1. Differentiate Between Science And Non-science.
Biology 1322 Study Guides Section I. Overview and Diet Planning The student should be able to: 2. Distinguish between the 3 types of evidence used in nutrition and know the uses of each. 3. Describe the placebo effect and explain its relevance to nutrition. 4. Give several reasons why people make the food choices that they do. 5. List 6 classes of nutrients. Identify the fuel nutrients and the energy yield of each per gram. Know which nutrients are organic or inorganic. 6. Describe the Dietary Reference Intakes. What are the 4 components of the DRI? How are they determined? How are the RDAs different from requirements? 7. What is the Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) and how is it set? Identify the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDR) for carbohydrate, fat and protein. 8. List and explain the 6 diet planning principles. 9. Describe the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (2005). How are they developed and what is their purpose? 10. How does the 2005 Food Guide reflect the Dietary Guidelines for Americans? Visit the mypramid.gov website and identify nutrient dense choices in each food group. Explain what is meant by discretionary kilocalorie allowance (or Discretionary Calories). Why should fruit juice be limited? 11. Describe nutrition label information and ingredient label information. Indicate when each is required, what information is required, and what format is followed. Explain how nutrient claims and descriptive terms on food labels are regulated? What is the difference between a qualified and unqualified health claim? Which is more valid? 12. Terms: Nutrition, nutrients, essential, fuel nutrient, diet, nutrient density, functional food, nutritional genomics. Section II. Digestion, Absorption, and Transport The student should be able to: 1. Describe Continue reading >>
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- Relative contribution of type 1 and type 2 diabetes loci to the genetic etiology of adult-onset, non-insulin-requiring autoimmune diabetes
Overview Carbohydrates, fats and proteins are macronutrients. We require them in relatively large amounts for normal function and good health. These are also energy-yielding nutrients, meaning these nutrients provide calories. On This Page: What are Carbohydrates? Carbohydrates Understanding Carbohydrates Every few years, carbohydrates are vilified as public enemy number one and are accused of being the root of obesity, diabetes, heart disease and more. Carb-bashers shun yogurt and fruit and fill up on bun-less cheeseburgers. Instead of beans, they eat bacon. They dine on the tops of pizza and toss the crusts into the trash. They so vehemently avoid carbs and spout off a list of their evils that they may have you fearing your food. Rest assured, you can and should eat carbohydrates. In fact, much of the world relies on carbohydrates as their major source of energy. Rice, for instance, is a staple in Southeast Asia. The carbohydrate-rich potato was so important to the people of Ireland that when the blight devastated the potato crop in the mid 1800s, much of the population was wiped out. What are Carbohydrates? The basic structure of carbohydrates is a sugar molecule, and they are classified by how many sugar molecules they contain. Simple carbohydrates, usually referred to as sugars, are naturally present in fruit, milk and other unprocessed foods. Plant carbohydrates can be refined into table sugar and syrups, which are then added to foods such as sodas, desserts, sweetened yogurts and more. Simple carbohydrates may be single sugar molecules called monosaccharides or two monosaccharides joined together called disaccharides. Glucose, a monosaccharide, is the most abundant sugar molecule and is the preferred energy source for the brain. It is a part of all disaccharides Continue reading >>
Daily Protein Requirement
Your daily protein requirement is affected by several factors: Activity level: the more active you are, the more protein you can eat. This is especially true of resistance type exercise such as weight lifting. Essential protein intake: Nine of the 20 required amino acids (the molecular building blocks which make up proteins) are essential, meaning the body cannot make them so they must be obtained from the food we eat. Your gender and basic build: In general, men need more protein than women, and more muscular people also require more protein to maintain lean body mass. The official recommended daily allowance (RDA) for protein intake is set at .36 grams per pound of body weight each day. This figure represents the minimum intake needed to maintain health. The protein requirements for those who are looking to optimize health, who are sick, injured or on a very low carb diet may be different. It’s also important to know that a daily protein requirement should never be based on percentage of calories. A person's protein requirements are constant no matter how many calories he or she eats each day because the amount of protein needed is a function of a person’s lean body mass (LBM) or on total ideal body weight if LBM is not known. Calculating protein needs should be based on maintaining positive nitrogen balance. Amino acids contain nitrogen. The protein we eat gets metabolized into amino acids for use in building new muscle and other tissues. Excess nitrogen is excreted via the urine. When the amount of nitrogen excreted is less than the amount of nitrogen in the food we ate, we can say that we are in positive nitrogen balance and it means we took in enough protein to build new tissues. If we don’t eat enough protein, then we get into a negative nitrogen balance. W Continue reading >>
STUDY GUIDE 2: CARBOHYDRATE Directions. Using your text Chapter 4, Page A, and Appendix H), answer the following questions. The questions are to be copied followed by the answers. Be sure to put your name on your document. Your answers should be thoughtful, complete, and in Standard English. Credit will not be given for answers copied from online sources. . 2. Define the following Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) Acid-base balance Amylase Artificial sweeteners Carbohydrates Condensation Dental caries Dental plaque Diabetes Dietary fibers Disaccharides Epinephrine Fermentable Fructose Galactose Glucagon Gluconeogenesis Glucose Glycemic index Glycemic response Glycogen Hydrolysis Hypoglycemia Insoluble fibers Insulin Kefir Ketone bodies Ketosis Lactase Lactose Lactase deficiency Lactose intolerance Maltase. Maltose Monosaccharides Nonnutritive sweeteners Nutritive sweeteners Phytic acid Polysaccharides Protein-sparing action Resistant starches Satiety Sucrase Sucrose Soluble fibers Starches Sugar alcohols Type 1 diabetes Type 2 diabetes Viscous 3. Lactose intolerance and sensitivity appears to be a growing phenomenon in this country. Even though many people limit or avoid dairy products in their diets, they seem to still suffer from symptoms. What would account for this fact? What characteristics may predispose individuals to become lactose intolerant and/or sensitive? c. What dietary options that would be feasible for individuals who are lactose intolerant/sensitive allow them to meet critical nutrient needs such as calcium, riboflavin, and vitamin D? 4. Nat Anderson. is a 48-year-old landscape architect who is concerned about his recent weight gain. He is 69 inches tall and weighs 202 pounds. His usual weight is 190 pounds. Mr. Anderson reports that—due to his busy sched Continue reading >>
Nutrition Self Assessment 4
front 1 Based on height, weight, age & physical activity level, you have calculated that you should be consuming about 2200 kcalories per day. Which of the following portions is closest to the discretionary kcalories allowed in the USDA Food Guide for added sugars in your diet. back 1 15 tsp honey front 2 In which of the following are ample amounts of carbohydrates almost always found? back 2 Plant foods front 3 What is the minimum daily amount of dietary carbohydrate necessary to spare body protein from excessive breakdown? back 3 50-100g front 4 What type of fiber is readily digested by colonic bacteria? back 4 Fermentable front 5 Which of the following is a feature of kefir? back 5 It contains live bacterial organisms front 6 Approximately how many kcalories are provided by two teaspoons of sugar? back 6 30 front 7 A person diagnosed w/milk allergy would be sensitive to the milk's back 7 protein front 8 What is the name of the animal polysaccharide composed of glucose units? back 8 Glycogen front 9 All of the following are properties of fiber EXCEPT back 9 it elevates blood glucose levels front 10 What is the chief reason that many people w/lactose intolerance can consume food containing some lactose w/out suffering any symptoms? back 10 A change occurs in the GI bacteria front 11 What is the predominant sweetener used in formulating beverages? back 11 High-frctose corn syrup front 12 What is the predominant grain product in much of the South & Central America? back 12 Corn front 13 What is another name for lactose? back 13 Milk sugar front 14 What are cellulose, pectin, hemicellulose, & lignin? back 14 Fibers front 15 Glycogen is stored mainly in which of the following tissues? back 15 Muscle & liver front 16 When you are under physical stress, what hormone is relea Continue reading >>
Dietary Protein Requirements
This is a summary/extract from The Ketogenic Diet by Lyle McDonald. […] too much protein can prevent ketosis as well, disrupting the adaptations which ketogenic dieters seek. Therefore, protein intake must fall within a narrow range: high enough to prevent muscle loss but low enough that ketosis is not disrupted. After much research, it was concluded that a protein intake of 1.5-1.75 grams protein per kilogram of ideal body weight would spare most of the nitrogen loss, especially as ketosis developed and the body’s glucose requirements decreased. Assuming zero carbohydrate intake, during the first 3 weeks of a ketogenic diet a protein intake of ~150 grams per day should be sufficient to achieve nitrogen balance. Therefore, regardless of bodyweight, the minimum amount of protein which should be consumed during the initial three weeks of a ketogenic diet is 150 grams per day. After 3 weeks of ketosis, as little as 50 grams of protein per day should provide enough glucose to achieve nitrogen balance. The consumption of carbohydrate will decrease dietary protein requirements since less glucose will need to be made from protein breakdown. For example, if a person was consuming 125 grams of protein per day, this would produce 72 grams of glucose plus 18 more from the breakdown of glycerol for a total of 90 grams of glucose. To avoid any nitrogen losses, this individual could either consume 10 grams of carbohydrate per day or simply increase protein intake to 150 grams per day. (For every gram of carbohydrate consumed on a ketogenic diet, protein requirements should go down by 2 grams). Continue reading >>
Not Losing Weight On A Low-carb Ketogenic Diet? Don’t Give Up And Read Further
The ketogenic diet is not only known to be one of the most effective weight loss tools, but has proven to have many health benefits. Ketosis is a state at which your body produces ketones in the liver, shifting the body's metabolism away from glucose and towards fat utilization. Unless you can check your blood ketones, using Ketostix is an easy way to detect urinary ketones. It's not the most accurate method, but may be good enough to find out whether you are in ketosis. In some cases, weight loss may be difficult even on a low-carb ketogenic diet and there may be a few possible reasons for weight stalling, which I have listed in this post. If you want to know more about the ketogenic diet and how it can help you lose weight, have a look at my Practical Guide to Keto Diet which is freely available on my website also as PDF. 3 free diet plans to help you kickstart your diet, lose weight and get healthy Recipes, giveaways and exclusive deals delivered directly to your inbox A chance to win the KetoDiet app every week Top Reasons You Are Not Losing Weight on a Keto Diet 1. Carbs are Too High Your carbohydrate intake may be too high. Try to decrease your daily carbs limit. Also try to include coconut oil in your diet. Coconut oil consists of MCTs (Medium chain triglycerides), which are easily digestible, less likely to be stored by your body and are used for immediate energy. MCTs are converted in the liver into ketones, which helps you enter ketosis. If you want to know more about carbs, check out this post. For more about ketones, have a look at this post. 2. Protein is Too High or Too Low Your protein intake may be too high/ low. Protein is the most sating macronutrient and you should include high-quality animal protein in your diet. If you don't eat enough protein, you Continue reading >>
How Many Carbs Should I Eat To Prevent Ketosis?
When you’re on a low-carb diet, your body kicks into action, breaking down fats into ketone bodies to use for energy. This increase in ketones -- called ketosis -- is a normal adaptation to cutting carbs. In fact, the switch to ketosis is why low-carb diets work. Even though you could eat enough carbs to prevent ketosis, it's important to clarify why you want to avoid it. There's nothing unhealthy about ketosis, so you may just need to correct any misinformation to make the best decision for your weight-loss goals. Video of the Day Deal With Concerns Over Ketosis Ketosis is often confused with ketoacidosis, which is unfortunate -- ketosis is normal, while ketoacidosis is a dangerous condition related to type 1 diabetes. Most people on a low-carb diet tolerate ketosis without any problems. Then after the pounds are dropped, carb intake is gradually increased so you're out of ketosis by the time you reach the maintenance phase. If you decide to stay in an induction phase longer than the low-carb plan recommends, consult your doctor to be safe. People with type 1 diabetes are at risk for developing ketoacidosis from lack of insulin. Due to the complex metabolism of diabetes, they end up with high levels of blood glucose and ketones, which upsets the body's normal acid-base balance. When that happens, ketosis becomes ketoacidosis, causing symptoms like thirst, frequent urination, dry mouth, nausea, belly pain, rapid breathing and fruity-smelling breath. If you have symptoms, contact your doctor immediately -- diabetic ketoacidosis is a medical emergency. You may be wary about ketosis because you've heard about "ketosis flu." It's not really flu, but in the first few days or weeks of a low-carb diet, some people experience headaches, dizziness, fatigue, constipation or wea Continue reading >>
Keep Yourself In Ketosis
When talking about a Grain Brain lifestyle, and the very similar ketogenic diet, it’s frequently mentioned that we are aiming to keep our bodies in ketosis. However, if you’re new to my work, it may be that you’re not exactly sure what ketosis is, or why we should be worrying about getting our body into this state. Allow me to explain. Ketones are a special type of fat that can stimulate the pathways that enhance the growth of new neural networks in the brain. A ketogenic diet is one that is high in fats, and this diet has been a tool of researchers for years, used notably in a 2005 study on Parkinson’s patients finding an improvement in symptoms after just 28 days. The improvements were on par with those made possible via medication and brain surgery. Other research has shown the ketogenic diet to be remarkably effective in treating some forms of epilepsy, and even brain tumors. Ketones do more than just that though. They increase glutathione, a powerful, brain-protective antioxidant. Ketones facilitate the production of mitochondria, one of the most important actors in the coordinated production that is the human body. And that’s just the tip of the iceberg. Our bodies are said to enter ketosis at the point when blood sugar levels are low and liver glycogen are no longer available to produce glucose as a fuel for cellular energy production. At this point, not only is the body doing the natural thing, and burning off fat, it’s also powering up the brain with a super efficient fuel. We can jump start ourselves into ketosis with a brief fast, allowing our body to quickly burn through the carbs that are in our system, and turn to fat for fuel. A ketogenic diet is one that derives around 80% or more of of its calories from fat, and the rest from carbs and prote Continue reading >>
4.3 The Functions Of Carbohydrates In The Body
This is “The Functions of Carbohydrates in the Body”, section 4.3 from the book An Introduction to Nutrition (v. 1.0). For details on it (including licensing), click here. For more information on the source of this book, or why it is available for free, please see the project's home page. You can browse or download additional books there. You may also download a PDF copy of this book (62 MB) or just this chapter (8 MB), suitable for printing or most e-readers, or a .zip file containing this book's HTML files (for use in a web browser offline). There are five primary functions of carbohydrates in the human body. They are energy production, energy storage, building macromolecules, sparing protein, and assisting in lipid metabolism. Energy Production The primary role of carbohydrates is to supply energy to all cells in the body. Many cells prefer glucose as a source of energy versus other compounds like fatty acids. Some cells, such as red blood cells, are only able to produce cellular energy from glucose. The brain is also highly sensitive to low blood-glucose levels because it uses only glucose to produce energy and function (unless under extreme starvation conditions). About 70 percent of the glucose entering the body from digestion is redistributed (by the liver) back into the blood for use by other tissues. Cells that require energy remove the glucose from the blood with a transport protein in their membranes. The energy from glucose comes from the chemical bonds between the carbon atoms. Sunlight energy was required to produce these high-energy bonds in the process of photosynthesis. Cells in our bodies break these bonds and capture the energy to perform cellular respiration. Cellular respiration is basically a controlled burning of glucose versus an uncontrolled Continue reading >>
Ketosis: What Is Ketosis?
Ketosis is a normal metabolic process. When the body does not have enough glucose for energy, it burns stored fats instead; this results in a build-up of acids called ketones within the body. Some people encourage ketosis by following a diet called the ketogenic or low-carb diet. The aim of the diet is to try and burn unwanted fat by forcing the body to rely on fat for energy, rather than carbohydrates. Ketosis is also commonly observed in patients with diabetes, as the process can occur if the body does not have enough insulin or is not using insulin correctly. Problems associated with extreme levels of ketosis are more likely to develop in patients with type 1 diabetes compared with type 2 diabetes patients. Ketosis occurs when the body does not have sufficient access to its primary fuel source, glucose. Ketosis describes a condition where fat stores are broken down to produce energy, which also produces ketones, a type of acid. As ketone levels rise, the acidity of the blood also increases, leading to ketoacidosis, a serious condition that can prove fatal. People with type 1 diabetes are more likely to develop ketoacidosis, for which emergency medical treatment is required to avoid or treat diabetic coma. Some people follow a ketogenic (low-carb) diet to try to lose weight by forcing the body to burn fat stores. What is ketosis? In normal circumstances, the body's cells use glucose as their primary form of energy. Glucose is typically derived from dietary carbohydrates, including: sugar - such as fruits and milk or yogurt starchy foods - such as bread and pasta The body breaks these down into simple sugars. Glucose can either be used to fuel the body or be stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen. If there is not enough glucose available to meet energy demands, th Continue reading >>
Question: Shain Is A 58-year-old Civil Engineer Who Is Concerned About His Recent Weight Gain. He Is 69 Inc...
Shain is a 58-year-old civil engineer who is concerned about his recent weight gain. He is 69 inches tall and weighs 202 pounds. His usual weight is 190 pounds. Shain reports that—due to his busy schedule—he often skips breakfast or stops for a donut and coffee with sugar on his way to work in the morning. He frequently eats out with clients for lunch and eats dinner at home with his wife most evenings. His favorite nighttime snack is ice cream, but he has found that, as he has aged, the treat results in bloating, abdominal discomfort, and diarrhea. He reports sometimes feeling tired and hungry during his workday, which he says is relieved by eating a candy bar or drinking a canned cola beverage. He reports no dietary restrictions, although he states he avoids products, which contain high-fructose corn syrup and prefers to use products sweetened with sugar. 1. The symptoms Stan reports in conjunction with eating ice cream are most consistent with _____. After Shain eats a high sugar meal, what happens first to the excess glucose in his blood? Shain indicates he is interested in restricting his carbohydrates in order to lose weight. What is the minimum carbohydrate intake necessary to spare body protein and prevent ketosis? Shain notes that his mother was recently diagnosed with diabetes and wonders if that might be in his future. A review of his medical records indicates a recent fasting blood glucose test was consistent with Prediabetes. What range is consistent with Prediabetes? If Shain is typical, how much of the added sugar in his diet comes from sugar-sweetened beverages? Shain understands that not all sweeteners are alike and that some offer more nutrients than others. Which of the following is an accurate characterization of sugar nutrition? Part 1: The symp Continue reading >>
Finding Your Optimal Protein Intake For A Ketogenic Diet
When embarking on a ketogenic diet for health or fat loss, finding the optimum protein intake can be very confusing for many beginners. For smooth adaptation in the transition to a ketogenic metabolism I typically guide people using a caloric spread of around 70-80% fat, 15-25% protein, and 5% carbohydrate from green fibrous vegetables – but this ratio varies for every individual and using percentages is confusing and misleading in many cases. The best way to look at macronutrients is not in percentage ratios, but in grams. The slew of bloggers and gurus spouting so much conflicting information leads many into a mental stalemate about how much protein they should be eating. This article lays out the metrics I most commonly use to quantify how much protein an individual should intake – there is no magic ratio and the needs, preferences, and goals of the individual determine the amount of protein they will likely require on their ketogenic diet which usually lies within a relatively broad range of 1-2.2g/kg (and in some cases even higher *cringe say the protein-phobic) of bodyweight or .5-1g/lb of lean body mass (Lean Body Mass equals Body Weight minus Body Fat). Myth: “Too much” protein turns immediately into sugar I almost always recommend people increase their intake of fish and seafoods in order to get the vital nutrient DHA into their central nervous system and mitochondrial membranes. We see amazing results when people opt for more fish and less red meat, which I also love, but land mammals are not nearly as nutrient dense as seafoods with their incredible levels of DHA, EPA, selenium, and iodine. Sometimes this means they will be eating more protein than they believe will allow them to be “ketogenic”, this protein-phobia can be counterproductive, which Continue reading >>
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Nutrition (ch4. The Carbohydrates: Sugars, Starches, And Fibers)
4.1 The chemist’s view of carbohydrates Sugars : simple carbohydrates composed of monosaccharides, disaccharides, or both. Monosaccharides C6H12O6 Glucose 6 ring -OHがgalactoseと逆 Fructose 5 ring The arrangement of the atoms in fructose stimulates the taste buds on the tongue to produce the sweet sensation Structure differs from glucose Galactose 6 ring -OHがglucoseと逆。 Condensation -water is released Hydrolysis Disaccharides Maltose Glucose + Glucose Produced whenever starch breaks down Produced by fermentation process that yields alcohol (human biologyでやったやつ！） ex) Barley Sucrose Glucose + Fructose ex) table sugar lactose Glucose + Lactose ex) milk (half of the energy is lactose by fat-free milk —残り半分はproteins?) Polysaccharides Glycogen a storage form of energy in the body “glycogen in animal muscles rapidly breaks down after slaughter. (つまり、何になる？glucose??? glycogenを結合させておくにはエネルギーが必要ってこと？） Highly branch chain！！！！！！！ Each new glycogen molecule needs a special protein for the attachment of the first glucose （このプロテインの名前なんなんやろう。。。） Starches Fibers Dietary fibers -cannot be broken down by digestive enzymes in the body in plant foods the nonstarch polysaccharides that are not digested by human digestive enzymes, although some are digested by GI tract bacteria. 2 types dietary fibers Soluble fibers dissolve in water viscous -form gels fermentable -easily digested by bacteria in the colon bacteria in the colon produce short-chain fatty acids, which are absorbed and metabolized by cells in the GI tract and liverこれは面白い効果だよね. ex) oats, barley, legumes, and citrus fruits. Functions : Protecting a Continue reading >>
Carbohydrate Needs – How Many Grams Of Carbs Are Needed?
Carbohydrates are the first and most efficient source of energy for vital processes in the body. Chemically, carbohydrates are a mixture of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. These are naturally manufactured in plants by a process called photosynthesis in the presence of air, water, sunlight and chlorophyll. Carbohydrates consist of two types: Simple carbohydrates: These are readily digested and absorbed after being consumed. They are mostly found in fruits and refined products like candy. They consist of glucose, galactose, and fructose. Complex carbohydrates: These are found in all plant-based foods and take longer to digest. They include starch and cellulose. Functions of Carbohydrates: Carbs are the least expensive source of energy in the body. Each gram of carbohydrate provides four calories of energy. At least 55%-60% of our daily calories should come from carbohydrates. However, it often ranges between 50%-70% in a typical person’s daily diet. Starches and sugars provide readily accessible energy for physical performance. Every nutrient plays its own role in providing nutrition to our bodies. When carbohydrates are adequately provided in the diet, they are utilized to fulfill basic energy needs. When the amount of carbs in your diet is not adequate, dietary protein is used as a source of energy. If this situation continues for a long period, muscle protein is also utilized and this process will put a lot of stress on the kidneys. The digestion of proteins also leads to the formation of ketone bodies which then accumulates in the blood and causes ketosis which may result in renal problems. Therefore, carbohydrates spare proteins from being used as the source of energy and this is known as the “protein sparing action”. It occurs mostly during prolonged dieting, st Continue reading >>