagnosed in patients with type II diabetes mellitus. It is often seen among patients who are poorly compliant to insulin administration during an acute illness. It is commonly precipitated by an acute stressful event such as the development of infection leading to overt sepsis, organ infarction such as stroke and heart attack, burns, pregnancy or intake of drugs that affect carbohydrate metabolism such as corticosteroids, anti-hypertensives, loop diuretics, alcohol, cocaine, and ecstasy. The presence of these stressful conditions incite the release of counter-regulatory hormones such as glucagon, catecholamines and growth hormone. These hormones induce the mobilization of energy stores of fat, glycogen and protein. The net effect of which is the production of glucose. As a result of absent or deficient insulin release, diabetic ketoacidosis present with the following metabolic derangements: profound hyperglycemia, hyperketonemiaand metabolic acidosis. The production of ketones outweighs its excretion by the kidneys. This results in further reduction of systemic insulin, elevated concentrations of glucagon, cortisol, growth hormone and catecholamine. In peripheral tissues, such as the liver, lipolysis occurs to free fatty acids, resulting in further production of excess ketones. Thereby, causing ketosis and metabolic acidosis. Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis usually develop within 24 hours. Gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea and vomiting are very prominent. If these symptoms are present in diabetics, investigation for diabetic keto Continue reading >>
> Hyperglycemia And Diabetic Ketoacidosis
When blood glucose levels (also called blood sugar levels) are too high, it's called hyperglycemia. Glucose is a sugar that comes from foods, and is formed and stored inside the body. It's the main source of energy for the body's cells and is carried to each through the bloodstream. But even though we need glucose for energy, too much glucose in the blood can be unhealthy. Hyperglycemia is the hallmark of diabetes — it happens when the body either can't make insulin (type 1 diabetes) or can't respond to insulin properly (type 2 diabetes). The body needs insulin so glucose in the blood can enter the cells to be used for energy. In people who have developed diabetes, glucose builds up in the blood, resulting in hyperglycemia. If it's not treated, hyperglycemia can cause serious health problems. Too much sugar in the bloodstream for long periods of time can damage the vessels that supply blood to vital organs. And, too much sugar in the bloodstream can cause other types of damage to body tissues, which can increase the risk of heart disease and stroke, kidney disease, vision problems, and nerve problems in people with diabetes. These problems don't usually show up in kids or teens with diabetes who have had the disease for only a few years. However, they can happen in adulthood in some people, particularly if they haven't managed or controlled their diabetes properly. Blood sugar levels are considered high when they're above someone's target range. The diabetes health care team will let you know what your child's target blood sugar levels are, which will vary based on factors like your child's age. A major goal in controlling diabetes is to keep blood sugar levels as close to the desired range as possible. It's a three-way balancing act of: diabetes medicines (such as in Continue reading >>
Excess ketones are dangerous for someone with diabetes... Low insulin, combined with relatively normal glucagon and epinephrine levels, causes fat to be released from fat cells, which then turns into ketones. Excess formation of ketones is dangerous and is a medical emergency In a person without diabetes, ketone production is the body’s normal adaptation to starvation. Blood sugar levels never get too high, because the production is regulated by just the right balance of insulin, glucagon and other hormones. However, in an individual with diabetes, dangerous and life-threatening levels of ketones can develop. What are ketones and why do I need to know about them? Ketones and ketoacids are alternative fuels for the body that are made when glucose is in short supply. They are made in the liver from the breakdown of fats. Ketones are formed when there is not enough sugar or glucose to supply the body’s fuel needs. This occurs overnight, and during dieting or fasting. During these periods, insulin levels are low, but glucagon and epinephrine levels are relatively normal. This combination of low insulin, and relatively normal glucagon and epinephrine levels causes fat to be released from the fat cells. The fats travel through the blood circulation to reach the liver where they are processed into ketone units. The ketone units then circulate back into the blood stream and are picked up by the muscle and other tissues to fuel your body’s metabolism. In a person without diabetes, ketone production is the body’s normal adaptation to starvation. Blood sugar levels never get too high, because the production is regulated by just the right balance of insulin, glucagon and other hormones. However, in an individual with diabetes, dangerous and life-threatening levels of ketone Continue reading >>
Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Patho
pathophysiology ketogenesis due to insulin deficiency leads to increased serum levels of ketones anad ketonuria acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate; ketone bodies produced by the liver, organic acids that cause metabolic acidosis respiration partially compensates; reduces pCO2, when pH < 7.2, deep rapid respirations (Kussmaul breathing) acetone; minor product of ketogenesis, can smell fruity on breath of ketoacidosis patients elevated anion gap Methanol intoxication Uremic acidosis Diabetic ketoacidosis Paraldehyde ingestions Intoxicants (salicyclate, ethylene glycol, nipride, epinephrine, norepinephrine) Lactic acidosis (drug induced; didanosine, iron, isoniazid, metformin, zidovudine) Ethanol ketoacidosis Severe renal failure starvation Blood glucose regulation (6) 1. When blood glucose levels rise above a set point, 2. the pancreas secretes insulin into the blood. 3. Insulin stimulates liver and muscle cells to make glycogen, dropping blood glucose levels. 4. When glucose levels drop below a set point, 5. the pancreas secretes glucagon into the blood. 6. Glucagon promotes the breakdown of glycogen and the release of glucose into the blood. (The pancreas signals distant cells to regulate levels in the blood = endocrine function.) Insulin and Glucagon (Regulation) (10) 1. High blood glucose 2. Beta cells 3. Insulin 4. Glucose enters cell 5. Blood glucose lowered 6. Low blood glucose 7. Alpha cells 8. Glucagon 9. Liver releases glucose from glycogen 10. Blood glucose raised What is the manifestations (symptoms) of Type 1? (10) 1. Extreme thirst 2. Frequent urination 3. Drowsiness, lethargy 4. Sugar in urine 5. Sudden vision change 6. Increased appetite 7. Sudden weight loss 8. Fruity, sweet, or wine like odor on breath 9. Heavy, laboured breathing 10. Stupor, unconscious Continue reading >>
Ketoacidosis (dka) Vs Ketosis What’s The Difference?
Although ketosis and ketoacidosis may sound the same, they are two distinct things. We are going to be talking about the difference between ketoacidosis and ketosis and what makes the two diverse from one another. In order to provide a good explanation of what these conditions are and how they affect the body, we must talk about their main common denominator, the ketones. These are organic compounds that the body will provide when it starts to burn stored fat instead of burning glucose or sugar when it requires energy. What is Ketoacidosis? DKA applies to diabetic ketoacidosis and is a complication of type 1 diabetes. Ketoacidosis is a very dangerous condition that makes it difficult for your body to be able to produce a good level of insulin. Your levels of ketones can rise to very dangerous levels, which will also increase your blood sugar. The ketones create a very acidic environment inside your body, and the function of certain organs will be affected severely. It becomes a life-threatening situation when presented with high levels of ketones and excess blood sugar. Anyone not given proper treatment for DKA could end up in a coma and even die. The kidneys and liver are affected more than most other organs, and this can create a very serious health issue. Once a person develops what is known as diabetic ketoacidosis, they will show severe symptoms within as little as 24 hours. When a person has type one diabetes, they are in great danger of developing diabetic ketoacidosis. What is ketosis The best way to explain ketosis is to consider it a very mild form of ketoacidosis, and the truth is that this is not going to be harmful most of the time. In your lifestyle, if you’re on a ketogenic diet nutrition plan or any long-term low-carb diet, you might be experiencing ke Continue reading >>
Which Systems Of The Body Are Affected By Diabetes?
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder in which inadequate production of the hormone insulin or a resistance to its actions in the body can lead to high blood sugar levels. Insulin is needed to get sugar into cells of the body, where it is used for energy. When sugar cannot get into cells, it remains in the blood at high levels. Complications of diabetes arise from long-term exposure to high blood sugar. The cardiovascular, nervous, visual and urinary systems are most commonly affected by chronically high blood sugars. Video of the Day The cardiovascular system includes the heart and blood vessels. High blood sugar and increased blood fat levels commonly found in people with diabetes contribute to fatty deposits called plaques on the inner walls of blood vessels, causing inflammation. This leads to decreased blood flow and hardening of the blood vessels called atherosclerosis. High blood sugar also results in glycation, where sugars attach to proteins, making them sticky. This occurs on proteins found in blood vessels, also resulting in inflammation. When this occurs in the heart, it can lead to cardiovascular disease. According to a 2016 report from the American Heart Association, 68 percent of people with diabetes older than 65 die of heart disease. Nerve damage called diabetic neuropathy is common in people with diabetes. Symptoms typically appear after several years but may be present when diabetes is diagnosed, as the disease may have gone undetected for many years. Diabetic nerve damage known as peripheral neuropathy is most common in the legs and feet. According to a 2005 statement by the American Diabetes Association, up to 50 percent of people with diabetes have peripheral neuropathy. This typically starts as numbness or tingling that progresses to loss of p Continue reading >>
Problems From High Blood Sugar Levels
High blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia) occur when your blood sugar (also called glucose) is higher than your body needs to function normally. High blood sugar levels can cause both immediate and long-term problems. Immediate problems Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a life-threatening blood chemical (electrolyte) imbalance that develops in a person with diabetes when the cells do not get the sugar they need for energy. As a result, the body breaks down fat instead of glucose and produces and releases substances called ketones into the bloodstream. People with type 1 diabetes and some people with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk for DKA if they do not take enough insulin, have a severe infection or other illness, or become severely dehydrated. Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis include: Flushed, hot, dry skin. A strong, fruity breath odor. Loss of appetite, abdominal pain, and vomiting. Restlessness. Rapid, deep breathing. Confusion. Drowsiness or difficulty waking up. Young children may lack interest in their normal activities. Severe diabetic ketoacidosis can cause difficulty breathing, brain swelling (cerebral edema), coma, or death. Prompt medical evaluation and treatment are needed if symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis are present. you might like Treatment involves giving insulin and fluids through a vein and closely monitoring and replacing electrolytes. Long-term complications Your risk of complications increases if your blood sugar levels are often above your target level. Persistently high blood sugar can damage blood vessels and nerves. Damage to large blood vessels (macrovascular disease) can lead to a buildup of plaque, increasing your risk of coronary artery disease, heart attack, and stroke. Damage to small blood vessels (microvascular disease) can lead Continue reading >>
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Hyperglycemia And Diabetic Ketoacidosis
When blood glucose levels (also called blood sugar levels) are too high, it's called hyperglycemia. Glucose is a sugar that comes from foods, and is formed and stored inside the body. It's the main source of energy for the body's cells and is carried to each through the bloodstream. But even though we need glucose for energy, too much glucose in the blood can be unhealthy. Hyperglycemia is the hallmark of diabetes — it happens when the body either can't make insulin ( type 1 diabetes ) or can't respond to insulin properly ( type 2 diabetes ). The body needs insulin so glucose in the blood can enter the cells to be used for energy. In people who have developed diabetes, glucose builds up in the blood, resulting in hyperglycemia. If it's not treated, hyperglycemia can cause serious health problems. Too much sugar in the bloodstream for long periods of time can damage the vessels that supply blood to vital organs. And, too much sugar in the bloodstream can cause other types of damage to body tissues, which can increase the risk of heart disease and stroke, kidney disease, vision problems, and nerve problems in people with diabetes. These problems don't usually show up in kids or teens with diabetes who have had the disease for only a few years. However, they can happen in adulthood in some people, particularly if they haven't managed or controlled their diabetes properly. Blood sugar levels are considered high when they're above someone's target range. The diabetes health care team will let you know what your child's target blood sugar levels are, which will vary based on factors like your child's age. A major goal in controlling diabetes is to keep blood sugar levels as close to the desired range as possible. It's a three-way balancing act of: All of these need to be b Continue reading >>
As fat is broken down, acids called ketones build up in the blood and urine. In high levels, ketones are poisonous. This condition is known as ketoacidosis. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is sometimes the first sign of type 1 diabetes in people who have not yet been diagnosed. It can also occur in someone who has already been diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. Infection, injury, a serious illness, missing doses of insulin shots, or surgery can lead to DKA in people with type 1 diabetes. People with type 2 diabetes can also develop DKA, but it is less common. It is usually triggered by uncontrolled blood sugar, missing doses of medicines, or a severe illness. Continue reading >>
Print Overview Diabetic ketoacidosis is a serious complication of diabetes that occurs when your body produces high levels of blood acids called ketones. The condition develops when your body can't produce enough insulin. Insulin normally plays a key role in helping sugar (glucose) — a major source of energy for your muscles and other tissues — enter your cells. Without enough insulin, your body begins to break down fat as fuel. This process produces a buildup of acids in the bloodstream called ketones, eventually leading to diabetic ketoacidosis if untreated. If you have diabetes or you're at risk of diabetes, learn the warning signs of diabetic ketoacidosis — and know when to seek emergency care. Symptoms Diabetic ketoacidosis signs and symptoms often develop quickly, sometimes within 24 hours. For some, these signs and symptoms may be the first indication of having diabetes. You may notice: Excessive thirst Frequent urination Nausea and vomiting Abdominal pain Weakness or fatigue Shortness of breath Fruity-scented breath Confusion More-specific signs of diabetic ketoacidosis — which can be detected through home blood and urine testing kits — include: High blood sugar level (hyperglycemia) High ketone levels in your urine When to see a doctor If you feel ill or stressed or you've had a recent illness or injury, check your blood sugar level often. You might also try an over-the-counter urine ketones testing kit. Contact your doctor immediately if: You're vomiting and unable to tolerate food or liquid Your blood sugar level is higher than your target range and doesn't respond to home treatment Your urine ketone level is moderate or high Seek emergency care if: Your blood sugar level is consistently higher than 300 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL), or 16.7 mill Continue reading >>
Type 1 Diabetes Complications
Type 1 diabetes is complicated—and if you don’t manage it properly, there are complications, both short-term and long-term. “If you don’t manage it properly” is an important if statement: by carefully managing your blood glucose levels, you can stave off or prevent the short- and long-term complications. And if you’ve already developed diabetes complications, controlling your blood glucose levels can help you manage the symptoms and prevent further damage. Diabetes complications are all related to poor blood glucose control, so you must work carefully with your doctor and diabetes team to correctly manage your blood sugar (or your child’s blood sugar). Short-term Diabetes Complications Hypoglycemia: Hypoglycemia is low blood glucose (blood sugar). It develops when there’s too much insulin—meaning that you’ve taken (or given your child) too much insulin or that you haven’t properly planned insulin around meals or exercise. Other possible causes of hypoglycemia include certain medications (aspirin, for example, lowers the blood glucose level if you take a dose of more than 81mg) and alcohol (alcohol keeps the liver from releasing glucose). There are three levels of hypoglycemia, depending on how low the blood glucose level has dropped: mild, moderate, and severe. If you treat hypoglycemia when it’s in the mild or moderate stages, then you can prevent far more serious problems; severe hypoglycemia can cause a coma and even death (although very, very rarely). The signs and symptoms of low blood glucose are usually easy to recognize: Rapid heartbeat Sweating Paleness of skin Anxiety Numbness in fingers, toes, and lips Sleepiness Confusion Headache Slurred speech For more information about hypoglycemia and how to treat it, please read our article on hy Continue reading >>