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What Is The Blood Sugar Level For Hyperglycemia?

What Is The Difference Between Hyperglycemia And Hypoglycemia?

What Is The Difference Between Hyperglycemia And Hypoglycemia?

By Debra A. Sokol-McKay, MS, CVRT, CDE, CLVT, OTR/L, SCLV What Is Hyperglycemia? In relation to diabetes, hyperglycemia refers to chronically high blood glucose levels. Most medical professionals define hyperglycemia by using the blood glucose goals that you and your physician have established and combining those goals with the blood glucose target ranges set by the American Diabetes Association. It's important to understand that you'll probably experience high blood glucose levels from time to time, despite your best efforts at control. As with any chronic disease, talk with your physician and diabetes care team if the pattern of your blood glucose readings is consistently higher or lower than your blood glucose goals. Complications from Hyperglycemia Persistent hyperglycemia can cause a wide range of chronic complications that affect almost every system in your body. When large blood vessels are affected, it can lead to: Stroke (cerebral vascular disease) Heart attack or Congestive Heart Failure (coronary heart disease) Circulation disorders and possible amputation (peripheral vascular disease) When smaller blood vessels are affected, it can lead to: Kidney disease (nephropathy) Nerve damage (neuropathy) Diabetic eye disease (retinopathy) Joseph Monks: Writer, Producer, and Film Director Joseph Monks, who has diabetic retinopathy, creates and produces films for his production company Sight Unseen Pictures. He is also the first blind filmmaker to direct a feature film. Says Joe, "I'm not uncomfortable with the term 'blind.' I'm not thrilled about it, of course, but it's accurate. The lights went out for me in early 2002 as a result of diabetic retinopathy—the death of my retinas. It is what it is, so when it happened, I decided that I wasn't going to let it put an en Continue reading >>

Must Read Articles Related To High Blood Sugar (hyperglycemia)

Must Read Articles Related To High Blood Sugar (hyperglycemia)

A A A High Blood Sugar (Hyperglycemia) Whenever the glucose (sugar) level in one's blood rises high temporarily, this condition is known as hyperglycemia. The opposite condition, low blood sugar, is called hypoglycemia. Glucose comes from most foods, and the body uses other chemicals to create glucose in the liver and muscles. The blood carries glucose (blood sugar) to all the cells in the body. To carry glucose into the cells as an energy supply, cells need help from insulin. Insulin is a hormone made by the pancreas, an organ near the stomach. The pancreas releases insulin into the blood, based upon the blood sugar level. Insulin helps move glucose from digested food into cells. Sometimes, the body stops making insulin (as in type 1 diabetes), or the insulin does not work properly (as in type 2 diabetes). In diabetic patients, glucose does not enter the cells sufficiently, thus staying in the blood and creating high blood sugar levels. Blood sugar levels can be measured in seconds by using a blood glucose meter, also known as a glucometer. A tiny drop of blood from the finger or forearm is placed on a test strip and inserted into the glucometer. The blood sugar (or glucose) level is displayed digitally within seconds. Blood glucose levels vary widely throughout the day and night in people with diabetes. Ideally, blood glucose levels range from 90 to 130 mg/dL before meals, and below 180 mg/dL within 1 to 2 hours after a meal. Adolescents and adults with diabetes strive to keep their blood sugar levels within a controlled range, usually 80-150 mg/dL before meals. Doctors and diabetes health educators guide each patient to determine their optimal range of blood glucose control. When blood sugar levels remain high for several hours, dehydration and more serious complicat Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia - Symptoms, Causes And Treatments

Hyperglycemia - Symptoms, Causes And Treatments

Hyperglycemia is a term referring to high blood glucose levels - the condition that often leads to a diagnosis of diabetes. High blood glucose levels are the defining feature of diabetes, but once the disease is diagnosed, hyperglycemia is a signal of poor control over the condition. Hyperglycemia is defined by certain high levels of blood glucose:1 Fasting levels greater than 7.0 mmol/L (126 mg/dL) Two-hours postprandial (after a meal) levels greater than 11.0 mmol/L (200 mg/dL). Chronic hyperglycemia usually leads to the development of diabetic complications.2 Symptoms of hyperglycemia The most common symptoms of diabetes itself are related to hyperglycemia - the classic symptoms of frequent urination and thirst.2,3 Typical signs and symptoms of hyperglycemia that has been confirmed by blood glucose measurement include:1,3,4 Thirst and hunger Dry mouth Frequent urination, particularly at night Tiredness Recurrent infections, such as thrush Weight loss Vision blurring. Causes of hyperglycemia Hyperglycemia often leads to the diagnosis of diabetes. For people already diagnosed and treated for diabetes, however, poor control over blood sugar levels leads to the condition. Causes of this include:1,3,4 Eating more or exercising less than usual Insufficient amount of insulin treatment (more commonly in cases of type 1 diabetes) Insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes Illness such as the flu Psychological and emotional stress The "dawn phenomenon" or "dawn effect" - an early morning hormone surge. The video below from Diabetes UK explains the dawn phenomenon and offers practical tips. Treatment and prevention of hyperglycemia Prevention of hyperglycemia for people with a diabetes diagnosis is a matter of good self-monitoring and management of blood glucose levels, including ad Continue reading >>

High Blood Sugar Emergencies

High Blood Sugar Emergencies

Blood sugar levels that are too high (hyperglycemia) can quickly turn into a diabetic emergency without quick and appropriate treatment. The best way to avoid dangerously high blood sugar levels is to self-test to stay in tune with your body, and to stay attuned to the symptoms and risk factors for hyperglycemia. Extremely high blood sugar levels can lead to one of two conditions—diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome (HHNS; also called hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic coma). Although both syndromes can occur in either type 1 or type 2 diabetes, DKA is more common in type 1, and HHNS is more common in type 2. Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) Ketoacidosis (or DKA) occurs when blood sugars become elevated (over 249 mg/dl, or 13.9 mmol/l) over a period of time and the body begins to burn fat for energy, resulting in ketone bodies in the blood or urine (a phenomenon called ketosis). A variety of factors can cause hyperglycemia (high blood glucose), including failure to take medication or insulin, stress, dietary changes without medication adjustments, eating disorders, and illness or injury. This last cause is important, because if illness brings on DKA, it may slip by unnoticed, since its symptoms can mimic the flu (aches, vomiting, etc.). In fact, people with type 1 diabetes are often seeking help for the flu-like symptoms of DKA when they first receive their diagnosis. Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis may include: fruity (acetone) breath nausea and/or vomiting abdominal pain dry, warm skin confusion fatigue breathing problems excessive thirst frequent urination in extreme cases, loss of consciousness DKA is a medical emergency, and requires prompt and immediate treatment. A simple over-the-counter urine dipstick test (e.g., Keto Continue reading >>

What Is Hyperglycemia?

What Is Hyperglycemia?

Hyperglycemia, a high level of sugar in the blood, is a hallmark of diabetes. Your blood sugar levels fluctuate over the course of a day: Levels are higher right after meals, as carbohydrates are broken down into glucose (sugar), and lower after exercise, when glucose has been burned to fuel the activity. In someone who doesn't have diabetes, blood sugar levels stay within a narrow range. Between meals, the concentration of sugar in the blood ranges from about 60 to 100 mg/dl (milligrams per deciliter). After meals it may reach 120 to 130 mg/dl, but rarely goes higher than 140 mg/dl. But if you have type 2 diabetes, blood sugar levels can go much higher — to 200, 300, or even 400 mg/dl and beyond — and will go much higher unless you take the necessary steps to bring them down. Hyperglycemia Symptoms High blood sugar doesn't always produce symptoms, so it's important to check your blood sugar regularly, as indicated by your doctor. Hyperglycemia symptoms include: Frequent urination Extreme thirst Feeling tired and weak Blurry vision Feeling hungry, even after eating Causes of Hyperglycemia If you've been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, a treatment plan is put in place to lower blood sugar and keep it as close to the normal range as possible. But even after you start treatment, you may still develop hyperglycemia at times. When you have diabetes, it's almost impossible not to have hyperglycemia — and high blood sugar can happen for no identifiable reason. Some of the reasons blood sugar may go too high include: Missing prescribed medicines or taking medication at the wrong times or in the wrong amounts High food intake or larger consumptions of carbohydrate than expected or intended Lack of sleep Emotional stress Intense exercise Illness is another important — and Continue reading >>

High Blood Sugar (hyperglycemia)

High Blood Sugar (hyperglycemia)

High blood sugar, which is called hyperglycemia, means that you have more sugar in your bloodstream than normal. High blood sugar is related to insulin, the hormone that lets your body use sugar as fuel. If you have too little insulin, your body cannot use all the sugar in your blood and it builds up in the bloodstream. The same thing happens if your body cannot use insulin efficiently, which is called insulin resistance. High blood sugar damages the body’s cells over time. It is important to try and manage blood sugars to avoid prolonged high blood sugar and in particular, extremely high blood sugar which can lead to severe short term consequences, particularly diabetic ketoacidosis. According to the American Diabetes Association, blood sugars upon waking (fasting) should be between 70 and 130 mg/dL (3.9 and 7.2 mmol) and blood sugars after a meal (post-prandial) should be below 180 mg/dL (10 mmol). However, in someone without diabetes, blood sugars will typically range between 70 and 100 mg/dL (3.9 and 5.6 mmol) with spikes of to between 110 and 150 mg/dL (6 and 9 mmol) after extremely high carbohydrate meals.1 Sometimes illness or certain medications such as beta blockers or corticosteroids can elevate blood sugars. Read “Is My Blood Sugar Normal?” for more information. The only way to be sure of a high blood sugar is to check with a glucose monitor since the symptoms of high blood sugar can sometimes be confused with illness or stress or medication side effects. In the case of type 1 diabetes, a person doesn’t make insulin and blood sugars rise unless insulin is given. In the case of type 2 diabetes, a person doesn’t make enough insulin or their body isn’t using their insulin efficiently, causing blood sugar to rise. In people with diabetes, high blood s Continue reading >>

High Blood Glucose: What It Means And How To Treat It

High Blood Glucose: What It Means And How To Treat It

What is high blood glucose? People who do not have diabetes typically have fasting plasma blood glucose levels that run under 100 mg/dl. Your physician will define for you what your target blood glucose should be — identifying a blood glucose target that is as close to normal as possible that you can safely achieve given your overall medical health. In general, high blood glucose, also called 'hyperglycemia', is considered "high" when it is 160 mg/dl or above your individual blood glucose target. Be sure to ask your healthcare provider what he or she thinks is a safe target for you for blood glucose before and after meals. If your blood glucose runs high for long periods of time, this can pose significant problems for you long-term — increased risk of complications, such as eye disease, kidney disease, heart attacks and strokes and more. High blood glucose can pose health problems in the short-term as well. Your treatment plan may need adjustment if the blood glucose stays over 180 mg/dl for 3 days in a row. It is important to aim to keep your blood glucose under control, and treat hyperglycemia when it occurs. What are the symptoms of high blood glucose? Increased thirst Increased urination Dry mouth or skin Tiredness or fatigue Blurred vision More frequent infections Slow healing cuts and sores Unexplained weight loss What causes high blood glucose? Too much food Too little exercise or physical activity Skipped or not enough diabetes pills or insulin Insulin that has spoiled after being exposed to extreme heat or freezing cold Stress, illness, infection, injury or surgery A blood glucose meter that is not reading accurately What should you do for high blood glucose? Be sure to drink plenty of water. It is recommended to drink a minimum of 8 glasses each day. If yo Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia And Hypoglycemia In Stroke

Hyperglycemia And Hypoglycemia In Stroke

Practice Essentials Preexisting hyperglycemia worsens the clinical outcome of acute stroke. Nondiabetic ischemic stroke patients with hyperglycemia have a 3-fold higher 30-day mortality rate than do patients without hyperglycemia. In diabetic patients with ischemic stroke, the 30-day mortality rate is 2-fold higher. [1] With regard to hypoglycemia, the condition can mimic acute stroke or symptoms of transient ischemic attack (TIA). [2, 3, 4, 5] Signs and symptoms Hyperglycemia in stroke Patients may come to the attention of clinicians because of preexisting diabetes mellitus Diabetes may also be seen with other risk factors for stroke, such as hypertension and hypercholesterolemia High glycemic levels may also be seen in the setting of an acute stroke without a history of diabetes, presumably due to a sympathetic response to the infarct Retinopathy, neuropathy, and peripheral vascular disease may be found in patients with long-standing diabetes Hypoglycemia in strokelike occurrences In the literature, signs of an acute stroke, such as hemiplegia, aphasia, and cortical blindness, have been reported with hypoglycemia. In individuals presenting with low glycemic levels and strokelike symptoms, diabetes mellitus may have been previously diagnosed, and recent changes in the doses of hypoglycemic agents and insulin may have been instituted. In particular, aggressively tight glucose control, either patient driven or clinician directed, may give rise to chronic or recurrent episodes of hypoglycemia. However, if factitious hypoglycemia is suspected, such behavior may have manifested earlier as similar episodes or other factitious behaviors. Symptoms caused by hypoglycemia can occur suddenly and fluctuate, suggesting a vascular etiology. Diagnosis Laboratory studies In the settin Continue reading >>

High Blood Sugar And Diabetes

High Blood Sugar And Diabetes

Blood sugar control is at the center of any diabetes treatment plan. High blood sugar, or hyperglycemia, is a major concern, and can affect people with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes . There are two main kinds: Fasting hyperglycemia. This is blood sugar that's higher than 130 mg/dL (milligrams per deciliter) after not eating or drinking for at least 8 hours. Postprandial or after-meal hyperglycemia. This is blood sugar that's higher than 180 mg/dL 2 hours after you eat. People without diabetes rarely have blood sugar levels over 140 mg/dL after a meal, unless it’s really large. Frequent or ongoing high blood sugar can cause damage to your nerves, blood vessels, and organs. It can also lead to other serious conditions. People with type 1 diabetes are prone to a build-up of acids in the blood called ketoacidosis. If you have type 2 diabetes or if you’re at risk for it, extremely high blood sugar can lead to a potentially deadly condition in which your body can’t process sugar. It's called hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome (HHNS). You’ll pee more often at first, and then less often later on, but your urine may become dark and you could get severely dehydrated. It's important to treat symptoms of high blood sugar right away to help prevent complications. Your blood sugar may rise if you: Eat too many grams of carbohydrates for the amount of insulin you took, or eat too many carbs in general Have an infection Are ill Are under stress Become inactive or exercise less than usual Take part in strenuous physical activity, especially when your blood sugar levels are high and insulin levels are low Early signs include: Increased thirst Trouble concentrating Frequent peeing Fatigue (weak, tired feeling) Blood sugar more than 180 mg/dL Ongoing high blood sugar Continue reading >>

Lows & Highs: Blood Sugar Levels

Lows & Highs: Blood Sugar Levels

Keeping blood glucose (sugar) levels in a healthy range can be challenging. Knowing and understanding the symptoms of high and low blood sugar is very important for people living with diabetes, as well as their friends and family members. What is low blood glucose (sugar)? When the amount of blood glucose (sugar in your blood) has dropped below your target range (less than four mmol/L), it is called low blood glucose (sugar) or hypoglycemia. What are the signs of a low blood glucose (sugar) level? You may feel: Shaky, light-headed, nauseated Nervous, irritable, anxious Confused, unable to concentrate Hungry Your heart rate is faster Sweaty, headachy Weak, drowsy A numbness or tingling in your tongue or lips Very low blood glucose can make you: Confused and disoriented Lose consciousness Have a seizure Make sure you always wear your MedicAlert® identification, and talk to your doctor or diabetes educator about prevention and emergency treatment for severe low blood glucose (sugar). What causes a low blood glucose (sugar) level (hypoglycemia)? Low blood glucose (sugar) may be caused by: More physical activity than usual Not eating on time Eating less than you should have Taking too much medication The effects of drinking alcohol How do I treat low blood glucose (sugar)? If you are experiencing the signs of a low blood glucose (sugar) level, check your blood glucose (sugar) immediately. If you don’t have your meter with you, treat the symptoms anyway. It is better to be safe. Step one: Low blood glucose (sugar) can happen quickly, so it is important to treat it right away. If your blood glucose (sugar) drops very low, you may need help from another person. Eat or drink a fast-acting carbohydrate (15 grams): 15 grams of glucose in the form of glucose tablets (preferred c Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia: When Your Blood Glucose Level Goes Too High

Hyperglycemia: When Your Blood Glucose Level Goes Too High

Hyperglycemia means high (hyper) glucose (gly) in the blood (emia). Your body needs glucose to properly function. Your cells rely on glucose for energy. Hyperglycemia is a defining characteristic of diabetes—when the blood glucose level is too high because the body isn't properly using or doesn't make the hormone insulin. You get glucose from the foods you eat. Carbohydrates, such as fruit, milk, potatoes, bread, and rice, are the biggest source of glucose in a typical diet. Your body breaks down carbohydrates into glucose, and then transports the glucose to the cells via the bloodstream. Body Needs Insulin However, in order to use the glucose, your body needs insulin. This is a hormone produced by the pancreas. Insulin helps transport glucose into the cells, particularly the muscle cells. People with type 1 diabetes no longer make insulin to help their bodies use glucose, so they have to take insulin, which is injected under the skin. People with type 2 diabetes may have enough insulin, but their body doesn't use it well; they're insulin resistant. Some people with type 2 diabetes may not produce enough insulin. People with diabetes may become hyperglycemic if they don't keep their blood glucose level under control (by using insulin, medications, and appropriate meal planning). For example, if someone with type 1 diabetes doesn't take enough insulin before eating, the glucose their body makes from that food can build up in their blood and lead to hyperglycemia. Your endocrinologist will tell you what your target blood glucose levels are. Your levels may be different from what is usually considered as normal because of age, pregnancy, and/or other factors. Fasting hyperglycemia is defined as when you don't eat for at least eight hours. Recommended range without diabet Continue reading >>

Hypoglycemia And Hyperglycemia

Hypoglycemia And Hyperglycemia

Hyperglycemia is defined as blood glucose (sugar) levels that are higher than the target values for the majority of people with diabetes: above 7 mmol/L fasting or before a meal above 10 mmol/L two hours after a meal Hyperglycemia occurs when the amount of insulin in the blood is insufficient or ineffective. When glucose circulating in the blood cannot enter the cells because of a lack of insulin, it accumulates in the blood and raises a person’s glycemia (blood glucose levels) . Symptoms Some people may not notice their hyperglycemia. However, above a certain threshold, high blood sugar can lead to the following symptoms: drowsiness increased urination intense thirst excessive hunger involuntary weight loss irritability dizziness Causes The primary causes of hyperglycemia are: insufficient insulin and/or antidiabetic medication (dosage error or a skipped dose) physical stress (illness, surgery, infection, etc.) or psychological stress (mourning a death, new job, moving, etc.) taking certain drugs (e.g.: cortisone) Hyperglycemia can also be caused by two lesser known phenomena: the dawn phenomenon and the Somogyi effect. Preventing hyperglycemia In most cases, hyperglycemia can be avoided by taking the following precautions: Measure your blood glucose (sugar) levels regularly. Follow a daily meal plan designed by a dietitian. Take your insulin or antidiabetic medication as prescribed. Adjust your insulin dose based on your medical prescription Treatment If you experience hyperglycemic symptoms, you should: take your blood glucose (sugar) readings frequently if you have type 1 diabetes: if your blood glucose level is higher than 14 mmol/L, check for ketones in your urine or blood drink lots of water to prevent dehydration (250 ml of water every hour) adjust your insuli Continue reading >>

High Blood Sugar (hyperglycemia) In Diabetes

High Blood Sugar (hyperglycemia) In Diabetes

What is high blood sugar? High blood sugar means that the level of sugar in your blood is higher than recommended for you. If you don’t keep your blood sugar at a normal, healthy level most of the time, you will increase your risk of heart and blood vessel disease, stroke, kidney problems, and loss of vision. The medical term for high blood sugar is hyperglycemia. Blood sugar is also called blood glucose. What is the cause? Blood sugar that stays high is the main problem of diabetes. Your body breaks down some of the foods you eat into sugar. Normally the hormone insulin moves this sugar into your cells, where your body uses it for energy. In diabetes the insulin is not moving the sugar into the cells, so it builds up in the bloodstream and starts to cause problems. Sometimes you may have high blood sugar even though you are taking diabetes medicine. This can happen for many reasons but it always means that your diabetes is not in good control. Some reasons why your sugar might go too high are: Skipping your diabetes medicine Not taking the right amount of diabetes medicine Taking certain medicines that increase your blood sugar or make your blood sugar medicines work less well Taking in too many calories by eating large portions of food, choosing too many high-calorie foods, or drinking too many high-sugar beverages Eating too many carbohydrates, such as foods made mainly with sugar, white flour (in bread, biscuits, pancakes, for example), white potatoes, or white rice Not getting enough physical activity (exercise lowers your blood sugar) Having increased emotional or physical stress Being sick, including colds, flu, an infected tooth, or a urinary tract infection, especially if you have a fever If you are using insulin, having a problem with your insulin (for examp Continue reading >>

Blood Sugar: What Causes High Blood Sugar Levels In The Morning

Blood Sugar: What Causes High Blood Sugar Levels In The Morning

There are two reasons why your blood sugar levels may be high in the morning – the dawn phenomenon and the Somogyi effect. The dawn phenomenon is the end result of a combination of natural body changes that occur during the sleep cycle and can be explained as follows: Your body has little need for insulin between about midnight and about 3:00 a.m. (a time when your body is sleeping most soundly). Any insulin taken in the evening causes blood sugar levels to drop sharply during this time. Then, between 3:00 a.m. and 8:00 a.m., your body starts churning out stored glucose (sugar) to prepare for the upcoming day as well as releases hormones that reduce the body's sensitivity to insulin. All of these events happen as your bedtime insulin dose is also wearing off. These events, taken together, cause your body's blood sugar levels to rise in the morning (at "dawn"). A second cause of high blood sugar levels in the morning might be due to the Somogyi effect (named after the doctor who first wrote about it). This condition is also called "rebound hyperglycemia." Although the cascade of events and end result – high blood sugar levels in the morning – is the same as in the dawn phenomenon, the cause is more "man-made" (a result of poor diabetes management) in the Somogyi effect. There are two potential causes. In one scenario, your blood sugar may drop too low in the middle of the night and then your body releases hormones to raise the sugar levels. This could happen if you took too much insulin earlier or if you did not have enough of a bedtime snack. The other scenario is when your dose of long-acting insulin at bedtime is not enough and you wake up with a high morning blood sugar. How is it determined if the dawn phenomenon or Somogyi effect is causing the high blood sug Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Whether you have type 1 diabetes, are a caregiver or loved one of a person with type 1 diabetes, or just want to learn more, the following page provides an overview of type 1 diabetes. New to type 1 diabetes? Check out "Starting Point: Type 1 Diabetes Basics," which answers some of the basic questions about type 1 diabetes: what is type 1 diabetes, what are its symptoms, how is it treated, and many more! Want to learn a bit more? See our “Helpful Links” page below, which provides links to diaTribe articles focused on type 1 diabetes. These pages provide helpful tips for living with type 1 diabetes, our patient-perspective column by Adam Brown, drug and device overviews, information about diabetes complications, and some extra pages we hope you’ll find useful! Starting Point: Type 1 Diabetes Basics What is the risk of developing type 1 diabetes if it runs in my family? What is Type 1 Diabetes? Type 1 diabetes is disease in which the body can no longer produce insulin. Insulin is normally needed to convert sugar (also called glucose) and other food sources into energy for the body’s cells. It is believed that in people with type 1 diabetes, the body’s own immune system attacks and kills the beta cells in the pancreas that produce insulin. Without insulin, the body cannot control blood sugar, and people can suffer from dangerously high blood sugar levels (called hyperglycemia). To control their blood glucose levels, people with type 1 diabetes take insulin injections. Before the discovery of insulin, type 1 diabetes was a death sentence (and it still is for patients with poor access to insulin). Can Type 1 Diabetes Be Prevented? Unfortunately, the genetic and environmental triggers for the immune attack that causes type 1 diabetes are not well understood, althoug Continue reading >>

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