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What Is The Name Of The Simplest Ketone?

1. Nomenclature Of Aldehydes And Ketones

1. Nomenclature Of Aldehydes And Ketones

Aldehydes and ketones are organic compounds which incorporate a carbonyl functional group, C=O. The carbon atom of this group has two remaining bonds that may be occupied by hydrogen or alkyl or aryl substituents. If at least one of these substituents is hydrogen, the compound is an aldehyde. If neither is hydrogen, the compound is a ketone. The IUPAC system of nomenclature assigns a characteristic suffix to these classes, al to aldehydes and one to ketones. For example, H2C=O is methanal, more commonly called formaldehyde. Since an aldehyde carbonyl group must always lie at the end of a carbon chain, it is by default position #1, and therefore defines the numbering direction. A ketone carbonyl function may be located anywhere within a chain or ring, and its position is given by a locator number. Chain numbering normally starts from the end nearest the carbonyl group. In cyclic ketones the carbonyl group is assigned position #1, and this number is not cited in the name, unless more than one carbonyl group is present. If you are uncertain about the IUPAC rules for nomenclature you should review them now. Examples of IUPAC names are provided (in blue) in the following diagram. Common names are in red, and derived names in black. In common names carbon atoms near the carbonyl group are often designated by Greek letters. The atom adjacent to the function is alpha, the next removed is beta and so on. Since ketones have two sets of neighboring atoms, one set is labeled α, β etc., and the other α', β' etc. Very simple ketones, such as propanone and phenylethanone (first two examples in the right column), do not require a locator number, since there is only one possible site for a ketone carbonyl function. Likewise, locator numbers are omitted for the simple dialdehyde at t Continue reading >>

14.9 Aldehydes And Ketones: Structure And Names

14.9 Aldehydes And Ketones: Structure And Names

Learning Objectives Identify the general structure for an aldehyde and a ketone. Use common names to name aldehydes and ketones. Use the IUPAC system to name aldehydes and ketones. The next functional group we consider, the carbonyl group, has a carbon-to-oxygen double bond. Carbonyl groups define two related families of organic compounds: the aldehydes and the ketones. Note The carbonyl group is ubiquitous in biological compounds. It is found in carbohydrates, fats, proteins, nucleic acids, hormones, and vitamins—organic compounds critical to living systems. In a ketone, two carbon groups are attached to the carbonyl carbon atom. The following general formulas, in which R represents an alkyl group and Ar stands for an aryl group, represent ketones. In an aldehyde, at least one of the attached groups must be a hydrogen atom. The following compounds are aldehydes: In condensed formulas, we use CHO to identify an aldehyde rather than COH, which might be confused with an alcohol. This follows the general rule that in condensed structural formulas H comes after the atom it is attached to (usually C, N, or O). The carbon-to-oxygen double bond is not shown but understood to be present. Because they contain the same functional group, aldehydes and ketones share many common properties, but they still differ enough to warrant their classification into two families. Continue reading >>

Aldehydes, Ketones, Carboxylic Acids, And Esters

Aldehydes, Ketones, Carboxylic Acids, And Esters

By the end of this section, you will be able to: Describe the structure and properties of aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and esters Another class of organic molecules contains a carbon atom connected to an oxygen atom by a double bond, commonly called a carbonyl group. The trigonal planar carbon in the carbonyl group can attach to two other substituents leading to several subfamilies (aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and esters) described in this section. Aldehydes and Ketones Both aldehydes and ketones contain a carbonyl group, a functional group with a carbon-oxygen double bond. The names for aldehyde and ketone compounds are derived using similar nomenclature rules as for alkanes and alcohols, and include the class-identifying suffixes –al and –one, respectively: In an aldehyde, the carbonyl group is bonded to at least one hydrogen atom. In a ketone, the carbonyl group is bonded to two carbon atoms: In both aldehydes and ketones, the geometry around the carbon atom in the carbonyl group is trigonal planar; the carbon atom exhibits sp2 hybridization. Two of the sp2 orbitals on the carbon atom in the carbonyl group are used to form σ bonds to the other carbon or hydrogen atoms in a molecule. The remaining sp2 hybrid orbital forms a σ bond to the oxygen atom. The unhybridized p orbital on the carbon atom in the carbonyl group overlaps a p orbital on the oxygen atom to form the π bond in the double bond. Like the C=O bond in carbon dioxide, the C=O bond of a carbonyl group is polar (recall that oxygen is significantly more electronegative than carbon, and the shared electrons are pulled toward the oxygen atom and away from the carbon atom). Many of the reactions of aldehydes and ketones start with the reaction between a Lewis base and the carbon atom at Continue reading >>

A Simple Formula For 7 Important Aldehyde/ketone Reactions

A Simple Formula For 7 Important Aldehyde/ketone Reactions

Here’s one thing you’re going to learn about reactions of aldehydes and ketones. There’s a LOT of repetition in the mechanism. You’ll see this in more detail soon, but let’s get a taste of how things work. Imagine you’re a guitar player. And someone tells you that you need to learn how to play 14 songs… ASAP. Sounds scary, right? But what if you then found that each of these songs had the exact same sequence of chords, and only differed in their lyrics? That’s a lot easier. We’re going to go through 14 reactions in this post. BUT… before you run away screaming… it’s really just ONE reaction… that works on both aldehydes and ketones… that has seven different variants. That sounds a lot simpler, right? All of the following reactions listed here proceed through the exact same sequence: Addition of nucleophile to the carbonyl carbon. Protonation of the oxygen. The reactions are the following: Grignard reaction Addition of organolithiums Reduction of aldehydes and ketones with NaBH4 and LiAlH4 Addition of (-)CN to give cyanohydrins This works for both aldehydes and ketones (even though just aldehydes are shown here). Apologies – big image. All we’re doing here is changing the identity of the nucleophile! It’s like having a formula, and all we’re doing is plugging a different nucleophile into the formula. Do you see how knowing the mechanisms here is going to make your life much easier? Because instead of having to keep track of 14 different reactions (7 different nucleophiles with aldehydes or ketones) you’re really just learning ONE reaction, with 7 different nucleophiles and two variants (aldehydes/ketones). Thanks for reading! James Organic Chemistry 2 builds on the concepts from Org 1 and introduces a lot of new reactions. Here is an Continue reading >>

Aldehydes And Ketones

Aldehydes And Ketones

Can you resist the smell of a fresh baked cinnamon bun? There’s nothing like the smell of a fresh cinnamon roll. The taste is even better. But what causes that delicious taste? This flavoring comes from the bark of a tree (actually, several different kinds of trees). One of the major compounds responsible for the taste and odor of cinnamon is cinnamaldehyde. Cinnamon has been widely used throughout the centuries to treat a number of different disorders. In ancient times, doctors believed it could cure snakebite poisoning, freckles, and the common cold. Today there are several research studies being carried out on the health benefits of cinnamon. So, enjoy that cinnamon roll – it just might be good for you. Aldehydes and Ketones Aldehydes and ketones are two related categories of organic compounds that both contain the carbonyl group, shown below. The difference between aldehydes and ketones is the placement of the carbonyl group within the molecule. An aldehyde is an organic compound in which the carbonyl group is attached to a carbon atom at the end of a carbon chain. A ketone is an organic compound in which the carbonyl group is attached to a carbon atom within the carbon chain. The general formulas for each are shown below. For aldehydes, the R group may be a hydrogen atom or any length carbon chain. Aldehydes are named by finding the longest continuous chain that contains the carbonyl group. Change the –e at the end of the name of the alkane to –al. For ketones, R and R’ must be carbon chains, of either the same or different lengths. The steps for naming ketones, followed by two examples, are shown below. Name the parent compound by finding the longest continuous chain that contains the carbonyl group. Change the –e at the end of the name of the alkane t Continue reading >>

Ketone

Ketone

Ketone, any of a class of organic compounds characterized by the presence of a carbonyl group in which the carbon atom is covalently bonded to an oxygen atom. The remaining two bonds are to other carbon atoms or hydrocarbon radicals (R): Ketone compounds have important physiological properties. They are found in several sugars and in compounds for medicinal use, including natural and synthetic steroid hormones. Molecules of the anti-inflammatory agent cortisone contain three ketone groups. Only a small number of ketones are manufactured on a large scale in industry. They can be synthesized by a wide variety of methods, and because of their ease of preparation, relative stability, and high reactivity, they are nearly ideal chemical intermediates. Many complex organic compounds are synthesized using ketones as building blocks. They are most widely used as solvents, especially in industries manufacturing explosives, lacquers, paints, and textiles. Ketones are also used in tanning, as preservatives, and in hydraulic fluids. The most important ketone is acetone (CH3COCH3), a liquid with a sweetish odour. Acetone is one of the few organic compounds that is infinitely soluble in water (i.e., soluble in all proportions); it also dissolves many organic compounds. For this reason—and because of its low boiling point (56 °C [132.8 °F]), which makes it easy to remove by evaporation when no longer wanted—it is one of the most important industrial solvents, being used in such products as paints, varnishes, resins, coatings, and nail-polish removers. The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) name of a ketone is derived by selecting as the parent the longest chain of carbon atoms that contains the carbonyl group. The parent chain is numbered from the end that Continue reading >>

Naming Ketones

Naming Ketones

Ketones are organic chemical compounds that include a -carbonyl group (i.e. an oxygen atom attached to a carbon atom by a double covalent bond) such that the carbon atom to which the -carbonyl group is attached is itself attached to two other carbon atoms - as opposed to one other carbon atom and one hydrogen atom, which the case for aldehydes That is, ketones are a class or category of organic chemical compounds that include a carbon atom attached to both an oxygen atom (by a double covalent bond), and also to two other carbon atoms (by a single covalent bond in each case). Bearing in mind that carbon atoms form a total of 4 single covalent bonds - or equivalent in combinations of double or triple bonds, a carbon atom attached to both an oxygen atom (by a double covalent bond) and also to two other carbon atoms (by a single covalent bond in each case) cannot be the first- or last - (which are equivalent positions) carbon atom in the chain of carbon atoms that form the organic molecule of which it is a part. This position of the -carbonyl group (oxygen atom) attached to a carbon atom that is not the last carbon atom in a carbon-chain is important because it distinguishes ketones from a similar category of organic compounds, called aldehydes. In contrast to ketones, aldehydes include a -carbonyl group attached to the end-carbon in a carbon-chain. Ketone molecules can vary in size up to very long molecules most of which consist of carbon atoms attached to each other and also to hydrogen atoms. Continue reading >>

Ketones

Ketones

A ketone is a compound containing a carbonyl group with two hydrocarbon groups attached to it. Formal names for ketones include the prefix from the alkyl group and the suffix -one. Two of the simplest are propanone, marketed under the name acetone, and 2-butanone, marketed under the name methyl ethyl ketone or MEK. An important ketone is fructose, or fruit sugar. Index Carbon compounds Chemistry concepts Reference Shipman, Wilson, Todd Sec 15.4 Propanone (Acetone) The ketone propanone is more widely known by its common name acetone. Acetone is the simplest of the ketones. Acetone is a commonly used solvent and is the active ingredient in nail polish remover and some paint thinners. It is used in the manufacture of plastics, and care must be exercised with its use around plastic objects since it will dissolve many plastics. It is found in small amounts in living organisms, including the human body. Index Carbon compounds Chemistry concepts Reference Shipman, Wilson, Todd Sec 15.4 2-Butanone ( Methyl Ethyl Ketone or MEK) The ketone 2-butanone is more widely known by its common name Methyl Ethyl Ketone or MEK. MEK is a widely used solvent. It is used in paints and other coatings because it will quickly evaporate. It is used in synthetic rubber, in the production of paraffin wax, lacquers and varnishes, in paint removers. It is a denaturing agent for denatured alcohol. MEK is also used in dry erase markers as the solvent of the erasable dye. MEK is made by some trees and found in some fruits and vegetables in small amounts. Index Carbon compounds Chemistry concepts Reference Shipman, Wilson, Todd Sec 15.4 Continue reading >>

Ketone

Ketone

In chemistry, a ketone (alkanone) /ˈkiːtoʊn/ is an organic compound with the structure RC(=O)R', where R and R' can be a variety of carbon-containing substituents. Ketones and aldehydes are simple compounds that contain a carbonyl group (a carbon-oxygen double bond). They are considered "simple" because they do not have reactive groups like −OH or −Cl attached directly to the carbon atom in the carbonyl group, as in carboxylic acids containing −COOH.[1] Many ketones are known and many are of great importance in industry and in biology. Examples include many sugars (ketoses) and the industrial solvent acetone, which is the smallest ketone. Nomenclature and etymology The word ketone is derived from Aketon, an old German word for acetone.[2][3] According to the rules of IUPAC nomenclature, ketones are named by changing the suffix -ane of the parent alkane to -anone. The position of the carbonyl group is usually denoted by a number. For the most important ketones, however, traditional nonsystematic names are still generally used, for example acetone and benzophenone. These nonsystematic names are considered retained IUPAC names,[4] although some introductory chemistry textbooks use systematic names such as "2-propanone" or "propan-2-one" for the simplest ketone (CH3−CO−CH3) instead of "acetone". The common names of ketones are obtained by writing separately the names of the two alkyl groups attached to the carbonyl group, followed by "ketone" as a separate word. The names of the alkyl groups are written alphabetically. When the two alkyl groups are the same, the prefix di- is added before the name of alkyl group. The positions of other groups are indicated by Greek letters, the α-carbon being the atom adjacent to carbonyl group. If both alkyl groups in a keton Continue reading >>

Nomenclature Of Aldehydes And Ketones

Nomenclature Of Aldehydes And Ketones

The IUPAC names of open chain aliphatic aldehydes and ketones are derived from the names of the corresponding alkanes by replacing the ending -e with -al and -one respectively. The following steps are followed: a) The longest carbon chain containing the carbonyl carbon is taken to decide the name of the parent alkane. b) The carbon chain is numbered from the end nearer to the carbonyl group and the substituents are prefixed in alphabetical order along with Arabic numerals including their positions in the carbon chain. The carbon of the aldehydic group and the carbonyl carbon in cyclic ketones always get the number 1. c) When the aldehyde group is attached to a ring, the numbering of the ring carbon atoms starts from the carbon atom attached to the aldehyde group. The suffix carbaldehyde is added after the full name of the hydrocarbon. The simplest aromatic aldehyde carrying the aldehyde group on a benzene ring is benzaldehyde. Other ring substituted aromatic aldehydes are derivatives of benzaldehyde is ortho-hydroxy benzaldehyde. The trivial names of aldehydes are derived from the trivial names of the corresponding carboxylic acids by replacing the ending ic, for acid with aldehyde. The positions of the substituents in the carbon chain are indicated by Greek letters a, b, g, d etc, the a-carbon being the one directly linked to the aldehyde group, the b-carbon the next and on. Example: The common names of ketones are derived by adding the names of the alkyl or aryl groups directly linked to the carbonyl group before the word ketone. The simplest ketone is acetone. The positions of the substituents are indicated by the Greek letters a, a', b', b' and so on. a, a' carbons being the ones directly attached to the carbonyl group. Examples: Ketones with a carbonyl group attach Continue reading >>

Ketone

Ketone

Previous (Kermit Roosevelt, Jr.) Next (Key (music)) A ketone (pronounced as key tone) is either the functional group characterized by a carbonyl group (O=C) linked to two other carbon atoms or a chemical compound that contains this functional group. A ketone can be generally represented by the formula: A carbonyl carbon bonded to two carbon atoms distinguishes ketones from carboxylic acids, aldehydes, esters, amides, and other oxygen-containing compounds. The double-bond of the carbonyl group distinguishes ketones from alcohols and ethers. The simplest ketone is acetone (also called propanone). Mold Test Kits Easy to Use, Fast Results Available Interpretive Lab Report moldtesting.com The carbon atom adjacent to a carbonyl group is called the α-carbon. Hydrogens attached to this carbon are called α-hydrogens. In the presence of an acid catalyst the ketone is subjected to so-called keto-enol tautomerism. The reaction with a strong base gives the corresponding enolate. A diketone is a compound containing two ketone groups. Nomenclature In general, ketones are named using IUPAC nomenclature by changing the suffix -e of the parent alkane to -one. For common ketones, some traditional names such as acetone and benzophenone predominate, and these are considered retained IUPAC names,[1] although some introductory chemistry texts use names such as propanone. Oxo is the formal IUPAC nomenclature for a ketone functional group. However, other prefixes are also used by various books and journals. For some common chemicals (mainly in biochemistry), keto or oxy is the term used to describe the ketone (also known as alkanone) functional group. Oxo also refers to a single oxygen atom coordinated to a transition metal (a metal oxo). Physical properties A carbonyl group is polar. This ma Continue reading >>

Aldehydes And Ketones

Aldehydes And Ketones

Introduction We will focus more specifically on the organic compounds that incorporate carbonyl groups: aldehydes and ketones. Key Terms Aldehyde Formyl group Ketone Hydrogen bonding Hydration Hydrate Objectives Identify IUPAC names for simple aldehydes and ketones Describe the boiling point and solubility characteristics of aldehydes and ketones relative to those of alkanes and alcohols Characterize the process of nucleophilic addition to the carbonyl group The carbonyl group is shown below in the context of synthesizing alcohols. This functional group is the key component of aldehydes and ketones, which we will discuss here. Nomenclature for Aldehydes and Ketones Aldehydes and ketones are structurally similar; the only difference is that for an aldehyde, the carbonyl group has at most one substituent alkyl group, whereas the carbonyl group in a ketone has two. Several examples of aldehydes and ketones are depicted below. Aldehydes are named by replacing the -e ending of an alkane with -al (similarly to the use of -ol in alcohols). The base molecule is the longest carbon chain ending with the carbonyl group. Furthermore, the carbon atom in the carbonyl group is assumed to be carbon 1, so a number is not needed in the IUPAC name to identify the location of the doubly bonded oxygen atom. If the chain contains two carbonyl groups, one at each end, the correct suffix is -dial (used in the same manner as -diol for compounds with two hydroxyl groups). An example aldehyde is shown below with its IUPAC name. One- and two-carbon aldehydes have common names (one of which you will likely be familiar with) in addition to their systematic names. Both names are acceptable. Sometimes, the carbonyl group plus one proton (called a formyl group) must be treated separately for nomenclatu Continue reading >>

Monosaccharides Are Aldehydes Or Ketones With Multiple Hydroxyl Groups

Monosaccharides Are Aldehydes Or Ketones With Multiple Hydroxyl Groups

Monosaccharides, the simplest carbohydrates, are aldehydes or ketones that have two or more hydroxyl groups; the empirical formula of many is (C-H2O)n, literally a “carbon hydrate.” Monosaccharides are important fuel molecules as well as building blocks for nucleic acids. The smallest monosaccharides, for which n = 3, are dihydroxyacetone and d- and l-glyceraldehyde. They are referred to as trioses (tri- for 3). Dihydroxyacetone is called a ketose because it contains a keto group, whereas glyceraldehyde is called an aldose because it contains an aldehyde group. Glyceraldehyde has a single asymmetric carbon and, thus, there are two stereoisomers of this sugar. d-Glyceraldehyde and l-glyceraldehyde are enantiomers, or mirror images of each other. As mentioned in Chapter 3, the prefixes d and l designate the absolute configuration. Monosaccharides and other sugars will often be represented in this book by Fischer projections (Figure 11.1). Recall that, in a Fischer projection of a molecule, atoms joined to an asymmetric carbon atom by horizontal bonds are in front of the plane of the page, and those joined by vertical bonds are behind (see the Appendix in Chapter 1). Fischer projections are useful for depicting carbohydrate structures because they provide clear and simple views of the stereochemistry at each carbon center. Simple monosaccharides with four, five, six, and seven carbon atoms are called tetroses, pentoses, hexoses, and heptoses, respectively. Because these molecules have multiple asymmetric carbons, they exist as diastereoisomers, isomers that are not mirror images of each other, as well as enantiomers. In regard to these monosaccharides, the symbols d and l designate the absolute configuration of the asymmetric carbon farthest from the aldehyde or keto g Continue reading >>

Ketone

Ketone

Not to be confused with ketone bodies. Ketone group Acetone In chemistry, a ketone (alkanone) /ˈkiːtoʊn/ is an organic compound with the structure RC(=O)R', where R and R' can be a variety of carbon-containing substituents. Ketones and aldehydes are simple compounds that contain a carbonyl group (a carbon-oxygen double bond). They are considered "simple" because they do not have reactive groups like −OH or −Cl attached directly to the carbon atom in the carbonyl group, as in carboxylic acids containing −COOH.[1] Many ketones are known and many are of great importance in industry and in biology. Examples include many sugars (ketoses) and the industrial solvent acetone, which is the smallest ketone. Nomenclature and etymology[edit] The word ketone is derived from Aketon, an old German word for acetone.[2][3] According to the rules of IUPAC nomenclature, ketones are named by changing the suffix -ane of the parent alkane to -anone. The position of the carbonyl group is usually denoted by a number. For the most important ketones, however, traditional nonsystematic names are still generally used, for example acetone and benzophenone. These nonsystematic names are considered retained IUPAC names,[4] although some introductory chemistry textbooks use systematic names such as "2-propanone" or "propan-2-one" for the simplest ketone (CH3−CO−CH3) instead of "acetone". The common names of ketones are obtained by writing separately the names of the two alkyl groups attached to the carbonyl group, followed by "ketone" as a separate word. The names of the alkyl groups are written alphabetically. When the two alkyl groups are the same, the prefix di- is added before the name of alkyl group. The positions of other groups are indicated by Greek letters, the α-carbon being th Continue reading >>

What Is Ketone? - Definition, Structure, Formation & Formula

What Is Ketone? - Definition, Structure, Formation & Formula

Background of Ketone Did you know that our friend aldehyde has a very close relative named ketone? By definition, a ketone is an organic compound that contains a carbonyl functional group. So you may be wondering if aldehydes and ketones are relatives, what makes them different? Well, I am glad you asked because all you have to remember is this little guy: hydrogen. While aldehyde contains a hydrogen atom connected to its carbonyl group, ketone does not have a hydrogen atom attached. There are a few ways to know you are encountering a ketone. The first is by looking at the ending of the chemical word. If the suffix ending of the chemical name is '-one,' then you can be sure there is a ketone present in that compound. Want to know another way to tell if a ketone is lurking around the corner? By its physical property. Ketones have high boiling points and love water (high water solubility). Let's dig a little deeper with the physical property of a ketone. The oxygen in a ketone absolutely loves to take all the electrons it can get its hands on. But, by being an electron-hogger, oxygen's refusal to share creates a sticky situation where some atoms on the ketone have more or less charge than others. In chemistry, an electron-hogging atom is referred to as being electronegative. An electronegative atom is more attractive to other compounds. This attractiveness, called polarity, is what contributes to ketones' physical properties. Structure & Formula Ketones have a very distinct look to them; you can't miss it if you see them. As shown in Diagram 1, there are two R groups attached to the carbonyl group (C=O). Those R groups can be any type of compound that contains a carbon molecule. An example of how the R group determines ketone type is illustrated in this diagram here. The Continue reading >>

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