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What Lab Values Indicate Dka?

Lab Test

Lab Test

Measurement of beta-hydroxybutyrate in whole blood, serum, or plasma to evaluate ketone-producing metabolic energy deficits that usually occur when there is insufficient carbohydrate metabolism, thereby increasing the catabolism of fatty acids. Clinical Application Common tests for ketone bodies, such as Acetest, Chemstrip, and Ketostix, do not detect beta-hydroxybutyrate. A handheld meter sensor system is available to monitor beta-hydroxybutyrate and glucose levels. Elevated levels beta-hydroxybutyrate is diagnostic of ketoacidosis, whereas the absence of concomitant hyperglycemia supports the diagnosis of alcoholic ketoacidosis (AKA). Levels ³ 3 mmol/L are indicative of ketoacidosis. In very severe diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), the beta-hydroxybutyrate serum concentration may exceed 25 mmol/L. Patients presenting with isopropanol intoxication can present with high acetone levels without any acidosis, anion gap or abnormal glucoses levels. Plasma (lithium-heparin or fluoride-oxalate), serum, or perchloric acid (PCA) extracts can be analyzed. EDTA-plasma samples will produce values that are 60% lower than specimens preserved with fluoride-oxalate or PCA. Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis Definition Diabetic ketoacidosis is a dangerous complication of diabetes mellitus in which the chemical balance of the body becomes far too acidic. Description Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) always results from a severe insulin deficiency. Insulin is the hormone secreted by the body to lower the blood sugar levels when they become too high. Diabetes mellitus is the disease resulting from the inability of the body to produce or respond properly to insulin, required by the body to convert glucose to energy. In childhood diabetes, DKA complications represent the leading cause of death, mostly due to the accumulation of abnormally large amounts of fluid in the brain (cerebral edema). DKA combines three major features: hyperglycemia, meaning excessively high blood sugar kevels; hyperketonemia, meaning an overproduction of ketones by the body; and acidosis, meaning that the blood has become too acidic. Insulin deficiency is responsible for all three conditions: the body glucose goes largely unused since most cells are unable to transport glucose into the cell without the presence of insulin; this condition makes the body use stored fat as an alternative source instead of the unavailable glucose for energy, a process that produces acidic ketones, which build up because they require insulin to be broken down. The presence of excess ketones in the bloodstream in turn causes the blood to become more acidic than the body tissues, which creates a toxic condition. Causes and symptoms DKA is most commonly seen in individuals with type I diabetes, under 19 years of age and is usually caused by the interruption of their insulin treatment or by acute infection or trauma. A small number of people with type II diabetes also experience ketoacidosis, but this is rare give Continue reading >>

Management Of A Dka Patient With Severe Metabolic And Ketoacidosis With Chronic Renal Insufficiency Brian Albany Otterbein University, Boomer.albany@otterbein.edu

Management Of A Dka Patient With Severe Metabolic And Ketoacidosis With Chronic Renal Insufficiency Brian Albany Otterbein University, [email protected]

Otterbein University Digital Commons @ Otterbein MSN Student Scholarship Student Research & Creative Work Fall 2014 Follow this and additional works at: Part of the Endocrine System Diseases Commons, Medical Pathology Commons, and the Nursing Commons This Project is brought to you for free and open access by the Student Research & Creative Work at Digital Commons @ Otterbein. It has been accepted for inclusion in MSN Student Scholarship by an authorized administrator of Digital Commons @ Otterbein. For more information, please contact [email protected] Recommended Citation Albany, Brian, "Management of a DKA patient with severe metabolic and ketoacidosis with chronic renal insufficiency" (2014). MSN Student Scholarship. Paper 6. Implications for nursing care Management of a DKA patient with severe metabolic and ketoacidosis with chronic renal insufficiency Brian Albany BSN, CCRN Introduction Case Study References Underlying Pathophysiology Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) serves as one the leading causes of mortality in diabetic patients [14]. The mortality has decreased over the past several decades due to the rapid recognition of the disease state and the improvement of management of DKA [14]. Despite a decline in mortality rates over the past twenty years from 7.96% to 0.67%, errors in management of the disease state are associated with significant morbidity and mortality [2]. Utilization of DKA protocols in the acute care setting have allowed congruency in care and delivery of effective lifesaving treatment. Despite advances in standardized DKA protocols, there still remains a gap in how to manage specific patient populations with end stage renal disease. Understanding the pathophysiology behind these patient populations will yield better outcomes with the ultimate Continue reading >>

Lab Test

Lab Test

Measurement of serum or plasma blood urea nitrogen (BUN) for the evaluation and management of volume status and renal disorders. It is performed on patients undergoing routine laboratory testing and is usually performed as part of a multiphasic automated testing process. Adults: 10-20 mg/dL (3.6-7.1 mmol/L) Elderly: may be slightly higher than adult Children: 5-18 mg/dL (1.8-6.4 mmol/L) Infant: 5-18 mg/dL Newborn: 3-12 mg/dL Cord: 21-40 mg/dL Critical Values: >100 mg/dL (indicates serious impairment of renal function) Adrenal insufficiency - moderate elevations in BUN levels are consistent with both acute and chronic adrenal insufficiency. The increased Bun is largely due to dehydration secondary to aldosterone deficiency, which leads to excretion of sodium in excess of intake and results in azotemia. Patients with secondary adrenal insufficiency are less affected because of intact aldosterone secretion. Elevation is usually reversible with restoration of normal renal hemodynamics and circulating blood volume. Community-acquired pneumonia - In one study, an elevated BUN, along with increased respiratory rate and decreased diastolic blood pressure, was predictive of mortality in patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) - BUN level is consistently increased with the elevation usually occurring very rapidly. The combination of renal insufficiency, a catabolic state, and reabsorption of blood from the GI tract can cause BUN levels to increase as much as 50 mg/dL/day. In children with uncomplicated dehydration and diarrhea, the BUN level should fall to one half the admission level within 24 hours; if this does not occur, renal disease should be suspected. Hemorrhagic shock - Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) from prolonged hypotension results in Continue reading >>

Like This Study Set?

Like This Study Set?

A client with a diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is being treated in the emergency department. Which findings would the nurse expect to note as confirming this diagnosis? Select all that apply. 1. Increase in pH 2. Comatose state 3. Deep, rapid breathing 4. Decreased urine output 5. Elevated blood glucose level 6. Low plasma bicarbonate level 3,5,6 Rationale: In DKA, the arterial pH is lower than 7.35, plasma bicarbonate is lower than 15 mEq/L, the blood glucose level is higher than 250 mg/dL, and ketones are present in the blood and urine. The client would be experiencing polyuria, and Kussmaul's respirations (deep and rapid breathing pattern) would be present. A comatose state may occur if DKA is not treated, but coma would not confirm the diagnosis. The nurse teaches a client with diabetes mellitus about differentiating between hypoglycemia and ketoacidosis. The client demonstrates an understanding of the teaching by stating that a form of glucose should be taken if which symptoms develop? Select all that apply. 1. Polyuria 2. Shakiness 3. Palpitations 4. Blurred vision 5. Lightheadedness 6. Fruity breath odor 2,3,5 A client is admitted to a hospital with a diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). The initial blood glucose level was 950 mg/dL. A continuous intravenous infusion of short-acting insulin is initiated, along with intravenous rehydration with normal saline. The serum glucose level is now 240 mg/dL. The nurse would next prepare to administer which item? 1. Ampule of 50% dextrose 2. NPH insulin subcutaneously 3. Intravenous fluids containing dextrose 4. Phenytoin (Dilantin) for the prevention of seizures 3 Rationale: During management of DKA, when the blood glucose level falls to 250 to 300 mg/dL, the infusion rate is reduced and a dextrose solution Continue reading >>

Diagnosis

Diagnosis

Print If your doctor suspects diabetic ketoacidosis, he or she will do a physical exam and various blood tests. In some cases, additional tests may be needed to help determine what triggered the diabetic ketoacidosis. Blood tests Blood tests used in the diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis will measure: Blood sugar level. If there isn't enough insulin in your body to allow sugar to enter your cells, your blood sugar level will rise (hyperglycemia). As your body breaks down fat and protein for energy, your blood sugar level will continue to rise. Ketone level. When your body breaks down fat and protein for energy, acids known as ketones enter your bloodstream. Blood acidity. If you have excess ketones in your blood, your blood will become acidic (acidosis). This can alter the normal function of organs throughout your body. Additional tests Your doctor may order tests to identify underlying health problems that might have contributed to diabetic ketoacidosis and to check for complications. Tests might include: Blood electrolyte tests Urinalysis Chest X-ray A recording of the electrical activity of the heart (electrocardiogram) Treatment If you're diagnosed with diabetic ketoacidosis, you might be treated in the emergency room or admitted to the hospital. Treatment usually involves: Fluid replacement. You'll receive fluids — either by mouth or through a vein (intravenously) — until you're rehydrated. The fluids will replace those you've lost through excessive urination, as well as help dilute the excess sugar in your blood. Electrolyte replacement. Electrolytes are minerals in your blood that carry an electric charge, such as sodium, potassium and chloride. The absence of insulin can lower the level of several electrolytes in your blood. You'll receive electrolytes throu Continue reading >>

Prospective Studies May Decrease The Incidence Of Dka In Type 1 Diabetes In Children

Prospective Studies May Decrease The Incidence Of Dka In Type 1 Diabetes In Children

Placing newborns in prospective studies to conduct genetic screenings with follow up may reduce the risk of DKA at diagnosis of type 1. Children, particularly those under the age of 5, are at the highest risk of experiencing Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes. This may be due to a delay in diagnosis by lack of knowledge of initial symptoms from parents or a misdiagnosis by clinicians with concurrent health issues. Currently, there are mixed data indicating whether DKA is increasing or decreasing in frequency. However, prior studies have shown that providing education on the initial symptoms of type 1 diabetes has shown to reduce the incidence of DKA at diagnosis. This can be seen in children with first-degree relatives who are more knowledgeable in the disease and can recognize initial symptoms. It is also seen in children enrolled in prospective studies for genetic testing of the disease and participating in follow ups. Oulu University Hospital in Finland have ongoing prospective studies since 1995. They have been genetically testing all newborn infants for HLA-conferred susceptibility of type 1 diabetes. One study hypothesized a decreased risk of DKA in children at diagnosis with type 1 diabetes who participated in prospective studies. Therefore, researchers conducted two study cohorts focusing information gathered by the prospective studies in Oulu University Hospital in Finland. A total of 1,164 patients were evaluated with an overlap of 485 children. Study cohort 1 had a sample size of 517 children. It included all children born in 1995-2012 with a diagnosis of type 1 diabetes by the end of 2014. Study cohort 2 had a sample size of 579. It included all children diagnosed with type 1 diabetes in 2002-2014. Study cohort 1 was divided into 4 s Continue reading >>

Ketosis

Ketosis

Tweet Ketosis is a state the body may find itself in either as a result of raised blood glucose levels or as a part of low carb dieting. Low levels of ketosis is perfectly normal. However, high levels of ketosis in the short term can be serious and the long term effects of regular moderate ketosis are only partially known at the moment. What is ketosis? Ketosis is a state the body goes into if it needs to break down body fat for energy. The state is marked by raised levels of ketones in the blood which can be used by the body as fuel. Ketones which are not used for fuel are excreted out of the body via the kidneys and the urine. Is ketosis the same as ketoacidosis? There is often confusion as to the difference between ketosis and ketoacidosis. Ketosis is the state whereby the body is producing ketones. In ketosis, the level of ketones in the blood can be anything between normal to very high. Diabetic ketoacidosis, also known as DKA, only describes the state in which the level of ketones is either high or very high. In ketoacidosis, the amount of ketones in the blood is sufficient to turn the blood acidic, which is a dangerous medical state. When does ketosis occur? Ketosis will take place when the body needs energy and there is not sufficient glucose available for the body. This can typically happen when the body is lacking insulin and blood glucose levels become high. Other causes can be the result of being on a low carb diet. A low level of carbohydrate will lead to low levels of insulin, and therefore the body will produce ketones which do not rely on insulin to get into and fuel the body’s cells. A further cause of ketosis, less relevant to people with diabetes, is a result of excessive alcohol consumption. Is ketosis dangerous? The NHS describes ketosis as a pote Continue reading >>

Blood Ketones

Blood Ketones

On This Site Tests: Urine Ketones (see Urinalysis - The Chemical Exam); Blood Gases; Glucose Tests Elsewhere On The Web Ask a Laboratory Scientist Your questions will be answered by a laboratory scientist as part of a voluntary service provided by one of our partners, the American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science (ASCLS). Click on the Contact a Scientist button below to be re-directed to the ASCLS site to complete a request form. If your question relates to this web site and not to a specific lab test, please submit it via our Contact Us page instead. Thank you. Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka) - Topic Overview

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka) - Topic Overview

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a life-threatening condition that develops when cells in the body are unable to get the sugar (glucose) they need for energy because there is not enough insulin. When the sugar cannot get into the cells, it stays in the blood. The kidneys filter some of the sugar from the blood and remove it from the body through urine. Because the cells cannot receive sugar for energy, the body begins to break down fat and muscle for energy. When this happens, ketones, or fatty acids, are produced and enter the bloodstream, causing the chemical imbalance (metabolic acidosis) called diabetic ketoacidosis. Ketoacidosis can be caused by not getting enough insulin, having a severe infection or other illness, becoming severely dehydrated, or some combination of these things. It can occur in people who have little or no insulin in their bodies (mostly people with type 1 diabetes but it can happen with type 2 diabetes, especially children) when their blood sugar levels are high. Your blood sugar may be quite high before you notice symptoms, which include: Flushed, hot, dry skin. Feeling thirsty and urinating a lot. Drowsiness or difficulty waking up. Young children may lack interest in their normal activities. Rapid, deep breathing. A strong, fruity breath odor. Loss of appetite, belly pain, and vomiting. Confusion. Laboratory tests, including blood and urine tests, are used to confirm a diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis. Tests for ketones are available for home use. Keep some test strips nearby in case your blood sugar level becomes high. When ketoacidosis is severe, it must be treated in the hospital, often in an intensive care unit. Treatment involves giving insulin and fluids through your vein and closely watching certain chemicals in your blood (electrolyt Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)

Snap Shot A 12 year old boy, previously healthy, is admitted to the hospital after 2 days of polyuria, polyphagia, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain. Vital signs are: Temp 37C, BP 103/63 mmHg, HR 112, RR 30. Physical exam shows a lethargic boy. Labs are notable for WBC 16,000, Glucose 534, K 5.9, pH 7.13, PCO2 is 20 mmHg, PO2 is 90 mmHg. Introduction Complication of type I diabetes result of ↓ insulin, ↑ glucagon, growth hormone, catecholamine Precipitated by infections drugs (steroids, thiazide diuretics) noncompliance pancreatitis undiagnosed DM Presentation Symptoms abdominal pain vomiting Physical exam Kussmaul respiration increased tidal volume and rate as a result of metabolic acidosis fruity, acetone odor severe hypovolemia coma Evaluation Serology blood glucose levels > 250 mg/dL due to ↑ gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis arterial pH < 7.3 ↑ anion gap due to ketoacidosis, lactic acidosis ↓ HCO3- consumed in an attempt to buffer the increased acid hyponatremia dilutional hyponatremia glucose acts as an osmotic agent and draws water from ICF to ECF hyperkalemia acidosis results in ICF/ECF exchange of H+ for K+ moderate ketonuria and ketonemia due to ↑ lipolysis β-hydroxybutyrate > acetoacetate β-hydroxybutyrate not detected with normal ketone body tests hypertriglyceridemia due to ↓ in capillary lipoprotein lipase activity activated by insulin leukocytosis due to stress-induced cortisol release H2PO4- is increased in urine, as it is titratable acid used to buffer the excess H+ that is being excreted Treatment Fluids Insulin with glucose must prevent resultant hypokalemia and hypophosphatemia labs may show pseudo-hyperkalemia prior to administartion of fluid and insulin due to transcellular shift of potassium out of the cells to balance the H+ be Continue reading >>

15l. Loriaux (ed.), Endocrine Emergencies: Recognition And Treatment, Contemporary Endocrinology 74, Doi 10.1007/978-1-62703-697-9_2, © Springer Science+business Media New York 2014

15l. Loriaux (ed.), Endocrine Emergencies: Recognition And Treatment, Contemporary Endocrinology 74, Doi 10.1007/978-1-62703-697-9_2, © Springer Science+business Media New York 2014

Précis 1. Clinical setting—Any altered state of well being in the context of signifi cant hyperglycemia in a patient with type 1 (DKA) or advanced type 2 diabetes mel- litus (DKA or HHS), particularly during acute illness, may signify one of these diabetic emergencies. 2. Diagnosis (a) History: Most patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) or with hyperos- molar hyperglycemic state (HHS) will have a history of diabetes, and a his- tory of altered insulin dose, infection, signifi cant medical “stressâ€. Antecedent symptoms of polyuria and polydipsia, lassitude, blurred vision, and mental status changes may predominate the clinical picture. With DKA, abdominal pain and tachypnea are often present. (b) Physical examination usually reveals an altered sensorium, signs of volume contraction/dehydration (tachycardia, hypotension, dry mucus membranes, “tenting†of the skin); in DKA, the odor of acetone in the breath. (c) Laboratory evaluation. The diagnostic criteria for DKA include blood glu- cose above 250 mg/dL, arterial pH < 7.30, serum bicarbonate < 15 mEq/l Chapter 2 Diabetic Ketoacidosis and Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic Syndrome Beatrice C. Lupsa and Silvio E. Inzucchi B. C. Lupsa , M.D. (*) • S. E. Inzucchi , M.D. Section of Endocrinology , Yale University School of Medicine , Yale-New Haven Hospital, 333 Cedar Street, FMP 107 , P.O. Box 208020 , New Haven , CT 06520 , USA e-mail: [email protected] 16 and moderate degree of ketonemia and/or ketonuria. Patients with HHS present with extreme hyperglycemia (blood glucose > 600 mg/dL), increased osmolality (> 320 mOsm/kg) and profound dehydration/volume contrac- tion. The laboratory evaluation of a patient with hyperglycemic emergency should include measurement of blood glucose and he Continue reading >>

Infection As A Trigger Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Intensive Care—unit Patients

Infection As A Trigger Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Intensive Care—unit Patients

Together with hyperglycemic coma, diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is the most severe acute metabolic complication of diabetes mellitus [ 1 ]. Defined by the triad hyperglycemia, acidosis, and ketonuria, DKA can be inaugural or complicate known diabetes [ 2 ]. Although DKA is evidence of poor metabolic control and usually indicates an absolute or relative imbalance between the patient's requirements and the treatment, DKA-related mortality is low among patients who receive standardized treatment, which includes administration of insulin, correction of hydroelectrolytic disorders, and management of the triggering factor (which is often cessation of insulin therapy, an infection, or a myocardial infarction) [ 3–8 ]. Although there is no proof that diabetics are more susceptible to infection, they seem to have more difficulty handling infection once it occurs [ 9 , 10 ]. Indeed, several aspects of immunity are altered in diabetic patients: polymorphonuclear leukocyte function is depressed, particularly when acidosis is present, and leukocyte adherence, chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and bactericidal activity may also be impaired [ 11–15 ]. Joshi et al. [ 10 ] reported recently on the lack of clinical evidence that diabetics are more susceptible to infection than nondiabetic patients. Nevertheless, infection is a well-recognized trigger of DKA. Earlier studies have investigated the prevalence of infection as a trigger of DKA and the impact of antimicrobial treatment [ 2 , 15–18 ]. However, none of these studies were of intensive care unit (ICU) patients only. Furthermore, most were descriptive, included small numbers of patients, used univariate analysis only, and did not designate infection as the sole outcome variable of interest. Efforts to identify correlates of infection h Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Patient professional reference Professional Reference articles are written by UK doctors and are based on research evidence, UK and European Guidelines. They are designed for health professionals to use. You may find the Pre-diabetes (Impaired Glucose Tolerance) article more useful, or one of our other health articles. See also the separate Childhood Ketoacidosis article. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a medical emergency with a significant morbidity and mortality. It should be diagnosed promptly and managed intensively. DKA is characterised by hyperglycaemia, acidosis and ketonaemia:[1] Ketonaemia (3 mmol/L and over), or significant ketonuria (more than 2+ on standard urine sticks). Blood glucose over 11 mmol/L or known diabetes mellitus (the degree of hyperglycaemia is not a reliable indicator of DKA and the blood glucose may rarely be normal or only slightly elevated in DKA). Bicarbonate below 15 mmol/L and/or venous pH less than 7.3. However, hyperglycaemia may not always be present and low blood ketone levels (<3 mmol/L) do not always exclude DKA.[2] Epidemiology DKA is normally seen in people with type 1 diabetes. Data from the UK National Diabetes Audit show a crude one-year incidence of 3.6% among people with type 1 diabetes. In the UK nearly 4% of people with type 1 diabetes experience DKA each year. About 6% of cases of DKA occur in adults newly presenting with type 1 diabetes. About 8% of episodes occur in hospital patients who did not primarily present with DKA.[2] However, DKA may also occur in people with type 2 diabetes, although people with type 2 diabetes are much more likely to have a hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state. Ketosis-prone type 2 diabetes tends to be more common in older, overweight, non-white people with type 2 diabetes, and DKA may be their Continue reading >>

Exam Shows Diffuse Abdominal Tenderness With Guarding.

Exam Shows Diffuse Abdominal Tenderness With Guarding.

A 14 y/o female is brought to the emergency department by her mother after being found unresponsive at home. She had been ill the day before with nausea and vomiting, but was not running a fever. Her parents had kept her home from school that day. When her mother came home at lunchtime to check on her, she was very lethargic and not responding coherently. By the time she arrived at the hospital, she had to be brought in to the ED on a gurney. Initial evaluation showed O2 sat 100% on room air, pulse 126, respirations 30, BP 92/68, temperature 101.2 F. She appears pale, mucous membranes are dry and she only responds to painful stimuli. Exam shows diffuse abdominal tenderness with guarding. Differential diagnosis? What initial treatment would you suggest? What labs would you order? Any xrays or additional studies? CBC WBC 23,500 Hgb 14.2 g/dL Hct 45% Platelets 425,000 BMP Sodium 126 Potassium 5.2 Chloride 87 CO2 <5 BUN 32 Creatinine 1.5 Glucose 1,376 Arterial Blood Gases pH 7.19 Po2 100 mm Hg HCO3 7.5 mmo/L Pco2 20 mm Hg Sao2 98% (room air) Urine Specific gravity 1.015 Ketones 4+ Leukocytes few Glucose 4+ Nitrates 0 RBCs many Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is an acute metabolic complication of diabetes characterized by hyperglycemia, hyperketonemia, and metabolic acidosis. DKA occurs mostly in type 1 diabetics. It causes nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain and can progress to cerebral edema, coma, and death. DKA is diagnosed by detection of hyperketonemia and anion gap metabolic acidosis in the presence of hyperglycemia. Treatment involves volume expansion, insulin replacement, and prevention of hypokalemia. Symptoms and signs of DKA Nausea & vomiting Abdominal pain--particularly in children Lethargy and somnolence Kussmaul respirations Hypotension Tachycardia Fruity breath Continue reading >>

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