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What Is The Key Differentiating Factor Between Dka And Hhs

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Hyperglycemic crises: Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic coma (HHNK) versus DKA. See DKA video here: https://youtu.be/r2tXTjb7EqU This video and similar images/videos are available for instant download licensing here https://www.alilamedicalmedia.com/-/g... Voice by: Penelope Hammet Alila Medical Media. All rights reserved. All images/videos by Alila Medical Media are for information purposes ONLY and are NOT intended to replace professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Always seek the advice of a qualified healthcare provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Support us on Patreon and get FREE downloads and other great rewards: patreon.com/AlilaMedicalMedia Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, or HHS, is another ACUTE and life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus. It develops slower than DKA, typically in the course of several days, but has a much higher mortality rate. Like DKA, HHS is triggered when diabetic patients suffer from ADDITIONAL physiologic stress such as infections, other illness, INadequate diabetic treatment or certain drugs. Similar to DKA, the RISE in COUNTER-regulatory hormones is the major culprit. These hormones stimulate FURTHER production and release of glucose into the blood, causing it to overflow into urine, resulting in excessive LOSS of water and electrolytes. The major DIFFERENCE between HHS and DKA is the ABSENCE of acidosis in HHS. This is because, unlike DKA, the level of insulin in HHS patients is HIGH enough to SUPPRESS lipolysis and hence ketogenesis. This explains why HHS occurs more often in type 2 diabetics, who have more or less normal level of circulating insulin. Reminder: type 2 diabetics DO produce insulin but their cells do NOT respond to insulin and therefore cannot use glucose. Because symptoms of acidosis are NOT present, development of HHS may go UNnoticed until blood glucose levels become EXTREMELY high. Severe dehydration results in INcreased concentrations of solutes in the blood, raising its osmolarity. HyPERosmotic blood plasma drives water OUT of bodys tissues causing cellular dysfunction. Primary symptom of HHS is ALTERED consciousness due to excessive dehydration of brain tissues. This can range from confusion to coma. Emergency treatment consists of intravenous fluid, insulin and potassium similar to those used in DKA.

Hyperglycemic Crises: Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka), And Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar State (hhs)

Go to: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state (HHS) are acute metabolic complications of diabetes mellitus that can occur in patients with both type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus. Timely diagnosis, comprehensive clinical and biochemical evaluation, and effective management is key to the successful resolution of DKA and HHS. Critical components of the hyperglycemic crises management include coordinating fluid resuscitation, insulin therapy, and electrolyte replacement along with the continuous patient monitoring using available laboratory tools to predict the resolution of the hyperglycemic crisis. Understanding and prompt awareness of potential of special situations such as DKA or HHS presentation in comatose state, possibility of mixed acid-base disorders obscuring the diagnosis of DKA, and risk of brain edema during the therapy are important to reduce the risks of complications without affecting recovery from hyperglycemic crisis. Identification of factors that precipitated DKA or HHS during the index hospitalization should help prevent subsequent episode of hyperglycemic crisis. For extensive review of all related areas of Endocrinology, visit WWW.ENDOTEXT. Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. 2ndChance

    It's hard for me to describe the way I feel... I can feel the fat draining from my face, I become really aware of my thyroid's existence, I sort of feel like my body is attempting to figure out what bare minimum things it needs to survive, and then it starts burning everything else for fuel. This seems like a very good thing in the prevention of disease to me--when I think of cancer cells, I think of things that shouldn't exist. Cells in our bodies that shouldn't be there. Hopefully with a ketogenic diet, malicious extra cells will be the first to be burned? I can definitely tell that the primal way of life is better for me than any other eating/lifestyle plan I have ever followed. I haven't eaten since breakfast, and yeah, food sounds nice right now, but at the same time I'm mentally stable. I feel very aware of the realities being ignored by those around me, who eat SAD foods unquestioningly and never have the thought, "I am my body." Each time I fast I believe I become a more efficient beast, reduced to my essential self, my "essence," and free of unnecessary things. It's very meditative for me.
    What does it feel like to you?

  2. Paleobird

    To me it feels exceptionally awake and aware. I can feel my heart beating and hear my breath. I feel like I could chase down a woolly mammoth for dinner or run like hell to avoid being dinner for a saber toothed tiger.
    Keto-land has been my permanent home for a while now so this feeling has become the new normal. I wouldn't want to go back to life without it. This is why I wonder at all the people saying how the cookies at the office are such a "temptation", etc. I am not in the least tempted. Why would I want to leave this awesome place even temporarily? For a cookie? Why?
    Also being in ketosis for me means perfect seizure control on 25% less medication than before and I plan to cut that back further gradually. The medication I'm cutting back is a barbiturate so getting some of that out of my system is an added bonus.
    And I hope what you said about cancer cells is true as well. Five and a half years cancer free and planning to stay that way.

  3. Derpamix

    While I was in ketosis I felt like I was going to die. I was in more pain in ketosis than I was when I was stabbed in the stomach. Not even exaggerating.

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What is DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS? What does DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS mean? DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS meaning - DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS definition - DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6Uu... Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a potentially life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus. Signs and symptoms may include vomiting, abdominal pain, deep gasping breathing, increased urination, weakness, confusion, and occasionally loss of consciousness. A person's breath may develop a specific smell. Onset of symptoms is usually rapid. In some cases people may not realize they previously had diabetes. DKA happens most often in those with type 1 diabetes, but can also occur in those with other types of diabetes under certain circumstances. Triggers may include infection, not taking insulin correctly, stroke, and certain medications such as steroids. DKA results from a shortage of insulin; in response the body switches to burning fatty acids which produces acidic ketone bodies. DKA is typically diagnosed when testing finds high blood sugar, low blood pH, and ketoacids in either the blood or urine. The primary treatment of DKA is with intravenous fluids and insulin. Depending on the severity, insulin may be given intravenously or by injection under the skin. Usually potassium is also needed to prevent the development of low blood potassium. Throughout treatment blood sugar and potassium levels should be regularly checked. Antibiotics may be required in those with an underlying infection. In those with severely low blood pH, sodium bicarbonate may be given; however, its use is of unclear benefit and typically not recommended. Rates of DKA vary around the world. About 4% of people with type 1 diabetes in United Kingdom develop DKA a year, while in Malaysia the condition affects about 25% a year. DKA was first described in 1886 and, until the introduction of insulin therapy in the 1920s, it was almost universally fatal. The risk of death with adequate and timely treatment is currently around 1–4%. Up to 1% of children with DKA develop a complication known as cerebral edema. The symptoms of an episode of diabetic ketoacidosis usually evolve over a period of about 24 hours. Predominant symptoms are nausea and vomiting, pronounced thirst, excessive urine production and abdominal pain that may be severe. Those who measure their glucose levels themselves may notice hyperglycemia (high blood sugar levels). In severe DKA, breathing becomes labored and of a deep, gasping character (a state referred to as "Kussmaul respiration"). The abdomen may be tender to the point that an acute abdomen may be suspected, such as acute pancreatitis, appendicitis or gastrointestinal perforation. Coffee ground vomiting (vomiting of altered blood) occurs in a minority of people; this tends to originate from erosion of the esophagus. In severe DKA, there may be confusion, lethargy, stupor or even coma (a marked decrease in the level of consciousness). On physical examination there is usually clinical evidence of dehydration, such as a dry mouth and decreased skin turgor. If the dehydration is profound enough to cause a decrease in the circulating blood volume, tachycardia (a fast heart rate) and low blood pressure may be observed. Often, a "ketotic" odor is present, which is often described as "fruity", often compared to the smell of pear drops whose scent is a ketone. If Kussmaul respiration is present, this is reflected in an increased respiratory rate.....

Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Hyperglycaemic Hyperosmolar State

The hallmark of diabetes is a raised plasma glucose resulting from an absolute or relative lack of insulin action. Untreated, this can lead to two distinct yet overlapping life-threatening emergencies. Near-complete lack of insulin will result in diabetic ketoacidosis, which is therefore more characteristic of type 1 diabetes, whereas partial insulin deficiency will suppress hepatic ketogenesis but not hepatic glucose output, resulting in hyperglycaemia and dehydration, and culminating in the hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar state. Hyperglycaemia is characteristic of diabetic ketoacidosis, particularly in the previously undiagnosed, but it is the acidosis and the associated electrolyte disorders that make this a life-threatening condition. Hyperglycaemia is the dominant feature of the hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar state, causing severe polyuria and fluid loss and leading to cellular dehydration. Progression from uncontrolled diabetes to a metabolic emergency may result from unrecognised diabetes, sometimes aggravated by glucose containing drinks, or metabolic stress due to infection or intercurrent illness and associated with increased levels of counter-regulatory hormones. Since diabetic Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. netflixandvb

    Do most people on this sub do keto on and off, for just a short while trying to lose weight or is it a long term diet for you guys?

  2. clear831

    Is eating food sustainable long term? Yes this is a long term eating plan for majority of people here.

  3. Whatifiwasalwaysrigh

    Lifestyle.

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Session 5 - Difference Between Diabetic Ketoacidosis ( DKA ) And Hyperosmoler Hyperglycemic ( HHS ) ( Dr/ Razan Agha )

Difference Between Dka And Hhs

DKA vs HHS “DKA” means “diabetic ketoacidosis” and “HHS” means “Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic Syndrome.” Both DKA and HHS are the two complications of diabetes mellitus. Though there are many differences between DKA and HHS, the basic problem is associated with insulin deficiency. When comparing the two, HHS has a higher mortality rate. When DKA has a mortality rate of 2 to 5 per cent, HHS has a 15 per cent mortality rate. Diabetic ketoacidosis is seen mainly in type 1 diabetic patients but is also seen in some type 2 diabetic patients. Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic Syndrome is mainly seen in older patients having type 2 diabetes. DKA is mainly characterized by hyperglycemia, acidosis-producing derangements, and dehydration. Infection, disruption of insulin, and onset of diabetes are some of the common causes of DKA. Hyperglycemia, dehydration and hyperosmolarity are some of the common characteristics of Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic Syndrome. But HHS does not have ketoacidosis. Some of the early symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis include increased thirst and increased urination. Other symptoms include malaise, weakness, and fatigue. Bacterial infection, illness, insulin defi Continue reading >>

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  1. Saphire

    So the last few days I have been sleeping really well. Barely got up, was able to sleep in the morning which is something I have always done, I am a night person and I like it that way. However, while I was not cheating, between all the supplements I have been taking for some aches and pains and the extra nuts I have been snacking on I suspected I was not in ketosis. Yesterday I skipped lunch unintentionally and started what is now a 40 hour fast. Last night my sleep went back to how it is on keto/fasting. I woke up several times to use the facilities and this morning woke up an hour earlier than usual and could not go back to sleep (no matter how much I wanted to). I do not feel refreshed but I do feel alert. On the flip side I usually fall asleep earlier than usual with keto.

    I have always had a bit of a delayed circadian issue but I like it and am used to it. When on keto it seems to fix it? Is that possible?

  2. David_Driver

    I am going to have to give up on Keto. I have had insomnia for almost a year and I discovered that when I cheat I sleep all night. This week I have bumped up the carbs significantly and I have slept all the way through every night. If you google low carb and insomnia you will find that it is fairly common.

  3. Loulou

    Perhaps that is why my insomnia has been so bad recently. Only slept 4 hours last night. However, if I eat more than 20 grams carbs I immediately put on 1 or 2 lbs over night which is a no no for me,

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