What Happens To The Excess Food?
Thought this article would be fun to share. An oldie but goodie that I wrote up years ago. A fun little piece on digestion A look at a bite of pepperoni pizza to see what happens to its sugar, fat and protein. Open wide! Saliva contains enzymes that break any starch in the food down to sugar. This, along with any fat and water in the food, travel to the stomach, which churns them up. Pepsin (an enzyme that digests protein) and hydrochloric acid further break down the food, turning it into a substance called chyme. The mixture enters the duodenum, (the place where the gall bladder secretes its bile). This bile dissolves the fat in water, thinning it out and making it easier to absorb. Enzymes from the pancreas enter the duodenum and further break down the sugar, fat and protein. Now everything is dissolved and is in fluid form, so it is absorbed through the lining of the small bowel. Fat, sugar and protein wave good-bye to each other and go their separate ways. It also goes directly into the blood stream, and several different organs take the sugar they need as it passes by. Some is stored in the liver and muscle as glycogen to be used as energy. It also goes to the brain for its sole source of energy. Whatever is not stored as energy or immediately used and is left over is converted to fat and stored in fat cells with the excess fat above. First, it goes into the blood stream and travels to the liver. The liver burns some of the fat, converts some to other substances (one is cholesterol) and sends the rest to fat cells, where they wait until they are needed. It is broken down into building blocks known as peptides. Then, it is further broken down and it becomes amino acids. The amino acids are absorbed through the small intestines lining and enter the blood stream. Fro Continue reading >>
Does Carbohydrate Become Body Fat?
Is carbohydrate transformed into fat in the body? Ah, poor carbohydrates, maligned by diets such as Atkins and the ketogenic diet. However, carbohydrates are your bodys main source of energy in fact your muscles and brain cells prefer carbs more than other sources of energy (triglycerides and fat, for example). To answer your question: research completed over the last several decades suggests that if you are eating a diet that is appropriate for your levels of daily activity, little to no carbohydrate is converted to fat in your body. For most people (unless you have a metabolic disorder) when you eat carbs they are digested, broken down to glucose, and then transported to all the cells in your body. They are then metabolized and used to support cellular processes. If youre active and eating appropriately for your activity level, most of the carbs you consume are more or less burned immediately. There are two caveats here: first, if youre eating a lot more calories per day than you are burning, then yes, your liver will convert excess calories from carbohydrate into fats; second, not all carbs are created equal. If you consume too many calories from simple sugars like sucrose and fructose (think sugary sodas sweetened by sugar and high fructose corn syrup) then your body will more readily take some of those sugars and turn them into triglycerides (fat) in your liver. What happens to excess calories that come from carbs? The answer depends on several things: what kind of carbs you consumed, your genetics, as well as how many extra calories were talking about. For those who eat a well-balanced diet and have no metabolic disorders, excess dietary carbohydrates are converted by the liver into complex chains of glucose called glycogen. Glycogen is stored in liver and muscle Continue reading >>
The Conversion Of Carbohydrates To Triglycerides
The Conversion of Carbohydrates to Triglycerides Foods high in sugar and refined carbohydrates can raise triglycerides. 4 Can Fats Be Turned Into Glycogen for Muscle? Eating a diet high in simple carbohydrates can raise your level of triglyceridesfats carried in the blood and stored in fat cells. The body turns carbohydrates into glucose to use for fuel, but will store excess glucose as fat. High levels of triglycerides can increase your risk for heart disease. Triglycerides are fats. You eat triglycerides in the form of foods such as butters and oil, but your body also makes triglycerides from excess calories, especially from alcohol or from the simple carbohydrates found in sugar-rich foods. Triglycerides help transport cholesterol, which is essential for brain and nerve function, to your cells. Trigylcerides also carry glucose, or blood sugar, to your fat cells. Dietary carbohydrates fall into two categories: simple carbohydrates, or sugars, and complex carbohydrates, or starch and fiber. Most of the simple carbohydrates in the American diet come from sugar, or sucrose, and high-fructose corn syrup, used to sweeten a wide variety of foods. Fruit juices also contribute simple sugars. Whole fruit contains simple sugars, but also contains fiber, which helps slow down the digestion of glucose. All carbohydrates supply the body with glucose, which is used for immediate energy needs and stored as glycogen in the liver and muscle cells. Eating too many simple carbohydrates is harmful, according to the Cleveland Clinic. Your body digests simple sugars and refined carbohydrates such as white rice and white flour rapidly, causing a spike in blood glucose. This causes the pancreas to release more insulin. When your body has more glucose than it needs for energy and has reached Continue reading >>
Utilization Of Dietary Glucose In The Metabolic Syndrome
Utilization of dietary glucose in the metabolic syndrome 1Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Faculty of Biology, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain 2CIBER Obesity and Nutrition, Institute of Health Carlos III, Spain 1Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Faculty of Biology, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain 2CIBER Obesity and Nutrition, Institute of Health Carlos III, Spain Received 2011 Sep 20; Accepted 2011 Oct 26. Copyright 2011 Alemany; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. This review is focused on the fate of dietary glucose under conditions of chronically high energy (largely fat) intake, evolving into the metabolic syndrome. We are adapted to carbohydrate-rich diets similar to those of our ancestors. Glucose is the main energy staple, but fats are our main energy reserves. Starvation drastically reduces glucose availability, forcing the body to shift to fatty acids as main energy substrate, sparing glucose and amino acids. We are not prepared for excess dietary energy, our main defenses being decreased food intake and increased energy expenditure, largely enhanced metabolic activity and thermogenesis. High lipid availability is a powerful factor decreasing glucose and amino acid oxidation. Present-day diets are often hyperenergetic, high on lipids, with abundant protein and limited amounts of starchy carbohydrates. Dietary lipids favor their metabolic processing, saving glucose, which additionally spares amino acids. The glucose excess elicits hyperinsulinemia, wh Continue reading >>
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- Ultraviolet Radiation Suppresses Obesity and Symptoms of Metabolic Syndrome Independently of Vitamin D in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet
How Fat Cells Work
In the last section, we learned how fat in the body is broken down and rebuilt into chylomicrons, which enter the bloodstream by way of the lymphatic system. Chylomicrons do not last long in the bloodstream -- only about eight minutes -- because enzymes called lipoprotein lipases break the fats into fatty acids. Lipoprotein lipases are found in the walls of blood vessels in fat tissue, muscle tissue and heart muscle. Insulin When you eat a candy bar or a meal, the presence of glucose, amino acids or fatty acids in the intestine stimulates the pancreas to secrete a hormone called insulin. Insulin acts on many cells in your body, especially those in the liver, muscle and fat tissue. Insulin tells the cells to do the following: The activity of lipoprotein lipases depends upon the levels of insulin in the body. If insulin is high, then the lipases are highly active; if insulin is low, the lipases are inactive. The fatty acids are then absorbed from the blood into fat cells, muscle cells and liver cells. In these cells, under stimulation by insulin, fatty acids are made into fat molecules and stored as fat droplets. It is also possible for fat cells to take up glucose and amino acids, which have been absorbed into the bloodstream after a meal, and convert those into fat molecules. The conversion of carbohydrates or protein into fat is 10 times less efficient than simply storing fat in a fat cell, but the body can do it. If you have 100 extra calories in fat (about 11 grams) floating in your bloodstream, fat cells can store it using only 2.5 calories of energy. On the other hand, if you have 100 extra calories in glucose (about 25 grams) floating in your bloodstream, it takes 23 calories of energy to convert the glucose into fat and then store it. Given a choice, a fat cell w Continue reading >>
4 Ways Sugar Can Make You Fat
Different foods affect the body in different ways and sugar is uniquely fattening. Sugar (sucrose) and high fructose corn syrup contain two molecules: glucose and fructose. Glucose is absolutely vital to life and is an integral part of our metabolism. Our bodies produce it and we have a constant reservoir of it in the bloodstream. Every cell in the body can use glucose for energy. If we don't get glucose from the diet, our bodies produce what we need out of proteins and fats. Fructose, however, is very different. This molecule is not a natural part of metabolism and humans do not produce it. In fact, very few cells in the body can make use of it except liver cells. When we eat a lot of sugar, most of the fructose gets metabolized by the liver. There it gets turned into fat, which is then secreted into the blood. Have you ever heard of the hormone insulin? It is one of the key hormones that regulate human metabolism and energy use. Insulin is secreted by the pancreas, then travels in the blood to peripheral cells like muscle cells. Insulin sends a signal to these cells that they should put transporters for glucose onto their surface, thereby allowing glucose to get into the cells where it can be used. When we eat a high carb meal, glucose levels go up. Excess glucose is toxic so insulin rapidly goes up in order to get the glucose out of the bloodstream and into the cells. If we didn't have insulin or it wasn't functioning correctly, blood glucose would reach toxic levels. In healthy people, this mechanism works very well and enables us to eat meals that are high in carbohydrates without our blood glucose levels becoming too high. However, this mechanism tends to break. Cells become resistant to the effects of insulin, which makes the pancreas have to secrete even more to Continue reading >>
Module 5 Flashcards | Quizlet
State the Big Ideas for Blood Sugar Regulation. #1) The primary organs that regulate blood sugar are: pancreas, liver, adrenals. #2) Never before in the history of mankind, have we had an emergency to lower blood sugar. (That is, until we started consuming large amounts of refined carbs/sugars). #3) Americans are their bodies with sugar and refined carbohydrates. (Average is at least 140 pounds of refined sugar in a year) #4) Reducing insulin surges through adjusting macronutrients ratios will help the body utilize for fats and ketones for energy rather than glucose. Describe the interaction between the pancreas, liver, and adrenals when regulating blood sugar. The pancreas produces insulin and glucagon. Insulin stimulates the uptake of glucose into cells. Insulin stimulates the liver to convert glucose to glycogen (glycogenesis) and store it. The alpha cells of the pancreas produce glucagon, it helps maintain blood glucose levels in between meals by increasing blood glucose and retuning it to normal levels. The liver receives the signal from the hormone glucagon and in two ways "makes sugar" 1. Glucagon promotes the breakdown of glycogen to glucose, which is released into circulation. (glycogenolysis) 2. Glucagon also signal for another activity in our liver that will generate glucose. I this process, amino acids, from our circulation will be taken up by our liber and used to make glucose. (gluconeogenesis). The adrenals produce cortisol. Cortisol increases blood glucose levels by telling the body to breakdown structures to release fat and protein into the blood. The fat and protein is then converted into glucose through gluconeogenesis. The adrenals produce adrenaline (epinephrine). Adrenalin stimulates liver to convert glycogen back to glucose (glycogenolysis) for r Continue reading >>
Sugarscience.ucsf.edu | Metabolizing Sugar
A broad term meaning any bodily process in which the liver is injured or does not work as it is supposed to. In this website we focus on liver diseases in which the diet hurts the liver Usually shortened to just diabetes. Sometimes called sugar diabetes. Look at Type 1 Diabetes and Type 2 Diabetes for more information A type of fat in our body and our food. Three fatty acids are combined with another chemical called glycerol to form a triglyceride. Sugars are chemicals made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen found which taste sweet and are found in food. They are an important part of what we eat and drink and of our bodies. On this site, sugar is used to mean simple sugars (monosaccharides) like fructose or glucose, and disaccharides like table sugar (sucrose). Sucrose is two simple sugars stuck together for example (see Table sugar). Sugars are a type of carbohydrate. Carbohydrates are energy sources for our bodies Sugars enter the blood stream very quickly after being eaten. One of the three major groups of nutrients we eat. Much of this website is related to problems associated with too much fat storage in the body. Each gram of fat produces 9 calories of energy if burned by the body as fuel. Fat can be stored in many places in the body. We generally think of fat as under the skin (subcutaneous), but the fat that may be most damaging to us is the fat stored in the liver and around the organs of the abdomen (intrahepatic and visceral or abdominal or intra-abdominal) A sugar that we eat. Also called fruit sugar. Most fructose comes in sucrose (table sugar, cane sugar, beet sugar), or from high-fructose corn syrup. Glucose is a sugar we eat. It is found in starch. It is the main fuel for our bodies. It is the sugar measured when we have a blood test to measure the blood s Continue reading >>
How Does Fat Get Converted To Calories?
Opinions expressed by Forbes Contributors are their own. Answer by Bart Loews , passionate exercise enthusiast, on Quora : How is fat being converted into calories at cellular level? First lets get some term clarification: A calorie is a measure of energy, specifically heat. Its a measurement of an indirect use of your biological fuels. Your body doesnt really convert things to calories, it converts them to ATP which is used as energy. Calories are, sadly, the best way we have to measure this process.Ill assume that the point of this question is: How does fat turn into energy? Fat is a term used interchangeably with lipids and with adipose tissue. Lipids are molecules that consist of a hydrophobic tail with a hydrophilic head. Because of this polarized set up, they are able to cluster together to form barriers between water and non water, like bubbles. Your cell membranes are composed of lipids. Adipose tissue is what makes you fat. Adipose tissue stores lipids in the form of triglycerides or 3 fatty acid chains with a glycerol backbone. These triglycerides are what is broken down to be used for energy. Adipose tissue is made up of collections of adipocytes or fat cells. Adipose tissue is used for insulation, cushioning, and energy storage. You get a particular number of fat cells (between 30 and 300 billion) during adolescence and childhood. You don't lose them naturally, but you can gain more if they grow more than 4 fold from their original size. They grow and shrink as they take on more energy. Fat cells have a few other roles in the endocrine system, they release the hormone, Leptin when they receive energy from insulin. Leptin signals to your body that you're full. The more fat cells you have, the more leptin is released. It's been found that obese people are lep Continue reading >>
When Does Glucose Convert To Fat?
Despite the fact that eating a jelly doughnut seems to deposit fat directly on your hips, converting sugar to fat is actually a relatively complex chemical process. Sugar conversion to fat storage depends not only upon the type of foods you eat, but how much energy your body needs at the time you eat it. Video of the Day Your body converts excess dietary glucose into fat through the process of fatty acid synthesis. Fatty acids are required in order for your body to function properly, playing particularly important roles in proper brain functioning. There are two kinds of fatty acids; essential fatty acids and nonessential fatty acids. Essential fatty acids refer to fatty acids you must eat from your diet, as your body cannot make them. Nonessential fatty acids are made through the process of fatty acid synthesis. Fatty Acid Synthesis Fatty acids are long organic compounds having an acid group at one end and a methyl group at the other end. The location of their first double bond dictates whether they are in the omega 3, 6, or 9 fatty acid family. Fatty acid synthesis takes place in the cytoplasm of cells and requires some energy input. In other words, your body actually has to expend some energy in order to store fat. Glucose is a six-carbon sugar molecule. Your body first converts this molecule into two three-carbon pyruvate molecules through the process of glycolysis and then into acetyl CoA. When your body requires immediate energy, acetyl CoA enters the Citric Acid Cycle creating energy molecules in the form of ATP. When glucose intake exceeds your body's energy needs--for example, you eat an ice-cream sundae and then go relax on the sofa for five hours--your body has no need to create more energy molecules. Therefore, acetyl CoA begins the process of fatty acid syn Continue reading >>
Ingredients The Way Mother Nature Intends You To Have Them
* Sugar is metabolized in your body both as a carbohydrate and a fat. Glucose is metabolized as a carbohydrate into your blood stream but then it is stored as fat. Fructose is metabolized in your liver and it too is turned into a fat. This is why sugar makes us fat * The average person in North America eats 167 grams of sugar per day, up from an average of 6 grams per day 100 years ago. My Normal Weight recommends no more than 50 grams per day, or 30 grams if you are trying to lose weight, with none from refined sugar * Every time we eat sugar or carbohydrates, we spike our insulin. Continuous insulin spiking leads to insulin resistance which leads to leptin resistance which leads to type II diabetes. Do you know how much sugar you are eating? Conclusion: sugar is a definite smoking gun when it comes to your health. It is also very addictive and pleasing to our palate making it difficult to say no, but you will be far healthier if you do. How Sugar is Metabolized, and Why YOU Should Care Sugar is metabolized in your body both as a carbohydrate and as a fat. Once in your digestive tract, sugar hydrolyzes into fructose and glucose. Glucose starts out as a carbohydrate, but is quickly stored as a fat. Fructose is metabolized through your liver, and mostly converted to a fat. Glucose Once glucose is in your digestive tract, a small portion is stored as glycogen in your muscles and liver. This is what our body draws on for it's short term energy needs. The remainder of the glucose, upwards of 80%, goes to the blood stream to avail itself to any and all cells in your body. Every cell requires glucose to survive, which is why our blood sugar levels are so important. I don't know why our bodies are made the way they are, but too high of blood sugar and our bodies become hypergl Continue reading >>
How Your Body Turns Carbohydrates Into Energy
How Your Body Turns Carbohydrates into Energy How Your Body Turns Carbohydrates into Energy How Your Body Turns Carbohydrates into Energy A diet that provides sufficient amounts of carbohydrates keeps your body from eating its own muscles. Carbohydrates are an essential part of a healthy diet because your body converts them to glucose and your body runs on glucose. Proteins, fats, and alcohol (as in beer, wine, and spirits) also provide energy in the form of calories. And protein does give you glucose, but it takes a long time, relatively speaking, for your body to get it. When you eat carbohydrates, your pancreas secretes insulin, the hormone that enables you to digest starches and sugars. This release of insulin is sometimes called an insulin spike. Eating simple carbohydrates such as sucrose provokes higher insulin secretion than eating complex carbohydrates such as starch. If you have a metabolic disorder such as diabetes that keeps you from producing enough insulin, you must be careful not to take in more carbs than you can digest. Unmetabolized sugars circulating through your blood can make you dizzy and maybe even trip you into a diabetic coma. Some perfectly healthful foods such as carrots, potatoes, and white bread have more simple carbs than others, such as apples, lentils, peanuts, and whole wheat bread. The Glycemic Index, developed at the University of Toronto in 1981, gives you a handle on this by ranking foods according to how quickly they affect blood sugar levels when compared to glucose (the form of sugar your body uses as energy), the glycemic indicator par excellence. Most people who dont have a metabolic disorder (such as diabetes) that interferes with the ability to digest carbs can metabolize even very large amounts of carbohydrate foods easily. Continue reading >>
Converting Carbohydrates To Triglycerides
Consumers are inundated with diet solutions on a daily basis. High protein, low fat, non-impact carbohydrates, and other marketing “adjectives” are abundant within food manufacturing advertising. Of all the food descriptors, the most common ones individuals look for are “fat free” or “low fat”. Food and snack companies have found the low fat food market to be financially lucrative. The tie between fat intake, weight gain, and health risks has been well documented. The dietary guidelines suggest to keep fat intake to no more than 30% of the total diet and to consume foods low in saturated and trans fatty acids. But, this does not mean that we can consume as much fat free food as we want: “Fat free does not mean calorie free.” In many cases the foods that are low in fat have a large amount of carbohydrates. Carbohydrate intake, like any nutrient, can lead to adverse affects when over consumed. Carbohydrates are a necessary macronutrient, vital for maintenance of the nervous system and energy for physical activity. However, if consumed in amounts greater than 55% to 65% of total caloric intake as recommended by the American Heart Association can cause an increase in health risks. According to the World Health Organization the Upper Limit for carbohydrates for average people is 60% of the total dietary intake. Carbohydrates are formed in plants where carbons are bonded with oxygen and hydrogen to form chains of varying complexity. The complexity of the chains ultimately determines the carbohydrate classification and how they will digest and be absorbed in the body. Mono-and disaccharides are classified as simple carbohydrates, whereas polysaccharides (starch and fiber) are classified as complex. All carbohydrates are broken down into monosaccharides before b Continue reading >>
What Is Glucose?
Glucose comes from the Greek word for "sweet." It's a type of sugar you get from foods you eat, and your body uses it for energy. As it travels through your bloodstream to your cells, it's called blood glucose or blood sugar. Insulin is a hormone that moves glucose from your blood into the cells for energy and storage. People with diabetes have higher-than-normal levels in their blood. Either they don't have enough insulin to move it through or their cells don't respond to insulin as well as they should. High blood glucose for a long period of time can damage your kidneys, eyes, and other organs. How Your Body Makes Glucose It mainly comes from foods rich in carbohydrates, like bread, potatoes, and fruit. As you eat, food travels down your esophagus to your stomach. There, acids and enzymes break it down into tiny pieces. During that process, glucose is released. It goes into your intestines where it's absorbed. From there, it passes into your bloodstream. Once in the blood, insulin helps glucose get to your cells. Energy and Storage Your body is designed to keep the level of glucose in your blood constant. Beta cells in your pancreas monitor your blood sugar level every few seconds. When your blood glucose rises after you eat, the beta cells release insulin into your bloodstream. Insulin acts like a key, unlocking muscle, fat, and liver cells so glucose can get inside them. Most of the cells in your body use glucose along with amino acids (the building blocks of protein) and fats for energy. But it's the main source of fuel for your brain. Nerve cells and chemical messengers there need it to help them process information. Without it, your brain wouldn't be able to work well. After your body has used the energy it needs, the leftover glucose is stored in little bundles Continue reading >>
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How Are Carbohydrates Converted Into Fat Deposits?
How are carbohydrates converted into fat deposits? There are two ways that carbohydrates and body fat interact. One is directly by turning into body fat, and the other is via insulin. Turning into body fat is like adding fat into the fat cells, whereas carbohydrates spiking insulin does not add anything to fat cells per se, but hinders the release. The former is like a + equation, where the latter is a double negative which results in something that seems positive. There is a process called de novo lipogenesis (literally: Creation of fat from non-fat sources) that can occur in the body. This process turns glucose into lipids, which are then stored as body fat. This process is normally quite inefficient in the body  , which suggests that carbohydrates cannot be stored as fat to a high degree. The process can be upregulated (enhanced) if dietary fat comprised almost none of the diet (lesser than 10%, as a rough estimate), if carbohydrate intake is excessively high for a period of a few days, or if one follows an obesogenic diet (diet that is likely to make you fat) for a prolonged period of time.    Carbohydrates spike insulin , which is a hormone that mediates glucose metabolism. Insulin is not good or bad, insulin is insulin. It can be thought of as a lever that switches the body from fat burning mode into carbohydrate burning mode. This allows carbohydrates (and glycogen) to be burnt at a greater rate, but directly reduces the ability of fat to be lost. Overall metabolic rate (calories burnt over the course of a day) does not change significantly, just where the calories come from. When insulin is spiked in presence of ingested dietary fat, the dietary fat can go into body fat stores and not be released since glucose from glycogen is being used in place of Continue reading >>