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What Is The Most Common Cause Of Metabolic Acidosis?

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Anion gap usmle - anion gap metabolic acidosis normal anion gap metabolic acidosis

Metabolic Acidosis

Metabolic acidosis is a condition that occurs when the body produces excessive quantities of acid or when the kidneys are not removing enough acid from the body. If unchecked, metabolic acidosis leads to acidemia, i.e., blood pH is low (less than 7.35) due to increased production of hydrogen ions by the body or the inability of the body to form bicarbonate (HCO3−) in the kidney. Its causes are diverse, and its consequences can be serious, including coma and death. Together with respiratory acidosis, it is one of the two general causes of acidemia. Terminology : Acidosis refers to a process that causes a low pH in blood and tissues. Acidemia refers specifically to a low pH in the blood. In most cases, acidosis occurs first for reasons explained below. Free hydrogen ions then diffuse into the blood, lowering the pH. Arterial blood gas analysis detects acidemia (pH lower than 7.35). When acidemia is present, acidosis is presumed. Signs and symptoms[edit] Symptoms are not specific, and diagnosis can be difficult unless the patient presents with clear indications for arterial blood gas sampling. Symptoms may include chest pain, palpitations, headache, altered mental status such as sev Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. Stephenmjohnson

    Hey guys. I'm new to the ketogenic eating pattern. I'm coming from a lifestyle of hundreds of carbs per day, some days nothing but carbs. I happened upon keto when hearing about low carb and I literally jumped right in the next day. I figured out my macros and I'm eating percentages of 75/20/5 and grams 167/100/25 to a very strict level, hitting/missing my daily 2000 calories by less than 20.
    I've read for nearly 30 hours in the last week learning every thing about mct's and omega 3/6/9. Net carbs and intermediate fasting. Insulin and glucogenesis. All of this is new but when I commit I commit, and I'm certain I've stuck to my macros and I'm doing my best every day to tweak my meal plan to get the right fats. No mood swings or sickness, no headaches, no bad breath, nada.
    It's been almost a week and I haven't a single sign of ketosis. I had a sore throat and thought surely it's starting, but my wife revealed she has the flu so it's likely just that. My urine is very clear as I'm hydrating like a beast. My sodium levels are probably on point due to drinking salt water here and there and eating salt like its my job. I was thinking maybe this is why I'm missing out on the signs. I don't have the keto urine strips yet but I'm just thinking if I've missed something. Do some people never develop the breath/taste? Does it take a reeeeally long time for some people to switch over? And if that's my case, what's my body doing right now for energy? Should I cut my protein? Should I try IF? Should I workout to force my body to find energy sources? (Haven't jumped into that yet but I wanted to adjust first)
    Thanks :)

  2. WillowWagner

    Are you using a food scale? An online food tracker? Have you worked out your macros with the calculator in the sidebar? If all those are yeses, the you're in ketosis and just not feeling any side effects. That's because you read all the info, paid attention, and followed the suggestions. If you're staying well hydrated and your electrolytes are all topped off, then that's not a real surprise. Have you lost any weight yet? Feeling good?
    Congratulations, and welcome to keto!

  3. Stephenmjohnson

    I weigh everything and log everything with myfitnesspal. My macros are from a calculator. I've been drinking lemon (counting carbs here too) salt water for the lytes and hydration.. So maybe you're right? My weight moved down and up on the scale but I'm sure that's simply water weight.
    I do have another question tho. I've read some people drinking diet soda here and there in moderation. I tried a few sips tonight just for the flavor and I noticed two things: 1)the sweetness was out of this world. I never remember diet ginger ale tasting so strong 2) immediately all I wanted were carbs. My stomach went nuts and I just kept picturing bagels haha. Is there something in sodas that would trigger a GIVE ME CARBS response?
    Thanks for the welcome :) I'm enjoying it. despite the scale, I do already feel better subjectively. Not nearly as bloated either.

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To get mycotoxins out of your body, the best supplement is "Bind" from Systemic Formulas. It is an activated charcoal product. Here's a good anti-candida diet: http://www.myradiary.com/1214/candida.... Please like, share and subscribe to my YouTube page to get notifications whenever I post a new video! You have already taken the first step to better your health by watching my video! Next, I recommend that you join our Long Distance Patient Program so that you can get diet modification and supplement recommendations designed specifically for you by me or one of my fellow practitioners in our Ann Arbor, Michigan office. You have to be a patient of our office in order to receive supplements, per our distribution agreement with the producer of the Standard Process brand supplements. Becoming a Long Distance Patient as outlined below allows you that access. In order to be part of our online patient program, you would purchase an annual membership for $200. This membership includes an initial 30 minute phone appointment with me or one of our practitioners. At that time, the practitioner will make a recommendation to you for diet modifications, supplements and the quantities that you should take. After the phone call, you are able to order supplements for a year, as needed, directly from our website and our app. We will then promptly ship the supplements out to you. Follow up phone calls with your practitioner are $125 for a 20 minute phone/SKYPE appointment. If you would like to move forward and take advantage of this opportunity, please call: (734) 302-7575 or email [email protected] to schedule your phone appointment, and make the $200 payment. You can reach us by phone Monday through Saturday 9am-5pm EST. To learn more about our office and clinical practice, go to: http://thenutritionalhealingcenter.com Since not everyone is fortunate enough to live within driving distance of Ann Arbor, Michigan, and many feel that an telephone/online consultation is not enough to meet their clinical needs, I am happy to offer you our Long Distance Patient Travel Package. The package is comprised of a series of appointments with myself or another practitioner that are time sensitive, and a time allowance of 48-72 hours in our beautiful city is required. Not only are your health issues of concern thoroughly evaluated, but you receive a comprehensive full body evaluation, two different computerized cardiac health tests, a great deal of teaching and health education, and leave with a program of diet modification and supplement support that the practitioner is confident will improve your health and quality of life. This program can initiate your relationship with our clinic, and be followed up with telephone/online consultations, or it can be incorporated into your already existing program with our clinic to further enhance the program you already have in place. The cost for the Long Distance Travel Package is $560 and includes everything mentioned above. We also have a relationship with a lovely landmark hotel conveniently located less than 2 miles from our office, that offers a reduced nightly rate to our patients. In the meantime, if you are truly interested in what we have to offer, please watch these 5 important videos of mine: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... If you find my info helpful, please visit my Patreon page. https://www.patreon.com/drdarrenschmi... We look forward to helping you feel your best! This statement has not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease. UCC 1-308 without prejudice.

Causes Of Lactic Acidosis

INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITION Lactate levels greater than 2 mmol/L represent hyperlactatemia, whereas lactic acidosis is generally defined as a serum lactate concentration above 4 mmol/L. Lactic acidosis is the most common cause of metabolic acidosis in hospitalized patients. Although the acidosis is usually associated with an elevated anion gap, moderately increased lactate levels can be observed with a normal anion gap (especially if hypoalbuminemia exists and the anion gap is not appropriately corrected). When lactic acidosis exists as an isolated acid-base disturbance, the arterial pH is reduced. However, other coexisting disorders can raise the pH into the normal range or even generate an elevated pH. (See "Approach to the adult with metabolic acidosis", section on 'Assessment of the serum anion gap' and "Simple and mixed acid-base disorders".) Lactic acidosis occurs when lactic acid production exceeds lactic acid clearance. The increase in lactate production is usually caused by impaired tissue oxygenation, either from decreased oxygen delivery or a defect in mitochondrial oxygen utilization. (See "Approach to the adult with metabolic acidosis".) The pathophysiology and causes Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. Sting

    Just done a quick Google and here are some comments i read....
    - There's nothing magical about ketosis and you will still gain if energy in exceeds energy out. Ketosis is not neccessary for fatloss and you shouldn't put coconut and other fat sources everywhere. Focus on more protein from meat/eggs/dairy + green veggies and don't add any fats other than some fishoil. You'll be getting enough fats from your protein sources and don't have to worry about ketosis.
    - Damn. Thanks Manimal- I feel like kind of an idiot now for not assuming this, but ketosis gets such cred on this board! I mean, if weight on ketosis still equals energy in and energy out, what's all the fuss about?
    - Ketosis means that your body is using mostly fat for fuel. IF you are eating less energy than you burn, then yay, it'll be mostly stored fat that your body uses, and you will shrink. But if you are eating more energy, then you will still be laying down fat faster than you burn it. The win in ketosis is that most people are a lot less hungry. It does not add up to fat loss by itself.
    - If I go to ketosis I will usually undereat without planning to, because my appetite just shrinks. But this might not be true for you. And coconut is not a magic free fat loss food. The fats in it are easy to digest and it's a good choice for promoting ketosis, but if you eat enough of it, you can still get fatter on it.
    - It is possible to gain weight in ketosis - calories still matter
    Thoughts?

  2. Meli-Mel

    I think ketosis is part of the big picture, but not the only defining factor in weight loss.

  3. Dottie

    As you can tell reading this site alone, your mileage may vary
    Some people can eat as many calories as they like, others have to watch them.
    As with anything: everyone and everybody is different.
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    http://www.lowcarbfriends.com/contact.html
    Everyone has an opinion. Take what you need and leave the rest.
    Be sure to visit Netrition on Facebook for the latest products and deals!
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What is BASAL METABOLIC RATE? What does BASAL METABOLIC RATE mean? BASAL METABOLIC RATE meaning - BASAL METABOLIC RATE definition - BASAL METABOLIC RATE explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the minimal rate of energy expenditure per unit time by endothermic animals at rest. It is reported in energy units per unit time ranging from watt (joule/second) to ml O2/min or joule per hour per kg body mass J/(hkg)). Proper measurement requires a strict set of criteria be met. These criteria include being in a physically and psychologically undisturbed state, in a thermally neutral environment, while in the post-absorptive state (i.e., not actively digesting food). In bradymetabolic animals, such as fish and reptiles, the equivalent term standard metabolic rate (SMR) is used. It follows the same criteria as BMR, but requires the documentation of the temperature at which the metabolic rate was measured. This makes BMR a variant of standard metabolic rate measurement that excludes the temperature data, a practice that has led to problems in defining "standard" rates of metabolism for many mammals. Metabolism comprises the processes that the body needs to function. Basal metabolic rate is the amount of energy expressed in calories that a person needs to keep the body functioning at rest. Some of those processes are breathing, blood circulation, controlling body temperature, cell growth, brain and nerve function, and contraction of muscles. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) affects the rate that a person burns calories and ultimately whether that individual maintains, gains, or loses weight. The basal metabolic rate accounts for about 60 to 75% of the daily calorie expenditure by individuals. It is influenced by several factors. BMR typically declines by 12% per decade after age 20, mostly due to loss of fat-free mass, although the variability between individuals is high. The body's generation of heat is known as thermogenesis and it can be measured to determine the amount of energy expended. BMR generally decreases with age and with the decrease in lean body mass (as may happen with aging). Increasing muscle mass has the effect of increasing BMR. Aerobic (resistance) fitness level, a product of cardiovascular exercise, while previously thought to have effect on BMR, has been shown in the 1990s not to correlate with BMR when adjusted for fat-free body mass. But anaerobic exercise does increase resting energy consumption (see "aerobic vs. anaerobic exercise"). Illness, previously consumed food and beverages, environmental temperature, and stress levels can affect one's overall energy expenditure as well as one's BMR. BMR is measured under very restrictive circumstances when a person is awake. An accurate BMR measurement requires that the person's sympathetic nervous system not be stimulated, a condition which requires complete rest. A more common measurement, which uses less strict criteria, is resting metabolic rate (RMR).

Metabolic Acidosis

Metabolic acidosis is the most common acid–base disorder and can be life threatening. It results from excessive cellular acid production, reduced acid secretion, or loss of body alkali. The body has two buffering mechanisms to counteract an increase in acid. The initial response is to increase carbon dioxide excretion by increasing ventilation. The second response is increased renal excretion of acids and renal regeneration of bicarbonate. The adequacy of compensation can be assessed by the quick check method or the Winter formula (Table 2). Metabolic acidosis can be classified into two categories using the anion gap. Each category has a distinct differential diagnosis. Anion gap = [Sodium] – ([Chloride] + [Bicarbonate]) Normally, the anion gap is approximately 12 ± 2 meq/L (12 ± 2 mmol/L). Most unmeasured anions consist of albumin. Therefore, the presence of either a low albumin level or an unmeasured cationic light chain, which occurs in multiple myeloma, results in a low anion gap. Increased hydrogen ion concentration or decreased bicarbonate concentration will increase the gap. When the primary disturbance is a metabolic acidosis, the anion gap helps to narr Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. Tj_Slattery

    Here are my 90 day pics. Down 22# but have literally been stuck there for 3 weeks.

    Can't deny the progress but was hoping for some more consistent progress. A bit afraid of fasting, so any direction from "lifers" would be appreciated.

  2. djindy

    you should probably put this in the "Stall Point" sub category, as that's what your topic is about.

    In any case, can you provide some more information about what you are doing?
    Are you tracking what you eat, macros, etc?
    Have you adjusted what you eat based on your new bodyweight/lbm etc?

  3. Fiorella

    You will continue to lose with keto, just at a slower pace. Hitting plateaus, and then seeing another weight reduction is very common. But, it takes patience. Some people have to wait weeks or months to see the needle move again. This is because your body is "moving furniture around" if I may use that analogy.
    To move the needle much faster, fasting is employed to set autophagy at a more rapid pace. For instance, your body needs to now get rid of the extra skin that went around your tummy. With keto alone, it is slower. By fasting, the autophagy of the unneeded skin cells is accelerated.
    Here's the diagram at this link
    227 that I use to express this sort of dynamic. The longer the fasting window, the more weight loss. And then keto helps to sustain your weight loss. If the only fasting you are doing is a couple of hours between meals, then the rock is barely rolled up the hill. A longer fasting window induces greater weightloss, and then you can use keto to sustain your loss.

    So, the question becomes this: are you okay with slow weightloss, or do you want a more rapid approach to your target weight? Either answer is ok. Just need to be honest with yourself with what you want to do. It is completely normal to plateau on keto, and then experience slower weightloss. But, you need to be ok with this. If not, then fasting is another strategy you may want to try.

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