What Is The Compensation For Metabolic Acidosis?

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Compensation In Acid/base Imbalances

Respiratory compensation for metabolic acidosis (HNC excess) produces systemic hypocapnia (low PCO2). CO2 diffuses from CSF to the body causing the CSF pH to increase. This reduces the central chemoreceptor-stimulated ventilation, partly off-setting the increased stimulation of the peripheral chemoreceptors caused by the low arterial pH. Ventilatory stimulation (low arterial pH acting on peripheral chemoreceptors) Ventilatory inhibition (high CSF pH acting on the central chemoreceptor). What is the overall effect of the ventilatory stimulation and ventilatory inhibition? Respiratory compensation stops short of completely correcting the pH. Respiratory compensation cannot fully restore pH, but the kidney can (for metabolic acidosis anyway). For each H+ that is excreted in the urine (after all of the filtered HCO3- has been reabsorbed), and during ammonia production, new HCO3- enters the body. This added HCO3- titrates excess H+ and over 3 to 4 days the added HCO3- restores pH to 7.4. Renal Compensation Seen on Davenport nomogram Trajectory is along the RC line because as HCO3- is slowly added the pH changes, reducing the stimulation of the respiratory system. Summary of Renal Compe Continue reading >>

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  1. silver lady

    As the above asks.
    Replies greatly appreciated XO XO R.

  2. silver lady

    any one???

  3. silver lady


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(Visit: http://www.uctv.tv/) Eve Van Cauter, Professor of Medicine at the University of Chicago, directs the the Sleep, Metabolism and Health Center. She explores how sleep loss and poor sleep quality are risk factors for obesity and diabetes. Series: "UCSF Center for Obesity Assessment, Study and Treatment" [12/2012] [Health and Medicine] [Show ID: 24581]

Response To Disturbances

The body tries to minimize pH changes and responds to acid-base disturbances with body buffers, compensatory responses by the lungs and kidney (to metabolic and respiratory disturbances, respectively) and by the kidney correcting metabolic disturbances. Body buffers: There are intracellular and extracellular buffers for primary respiratory and metabolic acid-base disturbances. Intracellular buffers include hemoglobin in erythrocytes and phosphates in all cells. Extracellular buffers are carbonate (HCO3–) and non-carbonate (e.g. protein, bone) buffers. These immediately buffer the rise or fall in H+. Compensation: This involves responses by the respiratory tract and kidney to primary metabolic and respiratory acid-base disturbances, respectively. Compensation opposes the primary disturbance, although the laboratory changes in the compensatory response parallel those in the primary response. This concept is illustrated in the summary below. Respiratory compensation for a primary metabolic disturbance: Alterations in alveolar ventilation occurs in response to primary metabolic acid-base disturbances. This begins within minutes to hours of an acute primary metabolic disturbance. Note Continue reading >>

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  1. Janis J

    My Australian Shepherd has idiopathic epilepsy. I just read an article in ‘Veterinary Practice News’ which recommends a ketogenic diet for epileptic dogs – in other words, a diet low in carbohydrates, moderate in proteins, and high in fat. I have encountered similar recommendations elsewhere. I have been looking at grain free dog foods, but none seems quite to fit the description. (My dog is being medicated but still has occasional seizures.) Any suggestions? Janis

  2. Susan

    Yes, Im reading a book called ‘Raw & Natural Nutrition for Dogs’ By Lew Olson, PhD..She recommends a Low-Glycemic diet, high in protein & fat & low Carbohydrates…there are stories through out her book, one is about a dog called Jake a Doberman/Labrador mix, who started to have seizures when he was 3 years old, Jake was whats called a “Cluster” meaning he always had multiple seizures close together, Despite trying everything from conventional medications to acupuncture, his owner Jo was unable to get the seizures under control.. After exhausting all the usual medical avenues, Jo started to look elsewhere for alternative treatments, joining an online Epilepsy group, one of the things recommened by the group was a raw diet. With nothing else left to lose Jo started Jake on a new raw diet, Within five months Jake had gone from having seven seizures every two weeks to one a month, Her vet was astonised at the drastic improvement a raw, fresh food diet had made when all the other treatments failed..There’s more on how she explains how the sugar in carbohydrates can affect epilepsy, hypothyroidism, diabetes, allergies, arthritis, & yeast infections & how a low-glycemic diet is a good defense against all of these conditions.. Dogs dont have a nutritional need for carbohydrates..there’s more to read but too much to write..she has simple recipes in her book for illnesses, its an excellent read, its online for around $10..

  3. T

    A commercial raw diet may be the easiest way for you to try a very low carbohydrate diet for your dog. The major brands are relatively easy to feed (frozen patties) and contain all the vitamins and minerals to sustain life long-term. For example, Nature’s Variety Instinct Raw frozen patties have very low carb content.
    Here’s an article on my blog about a few brands of commercial raw food:

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Understand medical acid base problems with this clear explanation from Dr. Seheult of http://www.medcram.com. Illustrations explain acidosis, acidemia, alkalosis, alkalemia, ABGs, pH, and more. This is video 1 of 8 on medical acid base. Other videos in the acid base series cover the key points of anion gap, metabolic acidosis, metabolic alkalosis, respiratory acidosis, respiratory alkalosis, and include practice problems to test your understanding. Speaker: Roger Seheult, MD Clinical and Exam Preparation Instructor Board Certified in Internal Medicine, Pulmonary Disease, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine. Co-founder of http://www.medcram.com. MedCram: Medical topics explained clearly including: Asthma, COPD, Acute Renal Failure, Mechanical Ventilation, Oxygen Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve, Hypertension, Shock, Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA), Medical Acid Base, VQ Mismatch, Hyponatremia, Liver Function Tests, Pulmonary Function Tests (PFTs), Adrenal Gland, Pneumonia Treatment, any many others. New topics are often added weekly- please subscribe to help support MedCram and become notified when new videos have been uploaded. Subscribe: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_... Recommended Audience: Health care professionals and medical students: including physicians, nurse practitioners, physician assistants, nurses, respiratory therapists, EMT and paramedics, and many others. Review for USMLE, MCAT, PANCE, NCLEX, NAPLEX, NDBE, RN, RT, MD, DO, PA, NP school and board examinations. More from MedCram: Complete Video library: https://www.youtube.com/c/medcram Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/MedCram Google+: https://plus.google.com/u/1/+Medcram Twitter: https://twitter.com/MedCramVideos Produced by Kyle Allred PA-C Please note: MedCram medical videos, medical lectures, medical illustrations, and medical animations are for medical educational and exam preparation purposes, and not intended to replace recommendations by your health care provider.

Acid Base Disorders

Arterial blood gas analysis is used to determine the adequacy of oxygenation and ventilation, assess respiratory function and determine the acid–base balance. These data provide information regarding potential primary and compensatory processes that affect the body’s acid–base buffering system. Interpret the ABGs in a stepwise manner: Determine the adequacy of oxygenation (PaO2) Normal range: 80–100 mmHg (10.6–13.3 kPa) Determine pH status Normal pH range: 7.35–7.45 (H+ 35–45 nmol/L) pH <7.35: Acidosis is an abnormal process that increases the serum hydrogen ion concentration, lowers the pH and results in acidaemia. pH >7.45: Alkalosis is an abnormal process that decreases the hydrogen ion concentration and results in alkalaemia. Determine the respiratory component (PaCO2) Primary respiratory acidosis (hypoventilation) if pH <7.35 and HCO3– normal. Normal range: PaCO2 35–45 mmHg (4.7–6.0 kPa) PaCO2 >45 mmHg (> 6.0 kPa): Respiratory compensation for metabolic alkalosis if pH >7.45 and HCO3– (increased). PaCO2 <35 mmHg (4.7 kPa): Primary respiratory alkalosis (hyperventilation) if pH >7.45 and HCO3– normal. Respiratory compensation for metabolic acidosis if pH Continue reading >>

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  1. SilverSpork

    How long until you first tested positive for ketones?

    I bought the testing sticks today. I have been on the keto diet for roughly 48 hours. I just tested myself the color matched up with "trace amounts". Is this a good sign or should I be testing more positive than this? Is it possible to have traces of ketones in your urine when you are on a normal high carb diet?
    I gotta say so far I'm loving this diet. I am eating well under maint. and still am not hunger all the time.
    Today for breakfast I had:
    3 eggs, 1 slice of cheddar, 4 strips of bacon, 1 tablespoon of flax oil and a multi.
    Came out to 700cals, 45gfat, 52gprotein, 0g carbs.
    Mid afternoon, whey shake: 120cals, 20gprot, 5fat, 2carbs.
    cup of almonds: 5gcarbs, 7gprot, 16g fat.
    Will end up eating for dinner: subway philly steak with provalone, not eating buns. Right there is about 450cals, 35g prot, and 20g fat, 0carbs.
    Before bed: flax oil, almonds, maybe some peaunutbutter balls mixed with butter to up my cals.
    So I'll end up with roughly 1800 cals today.
    This is real easy to follow so far.
    Only thing I think I need to get is some fiber powder. I usually eat brocolli, but I am out right now, and think powder won't hurt as long as it has no carbs.
    Tommorow's back/shoulders, will be interesting to see how I do going 3 days with hardly any carbs. So far I feel fine.

  2. SerusMournstar

    You won't have ketones in your urine if you are on a higher carb diet, you are in ketosis no matter how small amount of ketones are in your urine. It usually takes me 48-72 hours after a carb up to get back into ketosis. You also have to remember if you drink a ton of water you might delute your piss so much that no ketones are picked up and also if you body is using all of the ketones for energy you might not see any. Don't worry about it much, as long as you are eating a small amount of carbs each day you will go into ketosis.

  3. Eileen

    First time you do keto, it normally takes 3-4 days to get into ketosis. After that, about 2 days is more normal and some people can do it in one.

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