Dear Mark: Does Eating A Low Carb Diet Cause Insulin Resistance?
157 Comments Despite all the success you might have had with the Primal way of life, doubts can still nag at you. Maybe it’s something you read, or something someone said to you, or a disapproving glance or offhand comment from a person you otherwise respect, but it’s pretty common when you’re doing something, like giving up grains, avoiding processed food, or eating animal fat, that challenges deeply-and-widely held beliefs about health and wellness. It doesn’t really even matter that you’re losing weight or seem to be thriving; you may still have questions. That’s healthy and smart, and it’s totally natural. A question I’ve been getting of late is the effect of reducing carb intake on insulin sensitivity. It’s often bandied about that going low carb is good for folks with insulin resistance, but it’s also said that low carb can worsen insulin resistance. Are both true and, if so, how do they all jibe together? That’s what the reader was wondering with this week’s question: Hi Mark, I’ve been Primal for a few months now and love it. Lowering my carbs and upping my animal fat helped me lose weight and gain tons of energy (not too shabby for a middle-aged guy!). However, I’m a little worried. I’ve heard that low carb diets can increase insulin resistance. Even though I’ve done well and feel great, should I be worried about insulin resistance? Do I need to increase my carb intake? I always thought low carb Primal was supposed to improve insulin function. Vince Going Primal usually does improve insulin sensitivity, both directly and in a roundabout way. It improves directly because you lose weight, you reduce your intake of inflammatory foods, you lower systemic inflammation (by getting some sun, smart exercise, omega-3s, and reducing or dea Continue reading >>
Nutrition (ch4. The Carbohydrates: Sugars, Starches, And Fibers)
4.1 The chemist’s view of carbohydrates Sugars : simple carbohydrates composed of monosaccharides, disaccharides, or both. Monosaccharides C6H12O6 Glucose 6 ring -OHがgalactoseと逆 Fructose 5 ring The arrangement of the atoms in fructose stimulates the taste buds on the tongue to produce the sweet sensation Structure differs from glucose Galactose 6 ring -OHがglucoseと逆。 Condensation -water is released Hydrolysis Disaccharides Maltose Glucose + Glucose Produced whenever starch breaks down Produced by fermentation process that yields alcohol (human biologyでやったやつ！） ex) Barley Sucrose Glucose + Fructose ex) table sugar lactose Glucose + Lactose ex) milk (half of the energy is lactose by fat-free milk —残り半分はproteins?) Polysaccharides Glycogen a storage form of energy in the body “glycogen in animal muscles rapidly breaks down after slaughter. (つまり、何になる？glucose??? glycogenを結合させておくにはエネルギーが必要ってこと？） Highly branch chain！！！！！！！ Each new glycogen molecule needs a special protein for the attachment of the first glucose （このプロテインの名前なんなんやろう。。。） Starches Fibers Dietary fibers -cannot be broken down by digestive enzymes in the body in plant foods the nonstarch polysaccharides that are not digested by human digestive enzymes, although some are digested by GI tract bacteria. 2 types dietary fibers Soluble fibers dissolve in water viscous -form gels fermentable -easily digested by bacteria in the colon bacteria in the colon produce short-chain fatty acids, which are absorbed and metabolized by cells in the GI tract and liverこれは面白い効果だよね. ex) oats, barley, legumes, and citrus fruits. Functions : Protecting a Continue reading >>
STUDY GUIDE 2: CARBOHYDRATE Directions. Using your text Chapter 4, Page A, and Appendix H), answer the following questions. The questions are to be copied followed by the answers. Be sure to put your name on your document. Your answers should be thoughtful, complete, and in Standard English. Credit will not be given for answers copied from online sources. . 2. Define the following Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) Acid-base balance Amylase Artificial sweeteners Carbohydrates Condensation Dental caries Dental plaque Diabetes Dietary fibers Disaccharides Epinephrine Fermentable Fructose Galactose Glucagon Gluconeogenesis Glucose Glycemic index Glycemic response Glycogen Hydrolysis Hypoglycemia Insoluble fibers Insulin Kefir Ketone bodies Ketosis Lactase Lactose Lactase deficiency Lactose intolerance Maltase. Maltose Monosaccharides Nonnutritive sweeteners Nutritive sweeteners Phytic acid Polysaccharides Protein-sparing action Resistant starches Satiety Sucrase Sucrose Soluble fibers Starches Sugar alcohols Type 1 diabetes Type 2 diabetes Viscous 3. Lactose intolerance and sensitivity appears to be a growing phenomenon in this country. Even though many people limit or avoid dairy products in their diets, they seem to still suffer from symptoms. What would account for this fact? What characteristics may predispose individuals to become lactose intolerant and/or sensitive? c. What dietary options that would be feasible for individuals who are lactose intolerant/sensitive allow them to meet critical nutrient needs such as calcium, riboflavin, and vitamin D? 4. Nat Anderson. is a 48-year-old landscape architect who is concerned about his recent weight gain. He is 69 inches tall and weighs 202 pounds. His usual weight is 190 pounds. Mr. Anderson reports that—due to his busy sched Continue reading >>
How Many Carbs Should I Eat To Prevent Ketosis?
When you’re on a low-carb diet, your body kicks into action, breaking down fats into ketone bodies to use for energy. This increase in ketones -- called ketosis -- is a normal adaptation to cutting carbs. In fact, the switch to ketosis is why low-carb diets work. Even though you could eat enough carbs to prevent ketosis, it's important to clarify why you want to avoid it. There's nothing unhealthy about ketosis, so you may just need to correct any misinformation to make the best decision for your weight-loss goals. Video of the Day Deal With Concerns Over Ketosis Ketosis is often confused with ketoacidosis, which is unfortunate -- ketosis is normal, while ketoacidosis is a dangerous condition related to type 1 diabetes. Most people on a low-carb diet tolerate ketosis without any problems. Then after the pounds are dropped, carb intake is gradually increased so you're out of ketosis by the time you reach the maintenance phase. If you decide to stay in an induction phase longer than the low-carb plan recommends, consult your doctor to be safe. People with type 1 diabetes are at risk for developing ketoacidosis from lack of insulin. Due to the complex metabolism of diabetes, they end up with high levels of blood glucose and ketones, which upsets the body's normal acid-base balance. When that happens, ketosis becomes ketoacidosis, causing symptoms like thirst, frequent urination, dry mouth, nausea, belly pain, rapid breathing and fruity-smelling breath. If you have symptoms, contact your doctor immediately -- diabetic ketoacidosis is a medical emergency. You may be wary about ketosis because you've heard about "ketosis flu." It's not really flu, but in the first few days or weeks of a low-carb diet, some people experience headaches, dizziness, fatigue, constipation or wea Continue reading >>
to simply consume high quality protein, which was called the protein sparing modified fast (PSMF). 54 After much research, it was concluded that a protein intake of 1.5-1.75 grams protein per kilogram of ideal body weight (ideal body weight was used to approximate lean body mass) would spare most of the nitrogen loss, especially as ketosis developed and the body’s glucose requirements decreased. As we shall see below, providing sufficient protein from the first day of a low-carbohydrate diet should prevent any net nitrogen loss from the body. Of all aspects of the PSMF or ketogenic diet, adequate dietary protein is absolutely critical to the success of the diet in maximizing fat loss and sparing body protein. The ketogenic diet as most consider it is simply a PSMF with added dietary fat. Note that the addition of dietary fat does not affect the adaptations or protein sparing effects of the PSMF. Only overall fat loss is affected since dietary fat is used to provide energy instead of bodyfat. How much dietary protein is necessary to prevent nitrogen losses? Without going into the details of protein requirements, which are affected by activity and are discussed in the next chapter, we can determine the minimum amount of protein which is necessary to prevent body protein losses by looking at two factors: the amount of glucose required by the brain, and the amount of glucose produced from the ingestion of a given amount of dietary protein. Both of these factors are discussed in previous chapters and a few brief calculations will tell us how much protein is necessary. In the next section, these values are compared to a number of diet studies to see if they are accurate. To briefly recap, during the first weeks of ketosis, approximately 75 grams of glucose must be produced Continue reading >>
4.3 The Functions Of Carbohydrates In The Body
This is “The Functions of Carbohydrates in the Body”, section 4.3 from the book An Introduction to Nutrition (v. 1.0). For details on it (including licensing), click here. For more information on the source of this book, or why it is available for free, please see the project's home page. You can browse or download additional books there. You may also download a PDF copy of this book (62 MB) or just this chapter (8 MB), suitable for printing or most e-readers, or a .zip file containing this book's HTML files (for use in a web browser offline). There are five primary functions of carbohydrates in the human body. They are energy production, energy storage, building macromolecules, sparing protein, and assisting in lipid metabolism. Energy Production The primary role of carbohydrates is to supply energy to all cells in the body. Many cells prefer glucose as a source of energy versus other compounds like fatty acids. Some cells, such as red blood cells, are only able to produce cellular energy from glucose. The brain is also highly sensitive to low blood-glucose levels because it uses only glucose to produce energy and function (unless under extreme starvation conditions). About 70 percent of the glucose entering the body from digestion is redistributed (by the liver) back into the blood for use by other tissues. Cells that require energy remove the glucose from the blood with a transport protein in their membranes. The energy from glucose comes from the chemical bonds between the carbon atoms. Sunlight energy was required to produce these high-energy bonds in the process of photosynthesis. Cells in our bodies break these bonds and capture the energy to perform cellular respiration. Cellular respiration is basically a controlled burning of glucose versus an uncontrolled Continue reading >>
Chapter 4 - Nutrition
Sort type 2 is the more common type where cells resist insulin. Cells fail to respond to insulin or the insulin amount is insufficient). This condition tends to occur as a consequence of obesity. The pancreas produces enough insulin but the cell surface receptors have lost much of their ability to recognize the insulin and don't respond. Dietary carbohydrate does not cause diabetes. Many people with this type of diabetes are obese. Obesity is clearly a factor in this type. As the incidence of obesity in the U.S. has risen in recent decades, the incidence of diabetes has followed. An obese person is 3x more likely to develop this disease than a nonobese individual Continue reading >>
Metabolic Effects Of The Very-low-carbohydrate Diets: Misunderstood "villains" Of Human Metabolism
Go to: The Ketone Bodies are an Important Fuel The hormonal changes associated with a low carbohydrate diet include a reduction in the circulating levels of insulin along with increased levels of glucagon. This activates phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, fructose 1,6-biphosphatase, and glucose 6-phosphatase and also inhibits pyruvate kinase, 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase, and glucokinase. These changes indeed favor gluconeogenesis. However, the body limits glucose utilization to reduce the need for gluconeogenesis. In the liver in the well-fed state, acetyl CoA formed during the β-oxidation of fatty acids is oxidized to CO2 and H2O in the citric acid cycle. However, when the rate of mobilization of fatty acids from adipose tissue is accelerated, as, for example, during very low carbohydrate intake, the liver converts acetyl CoA into ketone bodies: Acetoacetate and 3-hydroxybutyrate. The liver cannot utilize ketone bodies because it lacks the mitochondrial enzyme succinyl CoA:3-ketoacid CoA transferase required for activation of acetoacetate to acetoacetyl CoA . Therefore, ketone bodies flow from the liver to extra-hepatic tissues (e.g., brain) for use as a fuel; this spares glucose metabolism via a mechanism similar to the sparing of glucose by oxidation of fatty acids as an alternative fuel. Indeed, the use of ketone bodies replaces most of the glucose required by the brain. Not all amino acid carbon will yield glucose; on average, 1.6 g of amino acids is required to synthesize 1 g of glucose . Thus, to keep the brain supplied with glucose at rate of 110 to 120 g/day, the breakdown of 160 to 200 g of protein (close to 1 kg of muscle tissue) would be required. This is clearly undesirable, and the body limits glucose utilization to reduce the need for gluconeogenesis Continue reading >>
Overview Carbohydrates, fats and proteins are macronutrients. We require them in relatively large amounts for normal function and good health. These are also energy-yielding nutrients, meaning these nutrients provide calories. On This Page: What are Carbohydrates? Carbohydrates Understanding Carbohydrates Every few years, carbohydrates are vilified as public enemy number one and are accused of being the root of obesity, diabetes, heart disease and more. Carb-bashers shun yogurt and fruit and fill up on bun-less cheeseburgers. Instead of beans, they eat bacon. They dine on the tops of pizza and toss the crusts into the trash. They so vehemently avoid carbs and spout off a list of their evils that they may have you fearing your food. Rest assured, you can and should eat carbohydrates. In fact, much of the world relies on carbohydrates as their major source of energy. Rice, for instance, is a staple in Southeast Asia. The carbohydrate-rich potato was so important to the people of Ireland that when the blight devastated the potato crop in the mid 1800s, much of the population was wiped out. What are Carbohydrates? The basic structure of carbohydrates is a sugar molecule, and they are classified by how many sugar molecules they contain. Simple carbohydrates, usually referred to as sugars, are naturally present in fruit, milk and other unprocessed foods. Plant carbohydrates can be refined into table sugar and syrups, which are then added to foods such as sodas, desserts, sweetened yogurts and more. Simple carbohydrates may be single sugar molecules called monosaccharides or two monosaccharides joined together called disaccharides. Glucose, a monosaccharide, is the most abundant sugar molecule and is the preferred energy source for the brain. It is a part of all disaccharides Continue reading >>
How Much Fat Should You Eat On A Ketogenic Diet?
Thankfully, the days of low-fat diet fads are mostly behind us, and people are better understanding the importance of eating healthy fats for health. But still, many of those eating keto will underestimate just how much fat they need to eat to see success on this way of eating. So, how much fat can you eat on a ketogenic diet? This article will cover why fat intake matters on the ketogenic diet and how it makes it successful, as well as how to find out how much fat you need. Then, we’ll touch on how you can make sure your fat intake stays high (while still getting enough calories) and the best types of fat to eat. The Importance of Fat on the Keto Diet Dietary fat is the cornerstone of the ketogenic diet. It’s the high fat intake and low carb intake that makes the diet “work” and keeps your body in ketosis — using those ketones for fuel and burning through fat. Having a very low carb intake allows you to deplete your body of carbohydrates and stored carbohydrates (glycogen) and conditioning it to begin turning to fat instead, leading to the creation of ketones for energy. Getting and keeping the body in this state of ketosis has many benefits that include weight loss and better health. High Fat and Enough Calories Matters Those new to keto or who have taken a break from it often struggle with eating enough fat at first. Since you’re greatly reducing your carb intake, you have to really increase your fat intake to replace the calories you were eating before from carbs. This can take some adjustment. If you’re not used to eating high fat, it might seem like a lot at the beginning. Fat is satiating, which is one of the advantages of keto because you can naturally avoid overeating due to its satisfying nature. That being said, it’s important to also eat enou Continue reading >>
Not Losing Weight On A Low-carb Ketogenic Diet? Don’t Give Up And Read Further
The ketogenic diet is not only known to be one of the most effective weight loss tools, but has proven to have many health benefits. Ketosis is a state at which your body produces ketones in the liver, shifting the body's metabolism away from glucose and towards fat utilization. Unless you can check your blood ketones, using Ketostix is an easy way to detect urinary ketones. It's not the most accurate method, but may be good enough to find out whether you are in ketosis. In some cases, weight loss may be difficult even on a low-carb ketogenic diet and there may be a few possible reasons for weight stalling, which I have listed in this post. If you want to know more about the ketogenic diet and how it can help you lose weight, have a look at my Practical Guide to Keto Diet which is freely available on my website also as PDF. 3 free diet plans to help you kickstart your diet, lose weight and get healthy Recipes, giveaways and exclusive deals delivered directly to your inbox A chance to win the KetoDiet app every week Top Reasons You Are Not Losing Weight on a Keto Diet 1. Carbs are Too High Your carbohydrate intake may be too high. Try to decrease your daily carbs limit. Also try to include coconut oil in your diet. Coconut oil consists of MCTs (Medium chain triglycerides), which are easily digestible, less likely to be stored by your body and are used for immediate energy. MCTs are converted in the liver into ketones, which helps you enter ketosis. If you want to know more about carbs, check out this post. For more about ketones, have a look at this post. 2. Protein is Too High or Too Low Your protein intake may be too high/ low. Protein is the most sating macronutrient and you should include high-quality animal protein in your diet. If you don't eat enough protein, you Continue reading >>
Chapter 8 Nutrition Health Care Science Technology Copyright Â© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Copyright Â© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Objectives Name the 6 categories of nutrients. Identify the key functions of each nutrient. Summarize why each individualâ€™s energy needs are different. Discuss the purpose of Dietary Guidelines for Americans and The Food Guide Pyramid. Chapter 8 Copyright Â© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 8 * Objectives (cont.) Identify the 5 major food groups. Relate why the food guide is presented in the shape of the pyramid. Compare the effects on your health of getting too few or too many nutrients. Successfully complete 1 nutrition procedure. Chapter 8 Copyright Â© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 8 * Essentials of Nutrition 8-1 Nutrients Chapter 8 Copyright Â© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 8 * Nutrients Nutrition â€“ the science of how the foods you eat affect your body. Nutrition affects our lives from the time we are born. Nutrition can affect the chances of developing a chronic disease. Chapter 8 Copyright Â© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 8 * Nutrients (cont.) Nutrients can be grouped into six categories: Carbohydrates Fats Proteins Vitamins Minerals Water Eat a variety of foods everyday! Chapter 8 Copyright Â© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 8 * Nutrients (cont.) Functions of Nutrients Supply energy. Support growth and maintenance. Regulate body processes. Chapter 8 Copyright Â© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 8 * Nutrients (cont.) Carbohydrates â€“ the bodyâ€™s main source of energy. There are 2 categories of carbohydrates: Simple carbohydrates â€“ â€œsugarsâ€ composed of 1 or 2 sugar units, such as fruit and milk. Chapter 8 Copyright Â Continue reading >>
130g Carbs/day Rda
For my first review of nutrition guidelines, I grade the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies based on its carbohydrate Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA), the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (formerly the American Dietetic Association), and the American Diabetes Association (ADA). The AND says everyone should eat a minimum 130 grams of carbohydrate a day. The American Diabetes Association cites the IoM carbohydrate RDA of 130 g a day and has no position on the maximum amount of carbs diabetics should eat. Isn’t diabetes a disease of carbohydrate metabolism? Isn’t this like telling lung cancer patients to smoke a minimum number of cigarettes a day, and no maximum? One would think that AND and ADA must have a good reason for citing this RDA. Dr. Richard Bernstein, the pillar of the low carb diabetes treatment movement, says diabetics should eat no more than 30 grams a day of carbohydrate, and that we’d do better if we went even lower. I thought there must be something he was missing for the American Diabetes Association to cite 130 g/day as a MINIMUM for diabetics, and no maximum! So I went looking for the justification for the carbohydrate recommendations coming from AND and ADA. It turns out that AND and the ADA both rely on the carbohydrate RDA “set” by the august Institute of Medicine (IoM) of the National Academies, a U.S. government body, as the source for their 130 grams/day minimum carbohydrate requirement. In rocket science parlance, we call this a root cause – everyone relies on the same source for how much carbohydrate we should eat. The carbohydrate RDA came from IoM. So how did IoM come up with it? Is there some essential nutrient that we can get only if we eat this much carbohydrate? Was the consequences of eating this much carbohyd Continue reading >>
Carbohydrate Needs – How Many Grams Of Carbs Are Needed?
Carbohydrates are the first and most efficient source of energy for vital processes in the body. Chemically, carbohydrates are a mixture of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. These are naturally manufactured in plants by a process called photosynthesis in the presence of air, water, sunlight and chlorophyll. Carbohydrates consist of two types: Simple carbohydrates: These are readily digested and absorbed after being consumed. They are mostly found in fruits and refined products like candy. They consist of glucose, galactose, and fructose. Complex carbohydrates: These are found in all plant-based foods and take longer to digest. They include starch and cellulose. Functions of Carbohydrates: Carbs are the least expensive source of energy in the body. Each gram of carbohydrate provides four calories of energy. At least 55%-60% of our daily calories should come from carbohydrates. However, it often ranges between 50%-70% in a typical person’s daily diet. Starches and sugars provide readily accessible energy for physical performance. Every nutrient plays its own role in providing nutrition to our bodies. When carbohydrates are adequately provided in the diet, they are utilized to fulfill basic energy needs. When the amount of carbs in your diet is not adequate, dietary protein is used as a source of energy. If this situation continues for a long period, muscle protein is also utilized and this process will put a lot of stress on the kidneys. The digestion of proteins also leads to the formation of ketone bodies which then accumulates in the blood and causes ketosis which may result in renal problems. Therefore, carbohydrates spare proteins from being used as the source of energy and this is known as the “protein sparing action”. It occurs mostly during prolonged dieting, st Continue reading >>
Keep Yourself In Ketosis
When talking about a Grain Brain lifestyle, and the very similar ketogenic diet, it’s frequently mentioned that we are aiming to keep our bodies in ketosis. However, if you’re new to my work, it may be that you’re not exactly sure what ketosis is, or why we should be worrying about getting our body into this state. Allow me to explain. Ketones are a special type of fat that can stimulate the pathways that enhance the growth of new neural networks in the brain. A ketogenic diet is one that is high in fats, and this diet has been a tool of researchers for years, used notably in a 2005 study on Parkinson’s patients finding an improvement in symptoms after just 28 days. The improvements were on par with those made possible via medication and brain surgery. Other research has shown the ketogenic diet to be remarkably effective in treating some forms of epilepsy, and even brain tumors. Ketones do more than just that though. They increase glutathione, a powerful, brain-protective antioxidant. Ketones facilitate the production of mitochondria, one of the most important actors in the coordinated production that is the human body. And that’s just the tip of the iceberg. Our bodies are said to enter ketosis at the point when blood sugar levels are low and liver glycogen are no longer available to produce glucose as a fuel for cellular energy production. At this point, not only is the body doing the natural thing, and burning off fat, it’s also powering up the brain with a super efficient fuel. We can jump start ourselves into ketosis with a brief fast, allowing our body to quickly burn through the carbs that are in our system, and turn to fat for fuel. A ketogenic diet is one that derives around 80% or more of of its calories from fat, and the rest from carbs and prote Continue reading >>