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What Makes Glucose In The Cell?

Role Of Glucose In Cellular Respiration

Role Of Glucose In Cellular Respiration

This lesson is on the role of glucose in cellular respiration. In this lesson, we'll explain what cellular respiration is and what we need to start with to get the end products. We'll specifically look at the importance of glucose in this process. What Is Cellular Respiration? Sugar is everywhere in our world, from packaged foods in our diet, like tomato sauce, to homemade baked goods, like pies. In fact, sugar is even the main molecule in fruits and vegetables. The simplest form of sugar is called glucose. Glucose is getting a bad rap lately and many people are cutting sugar out from their diet entirely. However, glucose is the main molecule our bodies use for energy and we cannot survive without it. The process of using glucose to make energy is called cellular respiration. The reactants, or what we start with, in cellular respiration are glucose and oxygen. We get oxygen from breathing in air. Our bodies do cellular respiration to make energy, which is stored as ATP, and carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is a waste product, meaning our bodies don't want it, so we get rid of it through exhaling. To start the process of cellular respiration, we need to get glucose into our cells. The first step is to eat a carbohydrate-rich food, made of glucose. Let's say we eat a cookie. That cookie travels through our digestive system, where it is broken down and absorbed into the blood. The glucose then travels to our cells, where it is let inside. Once inside, the cells use various enzymes, or small proteins that speed up chemical reactions, to change glucose into different molecules. The goal of this process is to release the energy stored in the bonds of atoms that make up glucose. Let's examine each of the steps in cellular respiration next. Steps of Cellular Respiration There are Continue reading >>

Bbc Bitesize - Ks3 Biology - Respiration - Revision 1

Bbc Bitesize - Ks3 Biology - Respiration - Revision 1

is a chemical reaction that happens in all living cells, including plant cells and animal cells. It is the way that energy is released from glucose so that all the other chemical processes needed for life can happen. Do not confuse respiration with breathing (which is properly called ventilation). Glucose and oxygen react together in cells to produce carbon dioxide and water and releases energy. The reaction is called aerobic respiration because oxygen from the air is needed for it to work. Here is the word equation for aerobic respiration: glucose + oxygen carbon dioxide + water Energy is released in the reaction. The mitochondria , found in the cell cytoplasm, are where most respiration happens. During hard exercise, not enough oxygen can reach your muscle cells. So, aerobic respiration is replaced with anaerobic respiration . This does not need oxygen for it to happen. Here is the word equation for anaerobic respiration in humans: Anaerobic respiration produces much less energy than aerobic respiration. The waste product, lactic acid , builds up in the muscles causing pain and tiredness . This leads to cramp. Lactic acid is only broken down when you start aerobic respiration again. Anaerobic respiration happens in microorganisms such as bacteria because they need to release energy from glucose too. Yeast, which are unicellular fungi, can carry out an anaerobic process called fermentation . Here is the word equation for fermentation: The ethanol (alcohol) is useful for brewers and wine-makers, and the carbon dioxide is useful to bakers because it helps their bread rise. Bang Goes the Theory presenters Dallas and Liz undergo endurance tests to determine how fast they run during aerobic and anaerobic respiration Aerobic and anaerobic respiration comparison The table co Continue reading >>

Photosynthetic Cells

Photosynthetic Cells

Cells get nutrients from their environment, but where do those nutrients come from? Virtually all organic material on Earth has been produced by cells that convert energy from the Sun into energy-containing macromolecules. This process, called photosynthesis, is essential to the global carbon cycle and organisms that conduct photosynthesis represent the lowest level in most food chains (Figure 1). Plants exist in a wide variety of shapes and sizes. (A) Coleochaete orbicularis (Charophyceae) gametophyte; magnification x 75 (photograph courtesy of L. E. Graham). (B) Chara (Charophyceae) gametophyte; magnification x 1.5 (photograph courtesy of M. Feist). (C) Riccia (liverwort) gametophyte showing sporangia (black) embedded in the thallus; magnification x 5 (photograph courtesy of A. N. Drinnan). (D) Anthoceros (hornwort) gametophyte showing unbranched sporophytes; magnification x 2.5 (photograph courtesy of A. N. Drinnan). (E) Mnium (moss) gametophyte showing unbranched sporophytes with terminal sporangia (capsule); magnification x 4.5 (photograph courtesy of W. Burger). (F) Huperzia (clubmoss) sporophyte with leaves showing sessile yellow sporangia; magnification x 0.8. (G) Dicranopteris (fern) sporophyte showing leaves with circinate vernation; magnification x 0.08. (H) Psilotum (whisk fern) sporophyte with reduced leaves and spherical synangia (three fused sporangia); magnification x 0.4. (I) Equisetum (horsetail) sporophyte with whorled branches, reduced leaves, and a terminal cone; magnification x 0.4. (J) Cycas (seed plant) sporophyte showing leaves and terminal cone with seeds; magnification x 0.05 (photograph courtesy of W. Burger). Figure Detail Most living things depend on photosynthetic cells to manufacture the complex organic molecules they require as a source Continue reading >>

Glucose

Glucose

This article is about the naturally occurring D-form of glucose. For the L-form, see L-Glucose. Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6, which means that it is a molecule that is made of six carbon atoms, twelve hydrogen atoms, and six oxygen atoms. Glucose circulates in the blood of animals as blood sugar. It is made during photosynthesis from water and carbon dioxide, using energy from sunlight. It is the most important source of energy for cellular respiration. Glucose is stored as a polymer, in plants as starch and in animals as glycogen. With six carbon atoms, it is classed as a hexose, a subcategory of the monosaccharides. D-Glucose is one of the sixteen aldohexose stereoisomers. The D-isomer, D-glucose, also known as dextrose, occurs widely in nature, but the L-isomer, L-glucose, does not. Glucose can be obtained by hydrolysis of carbohydrates such as milk sugar (lactose), cane sugar (sucrose), maltose, cellulose, glycogen, etc. It is commonly commercially manufactured from cornstarch by hydrolysis via pressurized steaming at controlled pH in a jet followed by further enzymatic depolymerization.[3] In 1747, Andreas Marggraf was the first to isolate glucose.[4] Glucose is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basic health system.[5] The name glucose derives through the French from the Greek γλυκός, which means "sweet," in reference to must, the sweet, first press of grapes in the making of wine.[6][7] The suffix "-ose" is a chemical classifier, denoting a carbohydrate. Function in biology[edit] Glucose is the most widely used aldohexose in living organisms. One possible explanation for this is that glucose has a lower tendency than other aldohexoses to react nonspecific Continue reading >>

Cellular Energy Flashcards | Quizlet

Cellular Energy Flashcards | Quizlet

Process by which a cell uses energy from sunlight to make food Organisms that make their own food such as plants Organism that cannot make its own food, photosynthesis creates food that heterotrophs can eat The organelle in plant cells that capture energy from the sun A structure or part that is enclosed within its own membrane inside a cell and has a particular function. Organelles are found only in eukaryotic cells and are absent from the cells of prokaryotes such as bacteria. Pigments are "molecules that absorb specific wavelengths (energies) of light and reflect all others." Pigments are colored chemical compounds: the color we see is the net effect of all the light reflecting back at us. The green pigment inside chloroplasts that absorb light from the sun. Chlorophyll and other pigments capture sunlight energy and uses it to power the second stage of photosynthesis to produce sugars Any of a group of organic compounds that includes sugars, starches, celluloses, and gums and serves as a major energy source in the diet of animals. These compounds are produced by photosynthetic plants and contain only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, usually in the ratio 1:2:1. CHO, is a carbohydrate (a simple sugar) The process by which cells obtain energy from glucose (a type of sugar). The cells of all living things carry out respiration continuously because all living things need a continuous supply of energy Powerhouse of eukaryote cells, the second stage of respiration occurs in this cell An energy releasing process without oxygen. How does the sun supply all living things, both autotrophs and heterotrophs, with the energy they need? All living things obtain energy either directly or indirectly from the sun. Big animals obtain energy from eating smaller animals, smaller animals ob Continue reading >>

What Is Glucose?

What Is Glucose?

Glucose comes from the Greek word for "sweet." It's a type of sugar you get from foods you eat, and your body uses it for energy. As it travels through your bloodstream to your cells, it's called blood glucose or blood sugar. Insulin is a hormone that moves glucose from your blood into the cells for energy and storage. People with diabetes have higher-than-normal levels in their blood. Either they don't have enough insulin to move it through or their cells don't respond to insulin as well as they should. High blood glucose for a long period of time can damage your kidneys, eyes, and other organs. How Your Body Makes Glucose It mainly comes from foods rich in carbohydrates, like bread, potatoes, and fruit. As you eat, food travels down your esophagus to your stomach. There, acids and enzymes break it down into tiny pieces. During that process, glucose is released. It goes into your intestines where it's absorbed. From there, it passes into your bloodstream. Once in the blood, insulin helps glucose get to your cells. Energy and Storage Your body is designed to keep the level of glucose in your blood constant. Beta cells in your pancreas monitor your blood sugar level every few seconds. When your blood glucose rises after you eat, the beta cells release insulin into your bloodstream. Insulin acts like a key, unlocking muscle, fat, and liver cells so glucose can get inside them. Most of the cells in your body use glucose along with amino acids (the building blocks of protein) and fats for energy. But it's the main source of fuel for your brain. Nerve cells and chemical messengers there need it to help them process information. Without it, your brain wouldn't be able to work well. After your body has used the energy it needs, the leftover glucose is stored in little bundles Continue reading >>

Molecular Biology Of The Cell. 4th Edition.

Molecular Biology Of The Cell. 4th Edition.

As we have just seen, cells require a constant supply of energy to generate and maintain the biological order that keeps them alive. This energy is derived from the chemical bond energy in food molecules, which thereby serve as fuel for cells. Sugars are particularly important fuel molecules, and they are oxidized in small steps to carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (Figure 2-69). In this section we trace the major steps in the breakdown, or catabolism, of sugars and show how they produce ATP, NADH, and other activated carrier molecules in animal cells. We concentrate on glucose breakdown, since it dominates energy production in most animal cells. A very similar pathway also operates in plants, fungi, and many bacteria. Other molecules, such as fatty acids and proteins, can also serve as energy sources when they are funneled through appropriate enzymatic pathways. Go to: Food Molecules Are Broken Down in Three Stages to Produce ATP The proteins, lipids, and polysaccharides that make up most of the food we eat must be broken down into smaller molecules before our cells can use them—either as a source of energy or as building blocks for other molecules. The breakdown processes must act on food taken in from outside, but not on the macromolecules inside our own cells. Stage 1 in the enzymatic breakdown of food molecules is therefore digestion, which occurs either in our intestine outside cells, or in a specialized organelle within cells, the lysosome. (A membrane that surrounds the lysosome keeps its digestive enzymes separated from the cytosol, as described in Chapter 13.) In either case, the large polymeric molecules in food are broken down during digestion into their monomer subunits—proteins into amino acids, polysaccharides into sugars, and fats into fatty acids and g Continue reading >>

How Do Our Cells 'burn' Glucose To Produce Energy? - Quora

How Do Our Cells 'burn' Glucose To Produce Energy? - Quora

Answered Jan 28, 2017 Author has 239 answers and 397.1k answer views Your body needs glucose to obtain the energy to function. Glucose is obtained by the body through eating carbohydrates. In each gram of carbohydrates you consume there are four calories worth of energy. Once ingested into the body, special enzymes in the digestive system break down the carbohydrates you have eaten into simple sugars called glucose. This breaking down process allows the body to access the calories of energy contained in the carbohydrate. After eating a meal, the body goes to work to break down the carbohydrates to produce glucose. This glucose is released into the bloodstream, raising your blood sugar levels. For the cells to access the glucose in the bloodstream, your pancreas must produce a hormone called insulin. As your blood glucose levels start to rise, the pancreas is triggered to release insulin into the bloodstream. Without insulin the cells will be unable to absorb the glucose needed to obtain energy. Problems with insulin either occur because there is not enough insulin being produced by the body, or the cells have become resistant to insulin. These problems are symptoms of a disease called diabetes. If not enough insulin is being produced, this can result in a dramatically low blood glucose level, which leaves the cells unable to produce enough energy to survive. If the cells become resistant to insulin, this can result in too much glucose circulating in the bloodstream, which can cause serious damage to the blood vessels of the body. Each cell in your body has special equipment on them called insulin receptors. When these receptors come into contact with insulin, they are able to bind to it. This binding acts as a key to unlocking the cell's ability to draw glucose out of Continue reading >>

Howis Sugar Made By Photosynthesis In A Plant Cell?describe The Process Of Photosynthesis And Its Outcomes.

Howis Sugar Made By Photosynthesis In A Plant Cell?describe The Process Of Photosynthesis And Its Outcomes.

Howis sugar made by photosynthesis in a plant cell?Describe the process of photosynthesis and its outcomes. Let's look at this one from the most basic perspective possible: Leaves make chlorophyll, which in turn produces cellulose. The way they make chlorophyll is through the process of photosynthesis -- sunlight becoming food for plants. A simple way to think about it is this: Sunlight strikes plants, leaves ingest carbon dioxide and give off oxygen, and water is absorbed into the leaves, roots, or cells themselves. During this process, sugar is created as a... Let's look at this one from the most basic perspective possible: Leaves make chlorophyll, which in turn produces cellulose. The way they make chlorophyll is through the process of photosynthesis -- sunlight becoming food for plants. A simple way to think about it is this: Sunlight strikes plants, leaves ingest carbon dioxide and give off oxygen, and water is absorbed into the leaves, roots, or cells themselves. During this process, sugar is created as a byproduct of the photosynthesis. In a plant, the leaves have pigments (chlorophyll) that absorb light and have openings to let CO2 through called stroma. Photosynthesis is the process that plant use to trap the suns energy to build glucose as food. It happens in the chloroplast. It happens in two stages: the light dependent reaction (happens in the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast) and the Calvin cycle (happens in the stroma) The equation for photosynthesis is: C02 + H20 -> C6H12O6 + 02 The light dependent reaction produced ATP and NADPH, energies that are needed to produce glucose (sugar) The light dependent reaction has these steps: 1. The light hits the chlorophyll in the thylakoid membrane, which excites electrons and releases enzymes that split H20 int Continue reading >>

Cellular Respiration:

Cellular Respiration:

Or, How one good meal provides energy for the work of 75 trillion cells February 16-18, 2004 Every living thing is a sort of imperialist, seeking to transform as much as possible of its environment into itself... -- Bertrand Russell I. Cellular Respiration: breaking down sugar in the presence of oxygen (aerobic). Photosynthesis (you recall...) is the process by which CO2 and H2O are used to make sugars and starches. During Cellular Respiration, sugar is broken down to CO2 and H2O, and in the process, ATP is made that can then be used for cellular work. The overall reaction for cellular respiration: (does this reaction look familiar? Overall, it is the reverse reaction of photosynthesis, but chemically, the steps involved are very different.) C6H12O6 + 6O2 -------------------> 6CO2 + 6H2O + ~38 ATP Whereas only photosynthetic cells can make sugar using photosynthesis, ALL cells need to be able to break down sugars they take in from their environment and turn it into energy to be used in cellular work.... II. Cellular respiration can be broken down into 4 stages: Essentially, sugar (C6H12O6) is burned, or oxidized, down to CO2 and H2O, releasing energy (ATP) in the process. Why do cells need ATP? ALL cellular work -all the activities of life - requires energy, either from ATP or from related molecules. A lot of oxygen is required for this process! The sugar AND the oxygen are delivered to your cells via your bloodstream. This process occurs partially in the cytoplasm, and partially in the mitochondria. The mitochondria is another organelle in eukaryotic cells. like the chloroplast, the mitochondria has two lipid bilayers around it, and its own genome (indicating that it may be the result of endosymbiosis long ago). In some ways similar to the chloroplast, the mitochondria Continue reading >>

Facts About Diabetes And Insulin

Facts About Diabetes And Insulin

Diabetes is a very common disease, which, if not treated, can be very dangerous. There are two types of diabetes. They were once called juvenile-onset diabetes and adult diabetes. However, today we know that all ages can get both types so they are simply called type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Type 1, which occurs in approximately 10 percent of all cases, is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system, by mistake, attacks its own insulin-producing cells so that insufficient amounts of insulin are produced - or no insulin at all. Type 1 affects predominantly young people and usually makes its debut before the age of 30, and most frequently between the ages of 10 and 14. Type 2, which makes up the remaining 90 percent of diabetes cases, commonly affects patients during the second half of their lives. The cells of the body no longer react to insulin as they should. This is called insulin resistance. In the early 1920s, Frederick Banting, John Macleod, George Best and Bertram Collip isolated the hormone insulin and purified it so that it could be administered to humans. This was a major breakthrough in the treatment of diabetes type 1. Insulin Insulin is a hormone. Hormones are chemical substances that regulate the cells of the body and are produced by special glands. The hormone insulin is a main regulator of the glucose (sugar) levels in the blood. Insulin is produced in the pancreas. To be more specific, it's produced by the beta cells in the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. When we eat, glucose levels rise, and insulin is released into the bloodstream. The insulin acts like a key, opening up cells so they can take in the sugar and use it as an energy source. Sugar is one of the top energy sources for the body. The body gets it in many forms, but mainly as carbohydr Continue reading >>

Glucose

Glucose

Glucose is a carbohydrate, and is the most important simple sugar in human metabolism. Glucose is called a simple sugar or a monosaccharide because it is one of the smallest units which has the characteristics of this class of carbohydrates. Glucose is also sometimes called dextrose. Corn syrup is primarily glucose. Glucose is one of the primary molecules which serve as energy sources for plants and animals. It is found in the sap of plants, and is found in the human bloodstream where it is referred to as "blood sugar". The normal concentration of glucose in the blood is about 0.1%, but it becomes much higher in persons suffering from diabetes. When oxidized in the body in the process called metabolism, glucose produces carbon dioxide, water, and some nitrogen compounds and in the process provides energy which can be used by the cells. The energy yield is about 686 kilocalories (2870 kilojoules) per mole which can be used to do work or help keep the body warm. This energy figure is the change in Gibbs free energy ΔG in the reaction, the measure of the maximum amount of work obtainable from the reaction. As a primary energy source in the body, it requires no digestion and is often provided intravenously to persons in hospitals as a nutrient. Energy from glucose is obtained from the oxidation reaction C6H12O6 + 6O2 --> 6CO2 + 6H2O where a mole of glucose (about 180 grams) reacts with six moles of O2 with an energy yield ΔG = 2870 kJ. The six moles of oxygen at STP would occupy 6 x 22.4L = 134 liters. The energy yield from glucose is often stated as the yield per liter of oxygen, which would be 5.1 kcal per liter or 21.4 kJ per liter. This energy yield could be measured by actually burning the glucose and measuring the energy liberated in a calorimeter. But in living org Continue reading >>

Cell Energy And Cell Functions

Cell Energy And Cell Functions

Cells manage a wide range of functions in their tiny package — growing, moving, housekeeping, and so on — and most of those functions require energy. But how do cells get this energy in the first place? And how do they use it in the most efficient manner possible? Cells, like humans, cannot generate energy without locating a source in their environment. However, whereas humans search for substances like fossil fuels to power their homes and businesses, cells seek their energy in the form of food molecules or sunlight. In fact, the Sun is the ultimate source of energy for almost all cells, because photosynthetic prokaryotes, algae, and plant cells harness solar energy and use it to make the complex organic food molecules that other cells rely on for the energy required to sustain growth, metabolism, and reproduction (Figure 1). Cellular nutrients come in many forms, including sugars and fats. In order to provide a cell with energy, these molecules have to pass across the cell membrane, which functions as a barrier — but not an impassable one. Like the exterior walls of a house, the plasma membrane is semi-permeable. In much the same way that doors and windows allow necessities to enter the house, various proteins that span the cell membrane permit specific molecules into the cell, although they may require some energy input to accomplish this task (Figure 2). Complex organic food molecules such as sugars, fats, and proteins are rich sources of energy for cells because much of the energy used to form these molecules is literally stored within the chemical bonds that hold them together. Scientists can measure the amount of energy stored in foods using a device called a bomb calorimeter. With this technique, food is placed inside the calorimeter and heated until it bu Continue reading >>

Storage Forms Of Glucose In Organisms

Storage Forms Of Glucose In Organisms

When carbohydrates from the foods you consume are digested, glucose is the smallest molecule into which a carbohydrate is broken down. Glucose molecules are absorbed from intestinal cells into the bloodstream. The bloodstream then carries the glucose molecules throughout the body. Glucose enters each cell of the body and is used by the cell’s mitochondrion as fuel. Carbohydrates are in nearly every food, not just bread and pasta, which are known for “carbo loading.” Fruits, vegetables, and meats also contain carbohydrates. Any food that contains sugar has carbohydrates. And, most foods are converted to sugars when they are digested. Once an organism has taken in food, the food is digested, and needed nutrients are sent through the bloodstream. When the organism has used all the nutrients it needs to maintain proper functioning, the remaining nutrients are excreted or stored. You store it: Glycogen Animals (including humans) store some glucose in the cells so that it is available for quick shots of energy. Excess glucose is stored in the liver as the large compound called glycogen. Glycogen is a polysaccharide of glucose, but its structure allows it to pack compactly, so more of it can be stored in cells for later use. If you consume so many extra carbohydrates that your body stores more and more glucose, all your glycogen may be compactly structured, but you no longer will be. Starch it, please: Storing glucose in plants The storage form of glucose in plants is starch. Starch is a polysaccharide. The leaves of a plant make sugar during the process of photosynthesis. Photosynthesis occurs in light (photo = light), such as when the sun is shining. The energy from the sunlight is used to make energy for the plant. So, when plants are making sugar (for fuel, energy) o Continue reading >>

Bbc - Gcse Bitesize: Photosynthesis

Bbc - Gcse Bitesize: Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis captures energy for life on Earth. Many chemicals are made to allow life processes to occur in plants. These chemicals can move in and out of cells by the process of diffusion. Osmosis is a specific type of diffusion. Photosynthesis is a process used by plants in which energy from sunlight is used to convert carbon dioxide and water into molecules needed for growth. These molecules include sugars, enzymes and chlorophyll. Light energy is absorbed by the green chemical chlorophyll. This energy allows the production of glucose by the reaction between carbon dioxide and water. Oxygen is also produced as a waste product. This reaction can be summarised in the word equation: The chemical equation for photosynthesis is: Glucose is made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms. Glucose made by the process of photosynthesis may be used in three ways: It can be converted into chemicals required for growth of plant cells such as cellulose It can be converted into starch, a storage molecule, that can be converted back to glucose when the plant requires it It can be broken down during the process of respiration, releasing energy stored in the glucose molecules Plants cells contain a number of structures that are involved in the process of photosynthesis: Diagram of a plant cell involved in production of glucose from photosynthesis Chloroplasts - containing chlorophyll and enzymes needed for reactions in photosynthesis. Nucleus - containing DNA carrying the genetic code for enzymes and other proteins used in photosynthesis Cell membrane - allowing gas and water to pass in and out of the cell while controlling the passage of other molecules Vacuole - containing cell sap to keep the cell turgid Cytoplasm - enzymes and other proteins used in photosynthesis made here Continue reading >>

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