diabetestalk.net

What Is The Functional Group Of An Aldehyde And Ketone?

Aldehydes And Ketones

Aldehydes And Ketones

We'll get right to the point: we're asking you to help support Khan Academy. We're a nonprofit that relies on support from people like you. If everyone reading this gives $10 monthly, Khan Academy can continue to thrive for years. Please help keep Khan Academy free, for anyone, anywhere forever. Continue reading >>

1. Nomenclature Of Aldehydes And Ketones

1. Nomenclature Of Aldehydes And Ketones

Aldehydes and ketones are organic compounds which incorporate a carbonyl functional group, C=O. The carbon atom of this group has two remaining bonds that may be occupied by hydrogen or alkyl or aryl substituents. If at least one of these substituents is hydrogen, the compound is an aldehyde. If neither is hydrogen, the compound is a ketone. The IUPAC system of nomenclature assigns a characteristic suffix to these classes, al to aldehydes and one to ketones. For example, H2C=O is methanal, more commonly called formaldehyde. Since an aldehyde carbonyl group must always lie at the end of a carbon chain, it is by default position #1, and therefore defines the numbering direction. A ketone carbonyl function may be located anywhere within a chain or ring, and its position is given by a locator number. Chain numbering normally starts from the end nearest the carbonyl group. In cyclic ketones the carbonyl group is assigned position #1, and this number is not cited in the name, unless more than one carbonyl group is present. If you are uncertain about the IUPAC rules for nomenclature you should review them now. Examples of IUPAC names are provided (in blue) in the following diagram. Common names are in red, and derived names in black. In common names carbon atoms near the carbonyl group are often designated by Greek letters. The atom adjacent to the function is alpha, the next removed is beta and so on. Since ketones have two sets of neighboring atoms, one set is labeled α, β etc., and the other α', β' etc. Very simple ketones, such as propanone and phenylethanone (first two examples in the right column), do not require a locator number, since there is only one possible site for a ketone carbonyl function. Likewise, locator numbers are omitted for the simple dialdehyde at t Continue reading >>

Aldehydes And Ketones

Aldehydes And Ketones

Introduction We will focus more specifically on the organic compounds that incorporate carbonyl groups: aldehydes and ketones. Key Terms Aldehyde Formyl group Ketone Hydrogen bonding Hydration Hydrate Objectives Identify IUPAC names for simple aldehydes and ketones Describe the boiling point and solubility characteristics of aldehydes and ketones relative to those of alkanes and alcohols Characterize the process of nucleophilic addition to the carbonyl group The carbonyl group is shown below in the context of synthesizing alcohols. This functional group is the key component of aldehydes and ketones, which we will discuss here. Nomenclature for Aldehydes and Ketones Aldehydes and ketones are structurally similar; the only difference is that for an aldehyde, the carbonyl group has at most one substituent alkyl group, whereas the carbonyl group in a ketone has two. Several examples of aldehydes and ketones are depicted below. Aldehydes are named by replacing the -e ending of an alkane with -al (similarly to the use of -ol in alcohols). The base molecule is the longest carbon chain ending with the carbonyl group. Furthermore, the carbon atom in the carbonyl group is assumed to be carbon 1, so a number is not needed in the IUPAC name to identify the location of the doubly bonded oxygen atom. If the chain contains two carbonyl groups, one at each end, the correct suffix is -dial (used in the same manner as -diol for compounds with two hydroxyl groups). An example aldehyde is shown below with its IUPAC name. One- and two-carbon aldehydes have common names (one of which you will likely be familiar with) in addition to their systematic names. Both names are acceptable. Sometimes, the carbonyl group plus one proton (called a formyl group) must be treated separately for nomenclatu Continue reading >>

Lab Report-determining Reactions Of Aldehydes And Ketones

Lab Report-determining Reactions Of Aldehydes And Ketones

Abstract The aim of this experiment was to identify which functional groups the various chemicals and unknown substances belonged to using the different reaction tests. The main purpose was to determine the reactions of Aldehydes and Ketones. Aldehydes and Ketones are organic compounds consisting of the carbonyl functional group. Aldehydes contain their carbonyl group at the end of the carbon chain and are susceptible to oxidation while Ketones contain theirs in the middle of the carbon chain and are resistant to oxidation. Jones’s Test, Tollen’s Reagent and Iodoform Reaction were the three tests used to determine the reactions of aldehydes and ketones. The Chromic Anhydride test caused Aldehydes to turn blue, and Ketones orange. The Tollen’s Reagent test caused the oxidation of aldehydes thus forming a mirror-like image in the test tube rendering it a positive test and the Iodoform reaction produced a yellow precipitate in the test tube which concluded the presence of an aldehyde. Introduction The carbon-oxygen double bond is one of the most important functional groups, due to its ubiquity, which are involved in most important biochemistry processes. Reactivity of this group is ruled by the electron imbalance in the πorbitals of the bond between a more electronegative and a carbon atom. This carbon atom is more likely to undergo a nucleophillic attack, especially if the oxygen is protonated. If the carbonyl group has hydrogen’s in the α-position, it can tautomerise to the enol, thus, Keto tautomer can become Enol tautomer. Aldehydes and Ketones are organic compounds that consist of the carbonyl functional group, C=O. The carbonyl group that consists of one alkyl substituent and one hydrogen is the Aldehyde and those containing two alkyl substituents are calle Continue reading >>

What Is Ketone? - Definition, Structure, Formation & Formula

What Is Ketone? - Definition, Structure, Formation & Formula

Background of Ketone Did you know that our friend aldehyde has a very close relative named ketone? By definition, a ketone is an organic compound that contains a carbonyl functional group. So you may be wondering if aldehydes and ketones are relatives, what makes them different? Well, I am glad you asked because all you have to remember is this little guy: hydrogen. While aldehyde contains a hydrogen atom connected to its carbonyl group, ketone does not have a hydrogen atom attached. There are a few ways to know you are encountering a ketone. The first is by looking at the ending of the chemical word. If the suffix ending of the chemical name is '-one,' then you can be sure there is a ketone present in that compound. Want to know another way to tell if a ketone is lurking around the corner? By its physical property. Ketones have high boiling points and love water (high water solubility). Let's dig a little deeper with the physical property of a ketone. The oxygen in a ketone absolutely loves to take all the electrons it can get its hands on. But, by being an electron-hogger, oxygen's refusal to share creates a sticky situation where some atoms on the ketone have more or less charge than others. In chemistry, an electron-hogging atom is referred to as being electronegative. An electronegative atom is more attractive to other compounds. This attractiveness, called polarity, is what contributes to ketones' physical properties. Structure & Formula Ketones have a very distinct look to them; you can't miss it if you see them. As shown in Diagram 1, there are two R groups attached to the carbonyl group (C=O). Those R groups can be any type of compound that contains a carbon molecule. An example of how the R group determines ketone type is illustrated in this diagram here. The Continue reading >>

Aldehydes And Ketones

Aldehydes And Ketones

Nomenclature: Aldehydes: functional group suffix = -al (review) Ketones: functional group suffix = -one (review) Functional group prefix = oxo- (Note that an aldehyde is higher priority than a ketone) window0._cover(false)Jmol._Canvas2D (Jmol) "window0"[x] window1._cover(false)Jmol._Canvas2D (Jmol) "window1"[x] window2._cover(false)Jmol._Canvas2D (Jmol) "window2"[x] window3._cover(false)Jmol._Canvas2D (Jmol) "window3"[x] methanal ethanal propanone 5-oxohexanal Physical Properties: The polar nature of the C=O (due to the electronegativity difference of the atoms) means dipole-dipole interactions will occur. Though C=O can not hydrogen-bond to each other, the C=O can accept hydrogen bonds from hydrogen bond donors (e.g. water, alcohols). The implications of these effects are: higher melting and boiling points compared to analogous alkanes lower boiling points than analogous alcohols more soluble than alkanes but less soluble than alcohols in aqueous media Structure: The carbonyl group consists of an O atom bonded to a C atom via a double bond, C=O, via an sp2 hybridisation model similar to that of ethene, H2C=CH2 (review ?) with bond angles close to 120o. O is connected to the carbonyl C via a σ and a π bond. The C=O and the two other atoms attached to the C are co-planar. This implies that the two lone pairs on O are in sp2 hybrid orbitals. window4._cover(false)Jmol._Canvas2D (Jmol) "window4"[x] window5._cover(false)Jmol._Canvas2D (Jmol) "window5"[x] window6._cover(false)Jmol._Canvas2D (Jmol) "window6"[x]loading... -- required by ClazzNode methanal ethene propanone Reactivity: Therefore the general mode of reaction of aldehydes and ketones is attack of a nucleophile at the electrophilic carbonyl C: You can look at the accessiblity effect in the following series of alde Continue reading >>

The Structure And Naming Of Aldehydes & Ketones

The Structure And Naming Of Aldehydes & Ketones

Doc Brown's GCE A Level AS A2 Chemistry Revising Advanced Level Organic Chemistry Revision Notes Part 5 CARBONYL COMPOUNDS NOMENCLATURE of ALDEHYDES and KETONES 5.1 The molecular structure and naming of ALDEHYDES and KETONES - including nomenclature of some isomers Nomenclature of aldehydes & ketones names and structures of aldehydes & ketones How to name aldehydes? How to name ketones? Nomenclature of substituted aldehydes or ketones - examples of acceptable names, displayed formula of aldehydes and ketones, graphic formula of aldehydes and ketones, molecular formula of aldehydes and ketones, skeletal formula of aldehydes and ketones, structural formula of aldehydes and ketones and homologous series of aldehydes and ketones, how to name the carbonyl group of compounds known as aldehydes and ketones Organic Chemistry Part 5 sub-index: 5.1.1 Nomenclature introduction * 5.1.2 Examples of aldehydes 5.1.3 Examples of ketones * 5.1.4 Other examples of substituted ketones 5.1.5 Oxidation sequence: alcohol ==> aldehyde/ketone ==> carboxylic acid Revision notes on the structure and naming-nomenclature of Aldehydes and Ketones 5.1.1 Introduction to Aldehyde and Ketone Nomenclature How do you name aldehydes? How do you name ketones? How do you name substituted aldehydes or ketones? Aldehydes and ketones are a group of compounds containing the carbonyl group, C=O. Aldehydes always have a hydrogen atom attached to the carbon of the carbonyl group, so the functional group is -CHO (see diagram above). The functional group is shown by using 'al' in the suffix part of the name e.g. methanal, ethanal, propanal etc. The prefix for the aldehyde name is based on the parent alkane minus the e. No number is required for the aldehyde group because the aldehyde group cannot be anything else ex Continue reading >>

An Inert Hydrocarbon Skeleton Onto Which Functional Groups (fgs) Are Attached Or Superimposed.

An Inert Hydrocarbon Skeleton Onto Which Functional Groups (fgs) Are Attached Or Superimposed.

Organic Functional Groups: Aldehydes, ketones, primary alcohols, etc. (Indonesian Translation of this page) Organic chemistry is dominated by the "functional group approach", where organic molecules are deemed to be constructed from: The functional group approach "works" because the properties and reaction chemistry of a particular functional group (FG) can be remarkably independent of environment. Therefore, it is only necessary to know about the chemistry of a few generic functions in order to predict the chemical behaviour of thousands of real organic chemicals. Organic molecules are also named using the functional group approach: 2-hexanone 2-hexanol 2-chlorohexane The rule is that functions assume their distinct identity when separated by –CH2– groups. Thus, the carbonyl, C=O, and hydroxy, OH, of a carboxylic acid, RCOOH, are part of a single function and are NOT "alcohol-plus-ketone": A Couple of Words About The Functional Group Approach The functional group approach is 100% empirical in that it is determined by experiment and experience, and not by theory (unlike VSEPR, for example.) A multifunctional entity like the drug molecule morphine has several functional groups and chiral centres: Professional chemists consider large multifunctional organic molecules in terms of 'substructures' rather than functional groups. Ring systems, for example, are better considered as substructures, although the dividing line can be fuzzy... What You Need To Know To be proficient in organic chemistry at university entrance level [ie, American AP, British A-Level or French Baccalaureate] exam systems, in other words be able to: name organic molecules predict solubility in different types of solvent predict chemical reactivity predict spectra it is absolutely essential to be abl Continue reading >>

Chapter 10 Introduction To Organic Chemistry: Alkanes

Chapter 10 Introduction To Organic Chemistry: Alkanes

Functional Groups Copyright © 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings Elements in Organic Compounds In organic molecules, carbon atoms bond with four bonds. mostly with H and other C atoms. sometimes to O, N, S, sometimes to halogens F, Cl, and Br. Functional Groups Functional groups are a characteristic feature of organic molecules that behave in a predictable way. composed of an atom or group of atoms. groups that replace a hydrogen atom in the corresponding alkane. a way to classify families of organic compounds. Alkenes and Alkynes Alkenes contain a double bond between adjacent carbon atoms. Alkynes contain a triple bond. Copyright © 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings Alcohols and Ethers An alcohol contains the hydroxyl (-OH) functional group. In an ether, an oxygen atom is bonded to two carbon atoms. –C–O–C– . R’–O–R or R–O–R R=alkyl group and R’=different alkyl group Copyright © 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings Aldehydes and Ketones An aldehyde contains a carbonyl group (C=O), which is a carbon atom with a double bond to an oxygen atom. In a ketone, the carbon of the carbonyl group is attached to two other carbon atoms. Copyright © 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings Carboxylic Acids and Esters Carboxylic acids contain the carboxyl group, which is a carbonyl group attached to a hydroxyl group. O ║ — C—OH An ester contains the carboxyl group between carbon atoms. Copyright © 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings Amines and Amides In amines, the functional group is a nitrogen atom. | —N — In amides, the hydroxyl Continue reading >>

Polarity Of Organic Compounds

Polarity Of Organic Compounds

Polarity of Organic Compounds Principles of Polarity: The greater the electronegativity difference between atoms in a bond, the more polar the bond. Partial negative charges are found on the most electronegative atoms, the others are partially positive. In general, the presence of an oxygen is more polar than a nitrogen because oxygen is more electronegative than nitrogen. The combination of carbons and hydrogens as in hydrocarbons or in the hydrocarbon portion of a molecule with a functional group is always NON-POLAR. Summary of Polarity See below for the details. Polarity Ranking of the Functional Groups: (most polar first) Amide > Acid > Alcohol > Ketone ~ Aldehyde > Amine > Ester > Ether > Alkane An abbreviated list to know well is: Amide > Acid > Alcohol > Amine > Ether > Alkane Organic Functional Group Polarity and Electrostatic Potential: The molecular electrostatic potential is the potential energy of a proton at a particular location near a molecule. Negative electrostatic potential corresponds to: partial negative charges (colored in shades of red). Positive electrostatic potential corresponds to: partial positive charges (colored in shades of blue). Boiling Point Definition: In a liquid the molecules are packed closely together with many random movements possible as molecules slip past each other. As a liquid is heated, the temperature is increased. As the temperature increases, the kinetic energy increases which causes increasing molecular motion (vibrations and molecules slipping pas each other). Eventually the molecular motion becomes so intense that the forces of attraction between the molecules is disrupted to to the extent the molecules break free of the liquid and become a gas. At the temperature of the boiling point, the liquid turns into a gas. The m Continue reading >>

Aldehyde

Aldehyde

Aldehyde, any of a class of organic compounds, in which a carbon atom shares a double bond with an oxygen atom, a single bond with a hydrogen atom, and a single bond with another atom or group of atoms (designated R in general chemical formulas and structure diagrams). The double bond between carbon and oxygen is characteristic of all aldehydes and is known as the carbonyl group. Many aldehydes have pleasant odours, and in principle, they are derived from alcohols by dehydrogenation (removal of hydrogen), from which process came the name aldehyde. Aldehydes undergo a wide variety of chemical reactions, including polymerization. Their combination with other types of molecules produces the so-called aldehyde condensation polymers, which have been used in plastics such as Bakelite and in the laminate tabletop material Formica. Aldehydes are also useful as solvents and perfume ingredients and as intermediates in the production of dyes and pharmaceuticals. Certain aldehydes are involved in physiological processes. Examples are retinal (vitamin A aldehyde), important in human vision, and pyridoxal phosphate, one of the forms of vitamin B6. Glucose and other so-called reducing sugars are aldehydes, as are several natural and synthetic hormones. Structure of aldehydes In formaldehyde, the simplest aldehyde, the carbonyl group is bonded to two hydrogen atoms. In all other aldehydes, the carbonyl group is bonded to one hydrogen and one carbon group. In condensed structural formulas, the carbonyl group of an aldehyde is commonly represented as −CHO. Using this convention, the formula of formaldehyde is HCHO and that of acetaldehyde is CH3CHO. The carbon atoms bonded to the carbonyl group of an aldehyde may be part of saturated or unsaturated alkyl groups, or they may be alicycli Continue reading >>

Naming Aldehydes

Naming Aldehydes

Aldehydes are organic chemical compounds that include a -carbonyl group (i.e. an oxygen atom attached to a carbon atom by a double covalent bond) and a hydogen atom attached to the carbon atom of the carbonyl group: That is, aldehydes are a class or category of organic chemical compounds that include a carbon atom attached to both an oxygen atom (by a double covalent bond), and also a hydrogen atom (by a single covalent bond). Bearing in mind that carbon atoms form a total 4 single covalent bonds - or equivalent in combinations of double or triple bonds, a carbon atom attached to both an oxygen atom (by a double covalent bond) and a hydrogen atom (by a single covalent bond) can only form one other single covalent bond linking it to the rest of an organic molecule. It must therefore always be the first- or last - (which are equivalent positions) carbon atom in the chain of carbon atoms that form the organic molecule of which it is a part. This position of the -carbonyl group attached to the end- carbon in a carbon-chain is important because it distinguishes aldehydes from a similar category of organic compounds, called ketones. Aldehyde molecules can vary in size up to very long molecules most of which consist of carbon atoms attached to each other and also to hydrogen atoms. Continue reading >>

Introducing Aldehydes And Ketones

Introducing Aldehydes And Ketones

This page explains what aldehydes and ketones are, and looks at the way their bonding affects their reactivity. It also considers their simple physical properties such as solubility and boiling points. Details of the chemical reactions of aldehydes and ketones are described on separate pages. What are aldehydes and ketones? Aldehydes and ketones as carbonyl compounds Aldehydes and ketones are simple compounds which contain a carbonyl group - a carbon-oxygen double bond. They are simple in the sense that they don't have other reactive groups like -OH or -Cl attached directly to the carbon atom in the carbonyl group - as you might find, for example, in carboxylic acids containing -COOH. Examples of aldehydes In aldehydes, the carbonyl group has a hydrogen atom attached to it together with either a second hydrogen atom or, more commonly, a hydrocarbon group which might be an alkyl group or one containing a benzene ring. For the purposes of this section, we shall ignore those containing benzene rings. Note: There is no very significant reason for this. It is just that if you are fairly new to organic chemistry you might not have come across any compounds with benzene rings in them yet. I'm just trying to avoid adding to your confusion! Notice that these all have exactly the same end to the molecule. All that differs is the complexity of the other group attached. When you are writing formulae for these, the aldehyde group (the carbonyl group with the hydrogen atom attached) is always written as -CHO - never as COH. That could easily be confused with an alcohol. Ethanal, for example, is written as CH3CHO; methanal as HCHO. The name counts the total number of carbon atoms in the longest chain - including the one in the carbonyl group. If you have side groups attached to the ch Continue reading >>

L9 Functional Groups Alcohol, Phenols, Ethers, Aldehydes, Ketones, Carboxylic Acids

L9 Functional Groups Alcohol, Phenols, Ethers, Aldehydes, Ketones, Carboxylic Acids

Sort Hydrocarbon Derivatives Hydrocarbon derivatives are: • Organic compounds that in addition to C & H atoms also contain atoms of other elements (O, S, N, P, F, Cl, Br) as part of their functional group - A functional group contains atoms other than just carbon and hydrogen • But will still contain some carbon and hydrogen • Functional Groups Discussed Include: - Alcohols & Phenols - Ethers - Thiols - Aldehydes & Ketones - Carboxylic Acids ALCOHOLS- Functional group: Hydroxyl group - OH • General formula: R - OH • IUPAC Name: ALKANOL - An alcohol contains a hydroxyl group (-OH) attached to a carbon chain. • Naming compounds: Replace -ane with -anol at the end of the name - E.g. methane becomes methanol Classification of Alcohols • Primary Alcohol 10 - An alcohol where the C atom bearing the -OH is bonded only to 1 other C atom • Secondary Alcohol 20 - An alcohol where the C atom bearing -OH is bonded to 2 other C atoms • Tertiary Alcohol 30 - An alcohol where the C atom bearing -OH is bonded to 3 other C atoms PHENOLS- Polyphenols present in red wine and are antioxidants which help prevent a range of diseases. • Aromatic Alcohols - -OH group is attached to a benzene ring • Phenol = is the simplest phenol - A phenol contains a hydroxyl group (-OH) attached to a benzene ring - Other phenols contain same basic structure as Phenol with additional substituted groups Phenols Phenols are weak acids - Donate H+, from their -OH group (becomes O-) - Phenols function differently to alcohols • An alcohols can either function as an acid or a base - Phenols are skin & mucous membrane irritants • Contact dermatitis, severe burns - Phenols are Toxic to the liver • Ingestion can be fatal Uses of Phenols Strong anti-septics - Some phenols are used as: • Ho Continue reading >>

Aldehydes And Ketones

Aldehydes And Ketones

Aldehydes and Ketones The connection between the structures of alkenes and alkanes was previously established, which noted that we can transform an alkene into an alkane by adding an H2 molecule across the C=C double bond. The driving force behind this reaction is the difference between the strengths of the bonds that must be broken and the bonds that form in the reaction. In the course of this hydrogenation reaction, a relatively strong HH bond (435 kJ/mol) and a moderately strong carbon-carbon bond (270 kJ/mol) are broken, but two strong CH bonds (439 kJ/mol) are formed. The reduction of an alkene to an alkane is therefore an exothermic reaction. What about the addition of an H2 molecule across a C=O double bond? Once again, a significant amount of energy has to be invested in this reaction to break the HH bond (435 kJ/mol) and the carbon-oxygen bond (375 kJ/mol). The overall reaction is still exothermic, however, because of the strength of the CH bond (439 kJ/mol) and the OH bond (498 kJ/mol) that are formed. The addition of hydrogen across a C=O double bond raises several important points. First, and perhaps foremost, it shows the connection between the chemistry of primary alcohols and aldehydes. But it also helps us understand the origin of the term aldehyde. If a reduction reaction in which H2 is added across a double bond is an example of a hydrogenation reaction, then an oxidation reaction in which an H2 molecule is removed to form a double bond might be called dehydrogenation. Thus, using the symbol [O] to represent an oxidizing agent, we see that the product of the oxidation of a primary alcohol is literally an "al-dehyd" or aldehyde. It is an alcohol that has been dehydrogenated. This reaction also illustrates the importance of differentiating between primar Continue reading >>

More in ketosis