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What Lab Values Indicate Dka?

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What is DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS? What does DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS mean? DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS meaning - DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS definition - DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6Uu... Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a potentially life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus. Signs and symptoms may include vomiting, abdominal pain, deep gasping breathing, increased urination, weakness, confusion, and occasionally loss of consciousness. A person's breath may develop a specific smell. Onset of symptoms is usually rapid. In some cases people may not realize they previously had diabetes. DKA happens most often in those with type 1 diabetes, but can also occur in those with other types of diabetes under certain circumstances. Triggers may include infection, not taking insulin correctly, stroke, and certain medications such as steroids. DKA results from a shortage of insulin; in response the body switches to burning fatty acids which produces acidic ketone bodies. DKA is typically diagnosed when testing finds high blood sugar, low blood pH, and ketoacids in either the blood or urine. The primary treatment of DKA is with intravenous fluids and insulin. Depending on the severity, insulin may be given intravenously or by injection under the skin. Usually potassium is also needed to prevent the development of low blood potassium. Throughout treatment blood sugar and potassium levels should be regularly checked. Antibiotics may be required in those with an underlying infection. In those with severely low blood pH, sodium bicarbonate may be given; however, its use is of unclear benefit and typically not recommended. Rates of DKA vary around the world. About 4% of people with type 1 diabetes in United Kingdom develop DKA a year, while in Malaysia the condition affects about 25% a year. DKA was first described in 1886 and, until the introduction of insulin therapy in the 1920s, it was almost universally fatal. The risk of death with adequate and timely treatment is currently around 1–4%. Up to 1% of children with DKA develop a complication known as cerebral edema. The symptoms of an episode of diabetic ketoacidosis usually evolve over a period of about 24 hours. Predominant symptoms are nausea and vomiting, pronounced thirst, excessive urine production and abdominal pain that may be severe. Those who measure their glucose levels themselves may notice hyperglycemia (high blood sugar levels). In severe DKA, breathing becomes labored and of a deep, gasping character (a state referred to as "Kussmaul respiration"). The abdomen may be tender to the point that an acute abdomen may be suspected, such as acute pancreatitis, appendicitis or gastrointestinal perforation. Coffee ground vomiting (vomiting of altered blood) occurs in a minority of people; this tends to originate from erosion of the esophagus. In severe DKA, there may be confusion, lethargy, stupor or even coma (a marked decrease in the level of consciousness). On physical examination there is usually clinical evidence of dehydration, such as a dry mouth and decreased skin turgor. If the dehydration is profound enough to cause a decrease in the circulating blood volume, tachycardia (a fast heart rate) and low blood pressure may be observed. Often, a "ketotic" odor is present, which is often described as "fruity", often compared to the smell of pear drops whose scent is a ketone. If Kussmaul respiration is present, this is reflected in an increased respiratory rate.....

Understanding And Treating Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious metabolic disorder that can occur in animals with diabetes mellitus (DM).1,2 Veterinary technicians play an integral role in managing and treating patients with this life-threatening condition. In addition to recognizing the clinical signs of this disorder and evaluating the patient's response to therapy, technicians should understand how this disorder occurs. DM is caused by a relative or absolute lack of insulin production by the pancreatic b-cells or by inactivity or loss of insulin receptors, which are usually found on membranes of skeletal muscle, fat, and liver cells.1,3 In dogs and cats, DM is classified as either insulin-dependent (the body is unable to produce sufficient insulin) or non-insulin-dependent (the body produces insulin, but the tissues in the body are resistant to the insulin).4 Most dogs and cats that develop DKA have an insulin deficiency. Insulin has many functions, including the enhancement of glucose uptake by the cells for energy.1 Without insulin, the cells cannot access glucose, thereby causing them to undergo starvation.2 The unused glucose remains in the circulation, resulting in hyperglycemia. To provide cells Continue reading >>

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  1. TheCommuter

    You can post this question on this site's Nursing Student Assistance Forums and perhaps get an answer. One of our frequent users, Daytonite, loves to give detailed answers to these types of questions.
    http://allnurses.com/forums/f205/

  2. ICRN2008

    Here is the formula for anion gap:
    Agap = Na + K - Cl -CO2
    I would think that the doctor would be monitoring the glucose level (not the agap) to determine when to stop the insulin drip. Anyone else have an idea?

  3. P_RN

    One of our wonderful members Mark Hammerschmidt has a great FREE MICU site:
    http://www.icufaqs.org/
    Check section 4.2
    It's all acidosis/alkalosis

  4. -> Continue reading
read more
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Introducing the new SnoMaster 15l Micro Fridge, a compact thermoelectric portable fridge. For more info http://www.snomaster.co.za/

15l. Loriaux (ed.), Endocrine Emergencies: Recognition And Treatment, Contemporary Endocrinology 74, Doi 10.1007/978-1-62703-697-9_2, © Springer Science+business Media New York 2014

Précis 1. Clinical setting—Any altered state of well being in the context of signifi cant hyperglycemia in a patient with type 1 (DKA) or advanced type 2 diabetes mel- litus (DKA or HHS), particularly during acute illness, may signify one of these diabetic emergencies. 2. Diagnosis (a) History: Most patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) or with hyperos- molar hyperglycemic state (HHS) will have a history of diabetes, and a his- tory of altered insulin dose, infection, signifi cant medical “stressâ€. Antecedent symptoms of polyuria and polydipsia, lassitude, blurred vision, and mental status changes may predominate the clinical picture. With DKA, abdominal pain and tachypnea are often present. (b) Physical examination usually reveals an altered sensorium, signs of volume contraction/dehydration (tachycardia, hypotension, dry mucus membranes, “tenting†of the skin); in DKA, the odor of acetone in the breath. (c) Laboratory evaluation. The diagnostic criteria for DKA include blood glu- cose above 250 mg/dL, arterial pH < 7.30, serum bicarbonate < 15 mEq/l Chapter 2 Diabetic Ketoacidosis and Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic Syndrome Beatrice C. Lupsa and Silv Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. TheCommuter

    You can post this question on this site's Nursing Student Assistance Forums and perhaps get an answer. One of our frequent users, Daytonite, loves to give detailed answers to these types of questions.
    http://allnurses.com/forums/f205/

  2. ICRN2008

    Here is the formula for anion gap:
    Agap = Na + K - Cl -CO2
    I would think that the doctor would be monitoring the glucose level (not the agap) to determine when to stop the insulin drip. Anyone else have an idea?

  3. P_RN

    One of our wonderful members Mark Hammerschmidt has a great FREE MICU site:
    http://www.icufaqs.org/
    Check section 4.2
    It's all acidosis/alkalosis

  4. -> Continue reading
read more
Share on facebook

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Ketosis

Tweet Ketosis is a state the body may find itself in either as a result of raised blood glucose levels or as a part of low carb dieting. Low levels of ketosis is perfectly normal. However, high levels of ketosis in the short term can be serious and the long term effects of regular moderate ketosis are only partially known at the moment. What is ketosis? Ketosis is a state the body goes into if it needs to break down body fat for energy. The state is marked by raised levels of ketones in the blood which can be used by the body as fuel. Ketones which are not used for fuel are excreted out of the body via the kidneys and the urine. Is ketosis the same as ketoacidosis? There is often confusion as to the difference between ketosis and ketoacidosis. Ketosis is the state whereby the body is producing ketones. In ketosis, the level of ketones in the blood can be anything between normal to very high. Diabetic ketoacidosis, also known as DKA, only describes the state in which the level of ketones is either high or very high. In ketoacidosis, the amount of ketones in the blood is sufficient to turn the blood acidic, which is a dangerous medical state. When does ketosis occur? Ketosis will tak Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. TheCommuter

    You can post this question on this site's Nursing Student Assistance Forums and perhaps get an answer. One of our frequent users, Daytonite, loves to give detailed answers to these types of questions.
    http://allnurses.com/forums/f205/

  2. ICRN2008

    Here is the formula for anion gap:
    Agap = Na + K - Cl -CO2
    I would think that the doctor would be monitoring the glucose level (not the agap) to determine when to stop the insulin drip. Anyone else have an idea?

  3. P_RN

    One of our wonderful members Mark Hammerschmidt has a great FREE MICU site:
    http://www.icufaqs.org/
    Check section 4.2
    It's all acidosis/alkalosis

  4. -> Continue reading
read more

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