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What Is The General Formula Of A Ketone?

Ketone

Ketone

Not to be confused with ketone bodies. Ketone group Acetone In chemistry, a ketone (alkanone) /ˈkiːtoʊn/ is an organic compound with the structure RC(=O)R', where R and R' can be a variety of carbon-containing substituents. Ketones and aldehydes are simple compounds that contain a carbonyl group (a carbon-oxygen double bond). They are considered "simple" because they do not have reactive groups like −OH or −Cl attached directly to the carbon atom in the carbonyl group, as in carboxylic acids containing −COOH.[1] Many ketones are known and many are of great importance in industry and in biology. Examples include many sugars (ketoses) and the industrial solvent acetone, which is the smallest ketone. Nomenclature and etymology[edit] The word ketone is derived from Aketon, an old German word for acetone.[2][3] According to the rules of IUPAC nomenclature, ketones are named by changing the suffix -ane of the parent alkane to -anone. The position of the carbonyl group is usually denoted by a number. For the most important ketones, however, traditional nonsystematic names are still generally used, for example acetone and benzophenone. These nonsystematic names are considered retained IUPAC names,[4] although some introductory chemistry textbooks use systematic names such as "2-propanone" or "propan-2-one" for the simplest ketone (CH3−CO−CH3) instead of "acetone". The common names of ketones are obtained by writing separately the names of the two alkyl groups attached to the carbonyl group, followed by "ketone" as a separate word. The names of the alkyl groups are written alphabetically. When the two alkyl groups are the same, the prefix di- is added before the name of alkyl group. The positions of other groups are indicated by Greek letters, the α-carbon being th Continue reading >>

Ketones And Aldehydes

Ketones And Aldehydes

Your chemical reactions can be run safely and effectively with US-made clamps and other laboratory accessories from Safety Emporium. According to the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) naming (nomenclature) rules, simple ketones are named by taking the name of the longest acyclic hydrocarbon chain in the molecule, dropping the terminal "e" (if present), and adding the suffix "one". In situations where there are other functional groups that take naming precedence, the ketone may be indicated by the use of "oxo". Certain other ketone-containing substructures have additional naming rules that are beyond the scope of our current discussion: Under IUPAC nomenclature aldehydes are named by taking the name of the longest acyclic hydrocarbon chain in the molecule, dropping the terminal "e" (if present), and adding the suffix "al", "aldehyde" or "carbaldehyde". In some cases the prefix "formyl" may be used. Two aldehydes are indicated by the suffix "dial". In addition, a number of trivial (traditional) names are still recognized. For detailed naming rules see Further Reading below. Aldehydes and ketones are widely used industrial chemicals both as solvents and as chemical intermediates (ingredients for other chemicals). Most can be classified as volatile organic compounds meaning that their vapors may be easily inhaled or ignited. Many ketones and aldehydes are also flammable as liquids and solids. Training materials, handbooks, posters and videos at Safety Emporium can help your employees protect themselves from hazards such as formaldehyde. Important note: formaldehyde is an industrially important aldehyde that is used on the billion ton scale. Glutaraldehyde is a "cold sterilent" used widely in the health care industry. Both are potent sensitizers. Expo Continue reading >>

Structural Biochemistry/organic Chemistry/carbohydrates

Structural Biochemistry/organic Chemistry/carbohydrates

Carbohydrates consist of numerous functions that are important to living organisms. They are also known as saccharides, or sugar if they exist in small quantities; these names are used interchangeably to describe the same thing. The simplest carbohydrates are the monosaccharides, also known as simple sugars. Disaccharides are double sugars, consisting of two monosaccharides joined by a covalent bond. Carbohydrates also include polysaccharides, which are polymers composed of many sugar building blocks. The name "carbohydrate" is derived from 'hydrates of carbon', and they arise from photosynthesis, where they exist as products. Carbohydrates are the most abundant aldehyde compounds found in living organisms. They provide storage, transport starch and glycogen that provide energy to bodies, and contain structural components such as cellulose in plants and chitin in animals. Additionally, they contribute to the immune system, fertilization, pathogenesis, blood clotting, and development. The common chemical formula for carbohydrates is Cn(H2O)n, where the ratios are usually 1 Carbon: 2 Hydrogens: 1 Oxygen. Trioses, pentoses, and hexoses are found most commonly among monosaccharides.Their structure is composed of the functional groups, aldehyde and ketone, which are attached with various amount of hydroxylgroups. The hydroxyl groups are usually attached to the carbons not a part of the aldehyde or ketone functional groups, to form aldoses and ketosesStructural Biochemistry/Carbohydrates/Ketoses, respectively. The most elementary carbohydrates comprise polyhydroxyaldehydes (an aldehyde moiety) or polyhydroxyketones (a ketone moiety). There are four general classes of carbohydrates: monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides. The most important carbo Continue reading >>

> Aldehydes And Ketones

> Aldehydes And Ketones

Syllabus ref: 20.1 Aldehydes and ketones are both carbonyl compounds, that is they contain alkyl chains attached to a C=O group. The difference between them is that the aldehyde also has a hydrogen attached to the carbonyl group. This confers aldehydes with sightly different properties to ketones. Aldehydes Ketones Aldehydes Aldehydes have the general formula CxH2x+1CHO, although the first member of the homologous series is methanal, HCHO (x=0). The carbonyl group has a pair of electrons in a pi orbital between the carbon atom and the oxygen of the carbonyl group. This is a polarised system due to the high electronegativity of the oxygen atom. Oxidation This reactivity of the carbonyl group means that aldehydes can be oxidised easily to carboxylic acids. This is carried out using potassium dichromate(VI) in acidic solution under reflux (to prevent loss of the volatile aldehyde). Reduction In section section 10.33 the oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes was described: This reaction can be made to go in the reverse direction using a strong reducing agent. Suitable reducing agents are lithium aluminium hydride (lithium tetrahydroaluminate) or sodium borohydride (sodium tetrahydroborate). Lithium aluminium hydride (lithium tetrahydroaluminate) Lithium aluminium hydride, LiAlH4, is a highly reactive reducing agent that must be used in non-aqueous solutions, for example, ethoxyethane (ether). This is because it reacts vigorously with water. The reaction is carried out in two stages: 2 decomposition of the complex formed in 1 by adding aqueous acid to give the required product Sodium borohydride (sodium tetrahydroborate) Sodium borohydride, NaBH4, has an advantage over lithium aluminium hydride in that it is not decomposed by water at high pH and hence can be used in aqueous so Continue reading >>

Naming Straight-chain Alkanones

Naming Straight-chain Alkanones

Naming Straight-Chain Alkanones Key Concepts Alkanones are organic molecules containing only carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms. Alkanones belong to the group of organic compounds known as ketones. Ketones contain a C=O, carbonyl1, functional group. A straight-chain alkanone consists of a chain of 3 or more carbon atoms joined to each other by single covalent bonds, with a =O functional group attached to a non-terminal carbon atom in the chain of carbon atoms. O || R -C- R' R and R' represented chains of carbon atoms The systematic IUPAC name2 of an alkan-n-one is made up of three parts: (i) a prefix or stem (ii) an infix (location of C=O along the chain) (iii) a suffix (last part of the name, one which sounds like "own" not like "won") The suffix when naming a straight-chain alkanone is always "one" The prefix or stem is dependent on the number of carbon atoms in the longest chain of carbon atoms (the parent hydrocarbon, or parent alkane): Number of carbon atoms: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Prefix: meth eth prop but pent hex hept oct non dec Note that it is not possible to construct an alkanone with only 1 or 2 carbon atoms in the chain, because, in both these cases, the carbonyl functional group would occur on a terminal (end) carbon atom so the molecules would be alkanals NOT alkanones. The general molecular formula for a straight-chain alkanone is CnH2nO where n = number of carbon atoms in the carbon chain google_ad_client="ca-pub-6425224463369806";google_ad_slot="6267157174";google_adsbygoogle_status="done";google_ad_width=468;google_ad_height=60;google_ad_modifications={"plle":true,"eids":["21060548","38893302","21061122","191880502"],"loeids":["38893312"]};google_loader_used="aa";google_reactive_tag_first=false;google_ad_format="468x60";google_ad_unit_key="12 Continue reading >>

Regulation Of Cellular Ketone Metabolic Process

Regulation Of Cellular Ketone Metabolic Process

Biological Process Any process that modulates the chemical reactions and pathways involving any of a class of organic compounds that contain the carbonyl group, CO, and in which the carbonyl group is bonded only to carbon atoms. The general formula for a ketone is RCOR, where R and R are alkyl or aryl groups. This table lists all terms that are direct descendants (child terms) of GO:0010565 Child Term Relationship to GO:0010565 GO:1901466 regulation of ferulate catabolic process is_a GO:0019217 regulation of fatty acid metabolic process is_a GO:0045734 regulation of acetate catabolic process is_a GO:0032344 regulation of aldosterone metabolic process is_a GO:0010337 regulation of salicylic acid metabolic process is_a GO:0033244 regulation of penicillin metabolic process is_a GO:0070857 regulation of bile acid biosynthetic process is_a GO:0010567 regulation of ketone catabolic process is_a GO:0007553 regulation of ecdysteroid metabolic process is_a GO:0010566 regulation of ketone biosynthetic process is_a These tables show the number of times the term listed in the table has been co-annotated. Co-occurring Term PR S% #Together #Compared GO:0010565 regulation of cellular ketone metabolic process 812,505.25 100.00 87 87 GO:0010510 regulation of acetyl-CoA biosynthetic process from pyruvate 400,278.30 42.95 67 136 GO:0046320 regulation of fatty acid oxidation 429,467.06 30.83 37 70 GO:0042304 regulation of fatty acid biosynthetic process 227,747.67 20.33 37 132 GO:0035183 female germline ring canal inner rim 427,634.28 19.05 20 38 GO:0045124 regulation of bone resorption 201,763.05 18.59 37 149 GO:0004740 pyruvate dehydrogenase (acetyl-transferring) kinase activity 87,337.70 9.14 33 307 GO:0071398 cellular response to fatty acid 74,617.83 8.13 36 392 GO:2000811 negative reg Continue reading >>

The Structure And Naming Of Aldehydes & Ketones

The Structure And Naming Of Aldehydes & Ketones

Doc Brown's GCE A Level AS A2 Chemistry Revising Advanced Level Organic Chemistry Revision Notes Part 5 CARBONYL COMPOUNDS NOMENCLATURE of ALDEHYDES and KETONES 5.1 The molecular structure and naming of ALDEHYDES and KETONES - including nomenclature of some isomers Nomenclature of aldehydes & ketones names and structures of aldehydes & ketones How to name aldehydes? How to name ketones? Nomenclature of substituted aldehydes or ketones - examples of acceptable names, displayed formula of aldehydes and ketones, graphic formula of aldehydes and ketones, molecular formula of aldehydes and ketones, skeletal formula of aldehydes and ketones, structural formula of aldehydes and ketones and homologous series of aldehydes and ketones, how to name the carbonyl group of compounds known as aldehydes and ketones Organic Chemistry Part 5 sub-index: 5.1.1 Nomenclature introduction * 5.1.2 Examples of aldehydes 5.1.3 Examples of ketones * 5.1.4 Other examples of substituted ketones 5.1.5 Oxidation sequence: alcohol ==> aldehyde/ketone ==> carboxylic acid Revision notes on the structure and naming-nomenclature of Aldehydes and Ketones 5.1.1 Introduction to Aldehyde and Ketone Nomenclature How do you name aldehydes? How do you name ketones? How do you name substituted aldehydes or ketones? Aldehydes and ketones are a group of compounds containing the carbonyl group, C=O. Aldehydes always have a hydrogen atom attached to the carbon of the carbonyl group, so the functional group is -CHO (see diagram above). The functional group is shown by using 'al' in the suffix part of the name e.g. methanal, ethanal, propanal etc. The prefix for the aldehyde name is based on the parent alkane minus the e. No number is required for the aldehyde group because the aldehyde group cannot be anything else ex Continue reading >>

Ketone

Ketone

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright The Columbia University Press ketone (kē´tōn), any of a class of organic compounds that contain the carbonyl group, C[symbol]O, and in which the carbonyl group is bonded only to carbon atoms. The general formula for a ketone is RCOR′, where R and R′ are alkyl or aryl groups. The simplest ketone, where R and R′ are methyl groups, is acetone; this is one of the most important ketones used in industry. Low-molecular-weight ketones are used chiefly as solvents. Ketones may be prepared by several methods, including the oxidation of secondary alcohols and the destructive distillation of certain salts of organic acids. Ketones are related to the aldehydes but are less active chemically. Continue reading >>

Definitions

Definitions

Carbohydrates are polyhydroxy aldehydes and ketones and their anhydrides. Don't panic!! We'll explain further. Carbohydrates are composed of three elements: Carbon Oxygen Hydrogen The ratio of the hydrogen to oxygen is close to 2 to 1 (2 parts of hydrogen to 1 part of oxygen), which is the same as that in water. Remember this piece of information when we talk about fats, and compare this same ratio there. A typical formula for carbohydrate is C6H12O6. That is the formula for glucose, for example. A more general formula which is usually approximately correct is CnH2nOn .(Sometime it is CnH2n-2On-1). Remember that definition that carbohydrates are polyhydroxy aldehydes and ketones and their anhydrides? A ketone is a molecule that has this arrangement: An aldehyde is a molecule that has this arrangement: Polyhydroxy means many hydroxyls, many OH groups. This molecule is glucose. Anhydrides means "without water". So Polyhydroxy aldehydes and ketones and their anhydrides describes carbohydrates, as molecules that contain an aldehyde or a ketone and have many OH groups, and may be connected together with the removal of water. Basically all of this is just a chemical way of saying "sugars" and "polysaccharides" (like starch). MORE Definitions The MOLECULES those elements are arranged into, in carbohydrates, are called SUGARS. Carbohydrates are composed of simple sugars. STILL MORE DEFINITIONS A simple sugar is a monosaccharide. Two simple sugars hooked together form a disaccharide. In nutrition we usually consider any carbohydrate containing more than 2 simple sugars a polysaccharide. Continue reading >>

Ketone Definition

Ketone Definition

Ketone Definition A ketone is a compound containing a carbonyl functional group bridging two groups of atoms. The general formula for a ketone is RC(=O)R' where R and R' are alkyl or aryl groups. IUPAC ketone functional group names contain "oxo" or "keto". Ketones are named by changing the -e on the end of the parent alkane name to -one. Examples: Acetone is a ketone. The carbonyl group is connected to the alkane propane, therefore the IUPAC name for acetone would be propanone. Continue reading >>

What Is Ketone? - Definition, Structure, Formation & Formula

What Is Ketone? - Definition, Structure, Formation & Formula

Background of Ketone Did you know that our friend aldehyde has a very close relative named ketone? By definition, a ketone is an organic compound that contains a carbonyl functional group. So you may be wondering if aldehydes and ketones are relatives, what makes them different? Well, I am glad you asked because all you have to remember is this little guy: hydrogen. While aldehyde contains a hydrogen atom connected to its carbonyl group, ketone does not have a hydrogen atom attached. There are a few ways to know you are encountering a ketone. The first is by looking at the ending of the chemical word. If the suffix ending of the chemical name is '-one,' then you can be sure there is a ketone present in that compound. Want to know another way to tell if a ketone is lurking around the corner? By its physical property. Ketones have high boiling points and love water (high water solubility). Let's dig a little deeper with the physical property of a ketone. The oxygen in a ketone absolutely loves to take all the electrons it can get its hands on. But, by being an electron-hogger, oxygen's refusal to share creates a sticky situation where some atoms on the ketone have more or less charge than others. In chemistry, an electron-hogging atom is referred to as being electronegative. An electronegative atom is more attractive to other compounds. This attractiveness, called polarity, is what contributes to ketones' physical properties. Structure & Formula Ketones have a very distinct look to them; you can't miss it if you see them. As shown in Diagram 1, there are two R groups attached to the carbonyl group (C=O). Those R groups can be any type of compound that contains a carbon molecule. An example of how the R group determines ketone type is illustrated in this diagram here. The Continue reading >>

Introducing Aldehydes And Ketones

Introducing Aldehydes And Ketones

This page explains what aldehydes and ketones are, and looks at the way their bonding affects their reactivity. It also considers their simple physical properties such as solubility and boiling points. Details of the chemical reactions of aldehydes and ketones are described on separate pages. What are aldehydes and ketones? Aldehydes and ketones as carbonyl compounds Aldehydes and ketones are simple compounds which contain a carbonyl group - a carbon-oxygen double bond. They are simple in the sense that they don't have other reactive groups like -OH or -Cl attached directly to the carbon atom in the carbonyl group - as you might find, for example, in carboxylic acids containing -COOH. Examples of aldehydes In aldehydes, the carbonyl group has a hydrogen atom attached to it together with either a second hydrogen atom or, more commonly, a hydrocarbon group which might be an alkyl group or one containing a benzene ring. For the purposes of this section, we shall ignore those containing benzene rings. Note: There is no very significant reason for this. It is just that if you are fairly new to organic chemistry you might not have come across any compounds with benzene rings in them yet. I'm just trying to avoid adding to your confusion! Notice that these all have exactly the same end to the molecule. All that differs is the complexity of the other group attached. When you are writing formulae for these, the aldehyde group (the carbonyl group with the hydrogen atom attached) is always written as -CHO - never as COH. That could easily be confused with an alcohol. Ethanal, for example, is written as CH3CHO; methanal as HCHO. The name counts the total number of carbon atoms in the longest chain - including the one in the carbonyl group. If you have side groups attached to the ch Continue reading >>

Aldehydes And Ketones

Aldehydes And Ketones

Introduction We will focus more specifically on the organic compounds that incorporate carbonyl groups: aldehydes and ketones. Key Terms Aldehyde Formyl group Ketone Hydrogen bonding Hydration Hydrate Objectives Identify IUPAC names for simple aldehydes and ketones Describe the boiling point and solubility characteristics of aldehydes and ketones relative to those of alkanes and alcohols Characterize the process of nucleophilic addition to the carbonyl group The carbonyl group is shown below in the context of synthesizing alcohols. This functional group is the key component of aldehydes and ketones, which we will discuss here. Nomenclature for Aldehydes and Ketones Aldehydes and ketones are structurally similar; the only difference is that for an aldehyde, the carbonyl group has at most one substituent alkyl group, whereas the carbonyl group in a ketone has two. Several examples of aldehydes and ketones are depicted below. Aldehydes are named by replacing the -e ending of an alkane with -al (similarly to the use of -ol in alcohols). The base molecule is the longest carbon chain ending with the carbonyl group. Furthermore, the carbon atom in the carbonyl group is assumed to be carbon 1, so a number is not needed in the IUPAC name to identify the location of the doubly bonded oxygen atom. If the chain contains two carbonyl groups, one at each end, the correct suffix is -dial (used in the same manner as -diol for compounds with two hydroxyl groups). An example aldehyde is shown below with its IUPAC name. One- and two-carbon aldehydes have common names (one of which you will likely be familiar with) in addition to their systematic names. Both names are acceptable. Sometimes, the carbonyl group plus one proton (called a formyl group) must be treated separately for nomenclatu Continue reading >>

Reactions Of Aldehydes And Ketones

Reactions Of Aldehydes And Ketones

Reference: McMurry Ch 9 George et al Ch 2.6 Structure and bonding Contain a carbonyl group, C=O Aldehydes have at least one H attached to the carbonyl group, ketones have two carbon groups attached to the carbonyl group Carbon of the carbonyl group is sp2 hybridised The C=O bond is polar Aldehydes and ketones strongly absorb radiation around ~ 1700 cm-1 in the infrared region Nomenclature Aldehydes The longest chain containing the CHO group gives the stem; ending �al If substituents are present, start the numbering from the aldehyde group - C1 Ketones The longest chain containing the carbonyl group gives the stem; ending �one If substituents are present number from the end of the chain so the carbonyl group has the lowest possible number There are non-systematic names for the common aldehydes and ketones With the exception of oxidation of aldehydes, the reactions of aldehydes and ketones is dominated by nucleophilic addition. 1. Oxidation of aldehydes Aldehydes (but not ketones) may be oxidised to carboxylic acids with Cr2O72- / H+ Example: 2. Nucleophilic addition The double bond of the carbonyl group undergoes an addition reaction The polarity of the C=O bond results in the addition of a nucleophile (Nu-) to the carbon atom, breaking of the double bond and addition of H+ to the oxygen is always the second step and results in an alcohol Common nucleophiles include the Grignard reagent (RMgX), hydride ion (H- from LiAlH4 or NaBH4) In summary Examples: Grignard reaction Recap � generation of a Grignard reagent from an alkyl halide and magnesium in dry diethyl ether solvent Grignard reagents also react with carbon dioxide to generate carboxylic acids after addition of aqueous H+ Reduction Reduction of the non-polar C=C or C� C bonds in alkenes and alkynes respecti Continue reading >>

Aldehydes, Ketones, Carboxylic Acids, And Esters

Aldehydes, Ketones, Carboxylic Acids, And Esters

By the end of this section, you will be able to: Describe the structure and properties of aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and esters Another class of organic molecules contains a carbon atom connected to an oxygen atom by a double bond, commonly called a carbonyl group. The trigonal planar carbon in the carbonyl group can attach to two other substituents leading to several subfamilies (aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and esters) described in this section. Aldehydes and Ketones Both aldehydes and ketones contain a carbonyl group, a functional group with a carbon-oxygen double bond. The names for aldehyde and ketone compounds are derived using similar nomenclature rules as for alkanes and alcohols, and include the class-identifying suffixes –al and –one, respectively: In an aldehyde, the carbonyl group is bonded to at least one hydrogen atom. In a ketone, the carbonyl group is bonded to two carbon atoms: In both aldehydes and ketones, the geometry around the carbon atom in the carbonyl group is trigonal planar; the carbon atom exhibits sp2 hybridization. Two of the sp2 orbitals on the carbon atom in the carbonyl group are used to form σ bonds to the other carbon or hydrogen atoms in a molecule. The remaining sp2 hybrid orbital forms a σ bond to the oxygen atom. The unhybridized p orbital on the carbon atom in the carbonyl group overlaps a p orbital on the oxygen atom to form the π bond in the double bond. Like the C=O bond in carbon dioxide, the C=O bond of a carbonyl group is polar (recall that oxygen is significantly more electronegative than carbon, and the shared electrons are pulled toward the oxygen atom and away from the carbon atom). Many of the reactions of aldehydes and ketones start with the reaction between a Lewis base and the carbon atom at Continue reading >>

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