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What Is The Meaning Of Acidosis?

Acid-base Balance Tutorial - Terminology

Acid-base Balance Tutorial - Terminology

4. Hasselbalch complicated Henderson's simple equation. Carbonic Acid (H2CO3) is a mixture of ionization and dissociation products: Henderson (1908) modified this to create the simple Henderson (equilibrium) Equation: Eight years later Hasselbalch complicated Henderson's work by introducing Sorensen's logarithmic notation to produce the dreaded Henderson-Hasselbalch Equation see below : Calling this equation an awkward inverse may be too polite. It is a major source of confusion and provides no extra information. The pH is the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration. A complete definition requires that the logarithm is defined as being to the base ten and the concentration be measured as activity in moles per liter. Because pH falls as the acidity increases it is safer to avoid "increase" and "decrease" and use "more acid" and "more alkaline" instead. To learn more about pH, experiment with the pH playground . The Logarithm is responsible for the mistaken impression that the body maintains remarkably tight control over its hydrogen ion concentration - it doesn't. (Measure blood pressure or pulse using the logarithmic notation and they appear equally stable). To understand logarithm, think of "power." Thus 103 = 1000 and log (1000) = 3. When the pH changes by 0.3 units, e.g., from 7.4 to 7.1 the hydrogen ion concentration doubles (from 40 to 80 nMol/1). [H+] would be so much easier to understand! PCO2 is the partial pressure of carbon dioxide. The normal value in arterial blood is 40 mmHg (or 5.33 kPa). The end-exhaled value is usually very similar. Under anesthesia the end-exhaled value is often lower than the arterial value due to several contributing factors. The mixed venous PCO2 is approximately 46 mmHg (6.13 kPa) Neutral is the pH at which there are e Continue reading >>

The Meaning Of Acidbase Abnormalities In The Intensive Care Unit Effects Of Fluid Administration

The Meaning Of Acidbase Abnormalities In The Intensive Care Unit Effects Of Fluid Administration

The meaning of acidbase abnormalities in the intensive care unit effects of fluid administration Stewart's quantitative physical chemical approach enables us to understand the acidbase properties of intravenous fluids. In Stewart's analysis, the three independent acidbase variables are partial CO2 tension, the total concentration of nonvolatile weak acid (ATOT), and the strong ion difference (SID). Raising and lowering ATOT while holding SID constant cause metabolic acidosis and alkalosis, respectively. Lowering and raising plasma SID while clamping ATOT cause metabolic acidosis and alkalosis, respectively. Fluid infusion causes acidbase effects by forcing extracellular SID and ATOT toward the SID and ATOT of the administered fluid. Thus, fluids with vastly differing pH can have the same acidbase effects. The stimulus is strongest when large volumes are administered, as in correction of hypovolaemia, acute normovolaemic haemodilution, and cardiopulmonary bypass. Zero SID crystalloids such as saline cause a 'dilutional' acidosis by lowering extracellular SID enough to overwhelm the metabolic alkalosis of ATOT dilution. A balanced crystalloid must reduce extracellular SID at a rate that precisely counteracts the ATOT dilutional alkalosis. Experimentally, the crystalloid SID required is 24 mEq/l. When organic anions such as L-lactate are added to fluids they can be regarded as weak ions that do not contribute to fluid SID, provided they are metabolized on infusion. With colloids the presence of ATOT is an additional consideration. Albumin and gelatin preparations contain ATOT, whereas starch preparations do not. Hextend is a hetastarch preparation balanced with L-lactate. It reduces or eliminates infusion related metabolic acidosis, may improve gastric mucosal blood flow, Continue reading >>

Definitions

Definitions

from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition n. An abnormal increase in the acidity of the body's fluids, caused either by accumulation of acids or by depletion of bicarbonates. from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License n. An abnormally increased acidity of the blood. from the GNU version of the Collaborative International Dictionary of English n. abnormally high acidity of the blood and other body fluids. from The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia n. Poisoning by certain acids, such as uric acid or the fatty acids, formed within the body under various morbid conditions, such as cancer, diabetes, or fever. Also called acid intoxication. from WordNet 3.0 Copyright 2006 by Princeton University. All rights reserved. n. abnormally high acidity (excess hydrogen-ion concentration) of the blood and other body tissues Continue reading >>

Acidosis

Acidosis

What is acidosis? Acidosis is a serious metabolic imbalance in which there is an excess of acidic molecules in the body. This can occur as a result of acid overproduction, impaired acid transport, acid underexcretion, or any combination. With overproduction, the body makes too much acid. This can occur in sepsis, a life-threatening widespread infection in which the body makes too much lactic acid. With underexcretion, the body is unable to rid itself of excess acid. This can occur in renal failure and various lung diseases. In renal failure, the kidneys are unable to cleanse the blood of acid. In pulmonary diseases, the lungs are unable to exhale sufficient carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is a gaseous form of acid that builds up in the bloodstream. Both conditions may coexst in a number of serious diseases, such as pneumonia and pulmonary edema (fluid in the lungs), which is seen in a particularly severe form of heart failure. Doctors diagnose acidosis with blood tests, the most common of which is known as a pH test. The normal pH of the body is 7.4 (a lower pH value is more acidic, higher pH is more alkaline). Acidosis is defined as a pH less than 7.4. Specific blood tests may be used to identify particular acids, such as lactic acid. The treatment of acidosis depends on its cause. Therapy may range from simple interventions, such as oral medications and intravenous fluids, to invasive measures, such as dialysis and surgery. The outcome of acidosis depends on its severity. Seek immediate medical care (call 911) for serious symptoms, such as rapid breathing, confusion, shortness of breath, and lethargy, especially in the setting of lung disease, kidney disease, or other diseases that can cause acidosis. Seek prompt medical care if you are being treated for chronic acidos Continue reading >>

> Renal Tubular Acidosis

> Renal Tubular Acidosis

Each time our internal organs do something, such as digesting food or healing damaged tissue, chemical reactions take place in the body's cells. These reactions cause acid to go into the bloodstream. Normally, the kidneys remove excess acid from blood, but certain diseases, genetic defects, or drugs can damage a kidney's ability to do this important job. This can allow too much acid to build up in the blood and cause problems. When this happens, it's called renal tubular acidosis (RTA). Without treatment, RTA can affect a child's growth and cause kidney stones, fatigue, muscle weakness, and other symptoms. Over time, untreated acidosis can lead to long-term problems like bone disease, kidney disease, and kidney failure. Fortunately, such complications are rare, since most cases of RTA can be effectively treated with medicines or by treating the condition that's causing the acid to build up. The kidneys are a pair of bean-shaped organs located toward the back of the abdominal cavity, just above the waist. The kidneys remove waste products and extra water from the food a person eats, returning chemicals the body needs (such as sodium, phosphorus, and potassium) back into the bloodstream. The extra water combines with other waste to become urine (pee). The main functional units of the kidneys, where the blood filtering happens, are tiny structures called nephrons. Each kidney has about a million nephrons, and each nephron has a renal tubule, a tube where the acid and waste products filtered from the blood are secreted into urine. Having a disease or defect can interfere with how the renal tubules function, which can lead to RTA. There are a few different kinds of RTA. The first two types are named for the part of the renal tubule in which the damage or defect is found. Typ Continue reading >>

Acidosis

Acidosis

When your body fluids contain too much acid, it’s known as acidosis. Acidosis occurs when your kidneys and lungs can’t keep your body’s pH in balance. Many of the body’s processes produce acid. Your lungs and kidneys can usually compensate for slight pH imbalances, but problems with these organs can lead to excess acid accumulating in your body. The acidity of your blood is measured by determining its pH. A lower pH means that your blood is more acidic, while a higher pH means that your blood is more basic. The pH of your blood should be around 7.4. According to the American Association for Clinical Chemistry (AACC), acidosis is characterized by a pH of 7.35 or lower. Alkalosis is characterized by a pH level of 7.45 or higher. While seemingly slight, these numerical differences can be serious. Acidosis can lead to numerous health issues, and it can even be life-threatening. There are two types of acidosis, each with various causes. The type of acidosis is categorized as either respiratory acidosis or metabolic acidosis, depending on the primary cause of your acidosis. Respiratory acidosis Respiratory acidosis occurs when too much CO2 builds up in the body. Normally, the lungs remove CO2 while you breathe. However, sometimes your body can’t get rid of enough CO2. This may happen due to: chronic airway conditions, like asthma injury to the chest obesity, which can make breathing difficult sedative misuse deformed chest structure Metabolic acidosis Metabolic acidosis starts in the kidneys instead of the lungs. It occurs when they can’t eliminate enough acid or when they get rid of too much base. There are three major forms of metabolic acidosis: Diabetic acidosis occurs in people with diabetes that’s poorly controlled. If your body lacks enough insulin, keton Continue reading >>

Hyperchloremic Acidosis

Hyperchloremic Acidosis

Normal albumin-corrected anion gap acidosis Hyperchloremic acidosis is a common acid-base disturbance in critical illness, often mild (standard base excess >-10 mEq/L). Definitions of hyperchloremic acidosis vary. The best are not based on chloride concentrations, but on the presence of metabolic acidosis plus the absence of significant concentrations of lactate or other unmeasured anions. 2. standard base excess less than -3 mEq/L or bicarbonate less than 22 mmol/L, 3. Albumin corrected anion gap normal (5-15 mEq/L). A normal strong ion gap is an alternative indicator of the absence of unmeasured anions, although rarely used clinically and offering little advantage over the albumin corrected anion gap. The degree of respiratory compensation is relevant. It is appropriate if PaCO2 approximates the two numbers after arterial pH decimal point (e.g. pH=7.25, PaCO2=25 mm Hg; this rule applies to any primary metabolic acidosis down to a pH of 7.1). Acidosis is severe if standard base excess is less than -10 mEq/L, or pH is less than 7.3, or bicarbonate is less than 15 mmol/L. Common causes in critical illness are large volume saline administration, large volume colloid infusions (e.g. unbalanced gelatine or starch preparations) following resolution of diabetic keto-acidosis or of other raised anion gap acidosis, and post hypocarbia. Hyperchloremic acidosis often occurs on a background of renal impairment/tubular dysfunction. It is usually well tolerated, especially with appropriate respiratory compensation. The prognosis is largely that of the underlying condition. If associated with hyperkalemia, think of hypo-aldosteronism (Type 4 RTA), especially if diabetic. With persistent hypokalemia, think of RTA Types 1 and 2. Hyperchloremic acidosis is usually well tolerated in the Continue reading >>

Uncompensated, Partially Compensated, Or Combined Abg Problems

Uncompensated, Partially Compensated, Or Combined Abg Problems

Arterial Blood Gas (ABG) analysis requires in-depth expertise. If the results are not understood right, or are wrongly interpreted, it can result in wrong diagnosis and end up in an inappropriate management of the patient. ABG analysis is carried out when the patient is dealing with the following conditions: • Breathing problems • Lung diseases (asthma, cystic fibrosis, COPD) • Heart failure • Kidney failure ABG reports help in answering the following questions: 1. Is there acidosis or alkalosis? 2. If acidosis is present, whether it is in an uncompensated state, partially compensated state, or in fully compensated state? 3. Whether acidosis is respiratory or metabolic? ABG reports provide the following descriptions: PaCO2 (partial pressure of dissolved CO2 in the blood) and PaO2 (partial pressure of dissolved O2 in the blood) describe the efficiency of exchange of gas in the alveolar level into the blood. Any change in these levels causes changes in the pH. HCO3 (bicarbonate in the blood) maintains the pH of the blood within normal range by compensatory mechanisms, which is either by retaining or increasing HCO3 excretion by the kidney. When PaCO2 increases, HCO3 decreases to compensate the pH. The following table summarizes the changes: ABG can be interpreted using the following analysis points: Finding acidosis or alkalosis: • If pH is more it is acidosis, if pH is less it is alkalosis. Finding compensated, partially compensated, or uncompensated ABG problems: • When PaCO2 is high, but pH is normal instead of being acidic, and if HCO3 levels are also increased, then it means that the compensatory mechanism has retained more HCO3 to maintain the pH. • When PaCO2 and HCO3 values are high but pH is acidic, then it indicates partial compensation. It means t Continue reading >>

Acidosis Vs. Acidemia

Acidosis Vs. Acidemia

Watch short & fun videos Start Your Free Trial Today An error occurred trying to load this video. Try refreshing the page, or contact customer support. You must create an account to continue watching Start Your Free Trial To Continue Watching As a member, you'll also get unlimited access to over 70,000 lessons in math, English, science, history, and more. Plus, get practice tests, quizzes, and personalized coaching to help you succeed. Coming up next: Polycythemia: Symptoms & Treatment Log in or sign up to add this lesson to a Custom Course. Custom Courses are courses that you create from Study.com lessons. Use them just like other courses to track progress, access quizzes and exams, and share content. Organize and share selected lessons with your class. Make planning easier by creating your own custom course. Create a new course from any lesson page or your dashboard. Click "Add to" located below the video player and follow the prompts to name your course and save your lesson. Click on the "Custom Courses" tab, then click "Create course". Next, go to any lesson page and begin adding lessons. Edit your Custom Course directly from your dashboard. Name your Custom Course and add an optional description or learning objective. Create chapters to group lesson within your course. Remove and reorder chapters and lessons at any time. Share your Custom Course or assign lessons and chapters. Share or assign lessons and chapters by clicking the "Teacher" tab on the lesson or chapter page you want to assign. Students' quiz scores and video views will be trackable in your "Teacher" tab. You can share your Custom Course by copying and pasting the course URL. Only Study.com members will be able to access the entire course. Create an account to start this course today Are you confused Continue reading >>

Too Much Acid In The Body In Dogs

Too Much Acid In The Body In Dogs

Metabolic Acidosis in Dogs The lungs and kidneys help to maintain a delicate balance of acid and alkali in the blood, both normal components of a healthy blood supply. A condition of metabolic acidosis occurs when there is an increase in the levels of acid in the blood, which ultimately accumulates to abnormal levels in the body, causing various problems. This can occur due to loss of bicarbonate (alkali); acid production by increased metabolism; excess acid introduction into the body through an external source like ethylene glycol (resulting in ethylene toxicity); or by the kidney’s inability to excrete acid, which it normally does to maintain its level. Metabolic acidosis can occur in dogs of any age, size, gender, or breed. Symptoms and Types Symptoms can vary considerably, especially if your dog is concurrently suffering from other health problems like diabetes or kidney disease. The most common symptoms that you may notice in a dog that is suffering from metabolic acidosis include: Depression (especially if acidosis is severe) Confusion Causes Diagnosis You will need to give a thorough history of your dog's health, including a background history of symptoms, and possible incidents that might have precipitated this condition (such as suspected antifreeze ingestion, or use of aspirin to treat your dog). The history you provide may give your veterinarian clues as to which organs are causing secondary symptoms. Your veterinarian will then perform a thorough physical examination on your dog. For the diagnosis of metabolic acidosis, a compete blood chemical profile will be performed to check the levels of acid and alkali in the body. The next step is to find the underlying cause of the metabolic acidosis in order to treat that problem along with correcting the acid lev Continue reading >>

Respiratory Acidosis: Causes, Symptoms, And Treatment

Respiratory Acidosis: Causes, Symptoms, And Treatment

Respiratory acidosis develops when air exhaled out of the lungs does not adequately exchange the carbon dioxide formed in the body for the inhaled oxygen in air. There are many conditions or situations that may lead to this. One of the conditions that can reduce the ability to adequately exhale carbon dioxide (CO2) is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or COPD. CO2 that is not exhaled can shift the normal balance of acids and bases in the body toward acidic. The CO2 mixes with water in the body to form carbonic acid. With chronic respiratory acidosis, the body partially makes up for the retained CO2 and maintains acid-base balance near normal. The body's main response is an increase in excretion of carbonic acid and retention of bicarbonate base in the kidneys. Medical treatment for chronic respiratory acidosis is mainly treatment of the underlying illness which has hindered breathing. Treatment may also be applied to improve breathing directly. Respiratory acidosis can also be acute rather than chronic, developing suddenly from respiratory failure. Emergency medical treatment is required for acute respiratory acidosis to: Regain healthful respiration Restore acid-base balance Treat the causes of the respiratory failure Here are some key points about respiratory acidosis. More detail and supporting information is in the main article. Respiratory acidosis develops when decreased breathing fails to get rid of CO2 formed in the body adequately The pH of blood, as a measure of acid-base balance, is maintained near normal in chronic respiratory acidosis by compensating responses in the body mainly in the kidney Acute respiratory acidosis requires emergency treatment Tipping acid-base balance to acidosis When acid levels in the body are in balance with the base levels in t Continue reading >>

Types Of Acidosis And Foods To Avoid- Easy Health Options

Types Of Acidosis And Foods To Avoid- Easy Health Options

Easy Health Options Home Healthy Living Full body acid: Whats eating you? You want to feel vibrant. We all do. But something is eating away at you and causing many of the ailments you potentially face, ranging from lack of energy to cancer Acidosis is when your bodys internal environment meaning all its blood, cells, tissues and organs are in an acidic state. Healthy humans are alkaline humans. An alkaline state is the opposite of an acidic state. So overcoming a chronic state of acidosis and replacing it with a natural, balanced state of alkalinity, is the way to restore health and vibrancy. To do that, you need to look at the pH of your body, the foods that go into it and the other outside factors that can tip that balance Your pH (potential of hydrogen) is a reflection of your bodys balance between its alkaline and acidic state. That pH is measured on a logarithmic scale in which 7.0 is neutral. The lower the reading on the scale the more acidic the body is and the higher the reading, above 7, the more alkaline the body. When the body maintains a high pH you feel vibrant, at ease and well. However, when the environment of the body is acidic, with a low pH reading, inflammation, pain, disease, and other unhealthful issues arise. Indeed, acidic blood can cause stroke, heart attack, atherosclerosis and high blood pressure. An acidic body can even lead to depression and obesity because of how the body is hampered in its ability to process nutrients, expel heavy metals and metabolize wastes. Diseases like cancer cannot thrive in an alkaline environment. But an acidic body does allow cancer cells to proliferate. Many other diseases, including arthritis, emphysema, and diabetes can begin, progress faster and thrive in an acidic environment. An acidic environment in the bod Continue reading >>

Acidosis Ph And Ill Health

Acidosis Ph And Ill Health

"Acidosis, Ph, and ill Health" Acidosis is a condition in which there is too much acid in the body fluids. When nutritionists talk about acid- or alkaline-forming foods, they are referring to the condition of the food after ingestion. There are many food substances which are acidic in their natural form that become alkaline when broken down within the body. Every year the number of prescriptions written for acid-alkaline imbalances continues to increase. Antiacids, alkalizers, specific digestive enzymes, etc. remain popular as household "remedies" for many acute digestive disorders. The temporary relief experienced by these so-called remedies is interpreted by the majority of sufferers as being a cure for the problem. Nothing could be further from the truth. These drugs work in much the same way as a lazy housecleaner sweeps the dust under the rug; that is, covering up the symptom, but not eliminating the cause. Our bodies are like the rug in that they will only allow the drugs to cover up the problem for so long. Eventually, these acute digestive disorders will become chronic, resulting in a more difficult condition for the body to deal with. So, what was once simply a minor case of acid indigestion or heartburn becomes a major digestive ailment. The stomach, liver, small and large intestines, kidneys and pancreas can all be seriously impaired, both from consumption of an improper diet and from the use of drugs that cover up an overly-acidic diet and the, consequent indigestion. Almost anyone who has been eating the standard diet of meat, dairy foods and refined and processed foods will suffer in varying degrees from an acid-alkaline imbalance. Add to this fare: alcohol, cigarettes, drugs and condiments, and the percentages will rise even higher. The physicist MANFRED Continue reading >>

Rumen Acidosis

Rumen Acidosis

Managing disease can be a frustrating proposition. This Guide can help you identify which disease is damaging your cattle. Rumen acidosis is a metabolic disease of cattle. Like most metabolic diseases it is important to remember that for every cow that shows clinical signs, there will be several more which are affected sub-clinically. Acidosis is said to occur when the pH of the rumen falls to less than 5.5 (normal is 6.5 to 7.0). In many cases the pH can fall even lower. The fall in pH has two effects. Firstly, the rumen stops moving, becoming atonic. This depresses appetite and production. Secondly, the change in acidity changes the rumen flora, with acid-producing bacteria taking over. They produce more acid, making the acidosis worse. The increased acid is then absorbed through the rumen wall, causing metabolic acidosis, which in severe cases can lead to shock and death. Cause The primary cause of acidosis is feeding a high level of rapidly digestible carbohydrate, such as barley and other cereals. Acute acidosis, often resulting in death, is most commonly seen in ‘barley beef’ animals where cattle have obtained access to excess feed. In dairy cattle, a milder form, sub-acute acidosis, is seen as a result of feeding increased concentrates compared to forage. Symptoms Acute acidosis often results in death, although illness and liver abscesses may be seen before hand. Cattle may become depressed, go off feed, have an elevated heart rate or diarrhea. Sub-acute: Reduced feed intake Poor body condition and weight loss Unexplained diarrhoea Temperature Pulse rate and respiratory rate may rise Lethargy Treatment Because subacute ruminal acidosis is not detected at the time of depressed ruminal pH, there is no specific treatment for it. Secondary conditions may be treat Continue reading >>

Acidosis

Acidosis

ac·i·do·sis pl. -·ses· an abnormal condition in the body, often due to faulty metabolism in which excessive acid, or a loss of alkali, lowers the pH of the blood and tissue Origin of acidosis ModL: see acid and -osis acidosis noun Abnormally high acidity of the blood and body tissues caused by a deficiency of bicarbonates or an excess of acids other than carbonic acid. It can result from any of various acute or chronic disorders or from the ingestion of certain drugs and toxins. Also called metabolic acidosis . Abnormally high acidity of the blood and body tissues caused by an excess of carbon dioxide due to hypoventilation. Also called respiratory acidosis . Related Forms: ac′i·dot′ic THE AMERICAN HERITAGE® DICTIONARY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE, FIFTH EDITION by the Editors of the American Heritage Dictionaries. Copyright © 2016, 2011 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. acidosis Continue reading >>

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