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What Is The Minimum Carbohydrate Intake Necessary To Spare Body Protein And Prevent Ketosis?

Nutrition Self Assessment 4

Nutrition Self Assessment 4

front 1 Based on height, weight, age & physical activity level, you have calculated that you should be consuming about 2200 kcalories per day. Which of the following portions is closest to the discretionary kcalories allowed in the USDA Food Guide for added sugars in your diet. back 1 15 tsp honey front 2 In which of the following are ample amounts of carbohydrates almost always found? back 2 Plant foods front 3 What is the minimum daily amount of dietary carbohydrate necessary to spare body protein from excessive breakdown? back 3 50-100g front 4 What type of fiber is readily digested by colonic bacteria? back 4 Fermentable front 5 Which of the following is a feature of kefir? back 5 It contains live bacterial organisms front 6 Approximately how many kcalories are provided by two teaspoons of sugar? back 6 30 front 7 A person diagnosed w/milk allergy would be sensitive to the milk's back 7 protein front 8 What is the name of the animal polysaccharide composed of glucose units? back 8 Glycogen front 9 All of the following are properties of fiber EXCEPT back 9 it elevates blood glucose levels front 10 What is the chief reason that many people w/lactose intolerance can consume food containing some lactose w/out suffering any symptoms? back 10 A change occurs in the GI bacteria front 11 What is the predominant sweetener used in formulating beverages? back 11 High-frctose corn syrup front 12 What is the predominant grain product in much of the South & Central America? back 12 Corn front 13 What is another name for lactose? back 13 Milk sugar front 14 What are cellulose, pectin, hemicellulose, & lignin? back 14 Fibers front 15 Glycogen is stored mainly in which of the following tissues? back 15 Muscle & liver front 16 When you are under physical stress, what hormone is relea Continue reading >>

What Everybody Ought To Know About Ketosis

What Everybody Ought To Know About Ketosis

Recently I wanted to explore the world of Ketosis. I thought I knew a little bit about ketosis, but after doing some research I soon realised how wrong I was. 3 months later, after reading numerous books, listening to countless podcasts and experimenting with various diets I know have a sound understanding of ketosis. This resource is built as a reference guide for those looking to explore the fascinating world of ketosis. It is a resource that I wish I had 3 months ago. As you will soon see, a lot of the content below is not mine, instead I have linked to referenced to experts who have a greater understanding of this topic than I ever will. I hope this helps and if there is something that I have missed please leave a comment below so that I can update this. Also, as this is a rather long document, I have split it into various sections. You can click the headline below to be sent straight to the section that interests you. For those that are really time poor I have created a useful ketosis cheat sheet guide. This guide covers all the essential information you should know about ketosis. It can be downloaded HERE. Alternatively, if you're looking for a natural and sustainable way to improve health and lose weight head to this page - What is Ketosis? What Are The Benefits from being in Ketosis? Isn’t Ketosis Dangerous? Ketoacidosis vs Ketosis What Is The Difference Between a Low Carb Diet and a Ketogenic Diet? Types of Ketosis: The Difference Between Nutritional, Therapeutic & MCT Ketogenic Diets Is The Ketogenic Diet Safe? Long Term Effects Thyroid and Ketosis - What You May Want To Know What is a Typical Diet/Macro Breakdown for a Ketogenic Diet? Do I Need to Eat Carbs? What do I Eat On a Ketogenic Diet? What Do I Avoid Eating on a Ketogenic Diet? Protein Consumption a Continue reading >>

How Many Carbohydrates Do You Need?

How Many Carbohydrates Do You Need?

A perennial question, argument and debate in the field of nutrition has to do with how many carbohydrates people should be eating. While the nutritional mainstream is still more or less advocating a large amount of daily carbohydrate (with fat being blamed for the health problems of the modern world), groups often considered at the ‘fringe’ of nutrition are adamant that carbohydrates are the source of all evil when it comes to health, obesity, etc. They advocate lowering carbohydrates and replacing them with dietary protein, fat or both. This is a topic that I discussed in some detail in Carbohydrates and Fat Controversies Part 1 and Carbohydrate and Fat Controversies Part 2 and I’d recommend readers take a look at those for a slightly different look at the issue than what is discussed here. Arguments over recommended carbohydrate intake have a long history and it doesn’t appear to be close to ending any time soon. Typical mainstream recommendations have carbohydrates contributing 50% or more of total calories while many low-carbohydrate advocates suggest far fewer (ranging from the 40% of the Zone diet to close to zero for ketogenic diets). This article looks at the topic in detail. And while I originally wrote it quite a while back (some of you have probably seen it before), it was nice going over it with fine toothed comb for an update. While the majority of it stands up well over time, I was able to make some slight changes to the values, along with removing some original stuff that wasn’t really relevant. Enjoy. Introduction It’s safe to say that most carbohydrate recommendations that you will see are put in terms of percentages, you should be eating 45% of your calories as carbs, or 65% or whatever number is being used. As I discussed in Diet Percentag Continue reading >>

Question: Shain Is A 58-year-old Civil Engineer Who Is Concerned About His Recent Weight Gain. He Is 69 Inc...

Question: Shain Is A 58-year-old Civil Engineer Who Is Concerned About His Recent Weight Gain. He Is 69 Inc...

Shain is a 58-year-old civil engineer who is concerned about his recent weight gain. He is 69 inches tall and weighs 202 pounds. His usual weight is 190 pounds. Shain reports that—due to his busy schedule—he often skips breakfast or stops for a donut and coffee with sugar on his way to work in the morning. He frequently eats out with clients for lunch and eats dinner at home with his wife most evenings. His favorite nighttime snack is ice cream, but he has found that, as he has aged, the treat results in bloating, abdominal discomfort, and diarrhea. He reports sometimes feeling tired and hungry during his workday, which he says is relieved by eating a candy bar or drinking a canned cola beverage. He reports no dietary restrictions, although he states he avoids products, which contain high-fructose corn syrup and prefers to use products sweetened with sugar. 1. The symptoms Stan reports in conjunction with eating ice cream are most consistent with _____. After Shain eats a high sugar meal, what happens first to the excess glucose in his blood? Shain indicates he is interested in restricting his carbohydrates in order to lose weight. What is the minimum carbohydrate intake necessary to spare body protein and prevent ketosis? Shain notes that his mother was recently diagnosed with diabetes and wonders if that might be in his future. A review of his medical records indicates a recent fasting blood glucose test was consistent with Prediabetes. What range is consistent with Prediabetes? If Shain is typical, how much of the added sugar in his diet comes from sugar-sweetened beverages? Shain understands that not all sweeteners are alike and that some offer more nutrients than others. Which of the following is an accurate characterization of sugar nutrition? Part 1: The symp Continue reading >>

130g Carbs/day Rda

130g Carbs/day Rda

For my first review of nutrition guidelines, I grade the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies based on its carbohydrate Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA), the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (formerly the American Dietetic Association), and the American Diabetes Association (ADA). The AND says everyone should eat a minimum 130 grams of carbohydrate a day. The American Diabetes Association cites the IoM carbohydrate RDA of 130 g a day and has no position on the maximum amount of carbs diabetics should eat. Isn’t diabetes a disease of carbohydrate metabolism? Isn’t this like telling lung cancer patients to smoke a minimum number of cigarettes a day, and no maximum? One would think that AND and ADA must have a good reason for citing this RDA. Dr. Richard Bernstein, the pillar of the low carb diabetes treatment movement, says diabetics should eat no more than 30 grams a day of carbohydrate, and that we’d do better if we went even lower. I thought there must be something he was missing for the American Diabetes Association to cite 130 g/day as a MINIMUM for diabetics, and no maximum! So I went looking for the justification for the carbohydrate recommendations coming from AND and ADA. It turns out that AND and the ADA both rely on the carbohydrate RDA “set” by the august Institute of Medicine (IoM) of the National Academies, a U.S. government body, as the source for their 130 grams/day minimum carbohydrate requirement. In rocket science parlance, we call this a root cause – everyone relies on the same source for how much carbohydrate we should eat. The carbohydrate RDA came from IoM. So how did IoM come up with it? Is there some essential nutrient that we can get only if we eat this much carbohydrate? Was the consequences of eating this much carbohyd Continue reading >>

Nutrition 2

Nutrition 2

STUDY GUIDE 2: CARBOHYDRATE Directions. Using your text Chapter 4, Page A, and Appendix H), answer the following questions. The questions are to be copied followed by the answers. Be sure to put your name on your document. Your answers should be thoughtful, complete, and in Standard English. Credit will not be given for answers copied from online sources. . 2. Define the following Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) Acid-base balance Amylase Artificial sweeteners Carbohydrates Condensation Dental caries Dental plaque Diabetes Dietary fibers Disaccharides Epinephrine Fermentable Fructose Galactose Glucagon Gluconeogenesis Glucose Glycemic index Glycemic response Glycogen Hydrolysis Hypoglycemia Insoluble fibers Insulin Kefir Ketone bodies Ketosis Lactase Lactose Lactase deficiency Lactose intolerance Maltase. Maltose Monosaccharides Nonnutritive sweeteners Nutritive sweeteners Phytic acid Polysaccharides Protein-sparing action Resistant starches Satiety Sucrase Sucrose Soluble fibers Starches Sugar alcohols Type 1 diabetes Type 2 diabetes Viscous 3. Lactose intolerance and sensitivity appears to be a growing phenomenon in this country. Even though many people limit or avoid dairy products in their diets, they seem to still suffer from symptoms. What would account for this fact? What characteristics may predispose individuals to become lactose intolerant and/or sensitive? c. What dietary options that would be feasible for individuals who are lactose intolerant/sensitive allow them to meet critical nutrient needs such as calcium, riboflavin, and vitamin D? 4. Nat Anderson. is a 48-year-old landscape architect who is concerned about his recent weight gain. He is 69 inches tall and weighs 202 pounds. His usual weight is 190 pounds. Mr. Anderson reports that—due to his busy sched Continue reading >>

Chapter 8

Chapter 8

Chapter 8 Nutrition Health Care Science Technology Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Objectives Name the 6 categories of nutrients. Identify the key functions of each nutrient. Summarize why each individual’s energy needs are different. Discuss the purpose of Dietary Guidelines for Americans and The Food Guide Pyramid. Chapter 8 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 8 * Objectives (cont.) Identify the 5 major food groups. Relate why the food guide is presented in the shape of the pyramid. Compare the effects on your health of getting too few or too many nutrients. Successfully complete 1 nutrition procedure. Chapter 8 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 8 * Essentials of Nutrition 8-1 Nutrients Chapter 8 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 8 * Nutrients Nutrition – the science of how the foods you eat affect your body. Nutrition affects our lives from the time we are born. Nutrition can affect the chances of developing a chronic disease. Chapter 8 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 8 * Nutrients (cont.) Nutrients can be grouped into six categories: Carbohydrates Fats Proteins Vitamins Minerals Water Eat a variety of foods everyday! Chapter 8 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 8 * Nutrients (cont.) Functions of Nutrients Supply energy. Support growth and maintenance. Regulate body processes. Chapter 8 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 8 * Nutrients (cont.) Carbohydrates – the body’s main source of energy. There are 2 categories of carbohydrates: Simple carbohydrates – “sugars†composed of 1 or 2 sugar units, such as fruit and milk. Chapter 8 Copyright  Continue reading >>

4.3 The Functions Of Carbohydrates In The Body

4.3 The Functions Of Carbohydrates In The Body

This is “The Functions of Carbohydrates in the Body”, section 4.3 from the book An Introduction to Nutrition (v. 1.0). For details on it (including licensing), click here. For more information on the source of this book, or why it is available for free, please see the project's home page. You can browse or download additional books there. You may also download a PDF copy of this book (62 MB) or just this chapter (8 MB), suitable for printing or most e-readers, or a .zip file containing this book's HTML files (for use in a web browser offline). There are five primary functions of carbohydrates in the human body. They are energy production, energy storage, building macromolecules, sparing protein, and assisting in lipid metabolism. Energy Production The primary role of carbohydrates is to supply energy to all cells in the body. Many cells prefer glucose as a source of energy versus other compounds like fatty acids. Some cells, such as red blood cells, are only able to produce cellular energy from glucose. The brain is also highly sensitive to low blood-glucose levels because it uses only glucose to produce energy and function (unless under extreme starvation conditions). About 70 percent of the glucose entering the body from digestion is redistributed (by the liver) back into the blood for use by other tissues. Cells that require energy remove the glucose from the blood with a transport protein in their membranes. The energy from glucose comes from the chemical bonds between the carbon atoms. Sunlight energy was required to produce these high-energy bonds in the process of photosynthesis. Cells in our bodies break these bonds and capture the energy to perform cellular respiration. Cellular respiration is basically a controlled burning of glucose versus an uncontrolled Continue reading >>

Not Losing Weight On A Low-carb Ketogenic Diet? Don’t Give Up And Read Further

Not Losing Weight On A Low-carb Ketogenic Diet? Don’t Give Up And Read Further

The ketogenic diet is not only known to be one of the most effective weight loss tools, but has proven to have many health benefits. Ketosis is a state at which your body produces ketones in the liver, shifting the body's metabolism away from glucose and towards fat utilization. Unless you can check your blood ketones, using Ketostix is an easy way to detect urinary ketones. It's not the most accurate method, but may be good enough to find out whether you are in ketosis. In some cases, weight loss may be difficult even on a low-carb ketogenic diet and there may be a few possible reasons for weight stalling, which I have listed in this post. If you want to know more about the ketogenic diet and how it can help you lose weight, have a look at my Practical Guide to Keto Diet which is freely available on my website also as PDF. 3 free diet plans to help you kickstart your diet, lose weight and get healthy Recipes, giveaways and exclusive deals delivered directly to your inbox A chance to win the KetoDiet app every week Top Reasons You Are Not Losing Weight on a Keto Diet 1. Carbs are Too High Your carbohydrate intake may be too high. Try to decrease your daily carbs limit. Also try to include coconut oil in your diet. Coconut oil consists of MCTs (Medium chain triglycerides), which are easily digestible, less likely to be stored by your body and are used for immediate energy. MCTs are converted in the liver into ketones, which helps you enter ketosis. If you want to know more about carbs, check out this post. For more about ketones, have a look at this post. 2. Protein is Too High or Too Low Your protein intake may be too high/ low. Protein is the most sating macronutrient and you should include high-quality animal protein in your diet. If you don't eat enough protein, you Continue reading >>

Dear Mark: Does Eating A Low Carb Diet Cause Insulin Resistance?

Dear Mark: Does Eating A Low Carb Diet Cause Insulin Resistance?

157 Comments Despite all the success you might have had with the Primal way of life, doubts can still nag at you. Maybe it’s something you read, or something someone said to you, or a disapproving glance or offhand comment from a person you otherwise respect, but it’s pretty common when you’re doing something, like giving up grains, avoiding processed food, or eating animal fat, that challenges deeply-and-widely held beliefs about health and wellness. It doesn’t really even matter that you’re losing weight or seem to be thriving; you may still have questions. That’s healthy and smart, and it’s totally natural. A question I’ve been getting of late is the effect of reducing carb intake on insulin sensitivity. It’s often bandied about that going low carb is good for folks with insulin resistance, but it’s also said that low carb can worsen insulin resistance. Are both true and, if so, how do they all jibe together? That’s what the reader was wondering with this week’s question: Hi Mark, I’ve been Primal for a few months now and love it. Lowering my carbs and upping my animal fat helped me lose weight and gain tons of energy (not too shabby for a middle-aged guy!). However, I’m a little worried. I’ve heard that low carb diets can increase insulin resistance. Even though I’ve done well and feel great, should I be worried about insulin resistance? Do I need to increase my carb intake? I always thought low carb Primal was supposed to improve insulin function. Vince Going Primal usually does improve insulin sensitivity, both directly and in a roundabout way. It improves directly because you lose weight, you reduce your intake of inflammatory foods, you lower systemic inflammation (by getting some sun, smart exercise, omega-3s, and reducing or dea Continue reading >>

How Many Carbs Should I Eat To Prevent Ketosis?

How Many Carbs Should I Eat To Prevent Ketosis?

When you’re on a low-carb diet, your body kicks into action, breaking down fats into ketone bodies to use for energy. This increase in ketones -- called ketosis -- is a normal adaptation to cutting carbs. In fact, the switch to ketosis is why low-carb diets work. Even though you could eat enough carbs to prevent ketosis, it's important to clarify why you want to avoid it. There's nothing unhealthy about ketosis, so you may just need to correct any misinformation to make the best decision for your weight-loss goals. Video of the Day Deal With Concerns Over Ketosis Ketosis is often confused with ketoacidosis, which is unfortunate -- ketosis is normal, while ketoacidosis is a dangerous condition related to type 1 diabetes. Most people on a low-carb diet tolerate ketosis without any problems. Then after the pounds are dropped, carb intake is gradually increased so you're out of ketosis by the time you reach the maintenance phase. If you decide to stay in an induction phase longer than the low-carb plan recommends, consult your doctor to be safe. People with type 1 diabetes are at risk for developing ketoacidosis from lack of insulin. Due to the complex metabolism of diabetes, they end up with high levels of blood glucose and ketones, which upsets the body's normal acid-base balance. When that happens, ketosis becomes ketoacidosis, causing symptoms like thirst, frequent urination, dry mouth, nausea, belly pain, rapid breathing and fruity-smelling breath. If you have symptoms, contact your doctor immediately -- diabetic ketoacidosis is a medical emergency. You may be wary about ketosis because you've heard about "ketosis flu." It's not really flu, but in the first few days or weeks of a low-carb diet, some people experience headaches, dizziness, fatigue, constipation or wea Continue reading >>

Metabolic Effects Of The Very-low-carbohydrate Diets: Misunderstood

Metabolic Effects Of The Very-low-carbohydrate Diets: Misunderstood "villains" Of Human Metabolism

Go to: The Ketone Bodies are an Important Fuel The hormonal changes associated with a low carbohydrate diet include a reduction in the circulating levels of insulin along with increased levels of glucagon. This activates phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, fructose 1,6-biphosphatase, and glucose 6-phosphatase and also inhibits pyruvate kinase, 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase, and glucokinase. These changes indeed favor gluconeogenesis. However, the body limits glucose utilization to reduce the need for gluconeogenesis. In the liver in the well-fed state, acetyl CoA formed during the β-oxidation of fatty acids is oxidized to CO2 and H2O in the citric acid cycle. However, when the rate of mobilization of fatty acids from adipose tissue is accelerated, as, for example, during very low carbohydrate intake, the liver converts acetyl CoA into ketone bodies: Acetoacetate and 3-hydroxybutyrate. The liver cannot utilize ketone bodies because it lacks the mitochondrial enzyme succinyl CoA:3-ketoacid CoA transferase required for activation of acetoacetate to acetoacetyl CoA [3]. Therefore, ketone bodies flow from the liver to extra-hepatic tissues (e.g., brain) for use as a fuel; this spares glucose metabolism via a mechanism similar to the sparing of glucose by oxidation of fatty acids as an alternative fuel. Indeed, the use of ketone bodies replaces most of the glucose required by the brain. Not all amino acid carbon will yield glucose; on average, 1.6 g of amino acids is required to synthesize 1 g of glucose [4]. Thus, to keep the brain supplied with glucose at rate of 110 to 120 g/day, the breakdown of 160 to 200 g of protein (close to 1 kg of muscle tissue) would be required. This is clearly undesirable, and the body limits glucose utilization to reduce the need for gluconeogenesis Continue reading >>

Keep Yourself In Ketosis

Keep Yourself In Ketosis

When talking about a Grain Brain lifestyle, and the very similar ketogenic diet, it’s frequently mentioned that we are aiming to keep our bodies in ketosis. However, if you’re new to my work, it may be that you’re not exactly sure what ketosis is, or why we should be worrying about getting our body into this state. Allow me to explain. Ketones are a special type of fat that can stimulate the pathways that enhance the growth of new neural networks in the brain. A ketogenic diet is one that is high in fats, and this diet has been a tool of researchers for years, used notably in a 2005 study on Parkinson’s patients finding an improvement in symptoms after just 28 days. The improvements were on par with those made possible via medication and brain surgery. Other research has shown the ketogenic diet to be remarkably effective in treating some forms of epilepsy, and even brain tumors. Ketones do more than just that though. They increase glutathione, a powerful, brain-protective antioxidant. Ketones facilitate the production of mitochondria, one of the most important actors in the coordinated production that is the human body. And that’s just the tip of the iceberg. Our bodies are said to enter ketosis at the point when blood sugar levels are low and liver glycogen are no longer available to produce glucose as a fuel for cellular energy production. At this point, not only is the body doing the natural thing, and burning off fat, it’s also powering up the brain with a super efficient fuel. We can jump start ourselves into ketosis with a brief fast, allowing our body to quickly burn through the carbs that are in our system, and turn to fat for fuel. A ketogenic diet is one that derives around 80% or more of of its calories from fat, and the rest from carbs and prote Continue reading >>

How Much Fat Should You Eat On A Ketogenic Diet?

How Much Fat Should You Eat On A Ketogenic Diet?

Thankfully, the days of low-fat diet fads are mostly behind us, and people are better understanding the importance of eating healthy fats for health. But still, many of those eating keto will underestimate just how much fat they need to eat to see success on this way of eating. So, how much fat can you eat on a ketogenic diet? This article will cover why fat intake matters on the ketogenic diet and how it makes it successful, as well as how to find out how much fat you need. Then, we’ll touch on how you can make sure your fat intake stays high (while still getting enough calories) and the best types of fat to eat. The Importance of Fat on the Keto Diet Dietary fat is the cornerstone of the ketogenic diet. It’s the high fat intake and low carb intake that makes the diet “work” and keeps your body in ketosis — using those ketones for fuel and burning through fat. Having a very low carb intake allows you to deplete your body of carbohydrates and stored carbohydrates (glycogen) and conditioning it to begin turning to fat instead, leading to the creation of ketones for energy. Getting and keeping the body in this state of ketosis has many benefits that include weight loss and better health. High Fat and Enough Calories Matters Those new to keto or who have taken a break from it often struggle with eating enough fat at first. Since you’re greatly reducing your carb intake, you have to really increase your fat intake to replace the calories you were eating before from carbs. This can take some adjustment. If you’re not used to eating high fat, it might seem like a lot at the beginning. Fat is satiating, which is one of the advantages of keto because you can naturally avoid overeating due to its satisfying nature. That being said, it’s important to also eat enou Continue reading >>

Metabolism And Ketosis

Metabolism And Ketosis

Dr. Eades, If the body tends to resort to gluconeogenesis for glucose during a short-term carbohydrate deficit, are those who inconsistently reduce carb intake only messing things up by not effecting full blown ketosis? If the body will still prefer glucose as main energy source unless forced otherwise for at least a few days, is it absolutely necessary to completely transform metabolism for minimal muscle loss? Also, if alcohol is broken down into ketones and acetaldehyde, technically couldn’t you continue to drink during your diet or would the resulting gluconeogenesis inhibition from alcohol lead to blood glucose problems on top of the ketotic metabolism? Would your liver ever just be overwhelmed by all that action? I’m still in high school so hypothetical, of course haha… Sorry, lots of questions but I’m always so curious. Thank you so much for taking the time to inform the public. You’re my hero! P.S. Random question…what’s the difference between beta and gamma hydroxybutyric acids? It’s crazy how simple orientation can be the difference between a ketone and date rape drug…biochem is so cool! P.P.S. You should definitely post the details of that inner mitochondrial membrane transport. I’m curious how much energy expenditure we’re talkin there.. Keep doin your thing! Your Fan, Trey No, I don’t think people are messing up if they don’t get into full-blown ketosis. For short term low-carb dieting, the body turns to glycogen. Gluconeogenesis kicks in fairly quickly, though, and uses dietary protein – assuming there is plenty – before turning to muscle tissue for glucose substrate. And you have the Cori cycle kicking in and all sorts of things to spare muscle, so I wouldn’t worry about it. And you can continue to drink while low-carbing. Continue reading >>

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