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What Is Ketosis Quizlet

Ketogenic Diet: Is The Ultimate Low-carb Diet Good For You?

Ketogenic Diet: Is The Ultimate Low-carb Diet Good For You?

Recently, many of my patients have been asking about a ketogenic diet. Is it safe? Would you recommend it? Despite the recent hype, a ketogenic diet is not something new. In medicine, we have been using it for almost 100 years to treat drug-resistant epilepsy, especially in children. In the 1970s, Dr. Atkins popularized his very-low-carbohydrate diet for weight loss that began with a very strict two-week ketogenic phase. Over the years, other fad diets incorporated a similar approach for weight loss. What is a ketogenic diet? In essence, it is a diet that causes the body to release ketones into the bloodstream. Most cells prefer to use blood sugar, which comes from carbohydrates, as the body’s main source of energy. In the absence of circulating blood sugar from food, we start breaking down stored fat into molecules called ketone bodies (the process is called ketosis). Once you reach ketosis, most cells will use ketone bodies to generate energy until we start eating carbohydrates again. The shift, from using circulating glucose to breaking down stored fat as a source of energy, usually happens over two to four days of eating fewer than 20 to 50 grams of carbohydrates per day. Keep in mind that this is a highly individualized process, and some people need a more restricted diet to start producing enough ketones. Because it lacks carbohydrates, a ketogenic diet is rich in proteins and fats. It typically includes plenty of meats, eggs, processed meats, sausages, cheeses, fish, nuts, butter, oils, seeds, and fibrous vegetables. Because it is so restrictive, it is really hard to follow over the long run. Carbohydrates normally account for at least 50% of the typical American diet. One of the main criticisms of this diet is that many people tend to eat too much protein and Continue reading >>

Human Nutrition Test 3

Human Nutrition Test 3

Sort List of carbohydrates for classification; which of these has the sweetest taste? Will this sugar offer a Caloric/sweet taste advantage used in cooked foods? Which of these binds cholesterol in the gut? Which of these is stored in the liver? -lactose, galactose, sucrose, starch, maltose, cellulose, glucose, fructose, glycogen -fructose is sweetest, yes -fiber (cellulose) Define 'impaired glucose tolerance' and '2 hour post prandial.' Be able to describe when they are used. -impaired glucose tolerance = pre-diabetic state of hyperglycemia->excessive amount of glucose circulates in the blood plasma -a postprandial glucose test is a blood glucose test that determines the amount of a glucose in the blood after a meal -a 2 hour post prandial measures blood glucose exactly 2 hours after eating a meal, timed from the start of the meal -by this point blood sugar has usually gone back down in healthy people, but it may still be elevated in people with diabetes -thus, it serves as a test of whether a person may have diabetes, or of whether a person who has diabetes is successfully controlling their blood sugar Define glycemic effect. Discuss the controversy related to usefulness of glycemic index. glycemic response= how quickly glucose is absorbed after a person eats, how high blood glucose rises, and how quickly it returns to normal -opposition to use of glycemic idex argue that it is not sufficiently supported by scientific research; values vary because of differences in the physical and chemical characteristics of foods, testing methods of laboratories, and digestive processes of individuals -practical utility of GI is limited bc info is neither provided on food labels nor intuitively apparent Jen skips breakfast. About 9:30am she begins to feel hungry and grabs a cola dri Continue reading >>

Adult Health 1- Exam 4 Quizlet - Adult Health 1 Exam 4...

Adult Health 1- Exam 4 Quizlet - Adult Health 1 Exam 4...

When comparing the pathophysiology of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, which statement would be correct B. The pa²ent has islet cell an²bodies that have destroyed the ability of the pancreas to produce insulin C. The pa²ent has minimal or absent endogenous insulin secre²on and requires daily insulin injec²ons D.The pa²ent may have suµcient endogenous insulin to prevent ketosis but is at risk for developing Analyze the following diagnos²c ¶ndings for your pa²ent with type 2 diabetes. Which results will need C. "I do not need to watch what I eat because my diabetes is not the bad kind." D. "The amount of fat in my diet is not important; it is just the carbohydrates that raise my blood WhaT is The prioriTy acton for The nurse To Take if The patenT wiTh Type 2 diabeTes complains of blurred A diabetc patenT has a serum glucose level of 824 mg/dL (45.7 mmol/L) and is unresponsive. Following Continue reading >>

Essay On Protein And Carbohydrates

Essay On Protein And Carbohydrates

105 visitors think this article is helpful. 105 votes in total. Kolb's Experiential Learning Model - Kolb’s Experiential Learning Model. David Kolb is a Professor of Organizational Behavior at Case Western Reserve University who popularized experiential learning as. Here you can publish your research papers, essays, letters, stories, poetries, biographies, notes, reviews, advises and allied information with a single vision to liberate knowledge. As a result, the modern definition of a carbohydrate is that the compounds are polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones. It is common in plants because it is less reactive than glucose, and it is their main transport sugar. Humans have many chemical compounds found in the body, each classified as different macromolecules. That explains why a bowl of oatmeal fills you up better than sugary candy that has the same amount of calories as the oatmeal. As the sugar level rises in your body, the pancreas releases a hormone called insulin. Carbohydrates are divided into three main groups; monosaccharides, disaccharides, Oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. Simple carbohydrates are sugars either refined or natural in form. Carbohydrate molecules are categorized by the number of carbons present in the molecule. In a damaged heart, poor carbohydrate intake may cause cardiac disorders or angina. A lollipop has lots of added sugar and doesn't contain important nutrients. Essay on Protein Amino Acid and Protein. every cell, tissue, and organ that is in the human body. Protein is the main factor of muscle tissue in the human body. Macromolecules include fats, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleotides. The first experiment on ¡°simple¡± and ¡°complex¡± carbohydrates, several tools and liquids were obtained: two test tubes, spot plate, test tube Continue reading >>

Biochem Obesity, Diabetes, Ketosis Lect 24

Biochem Obesity, Diabetes, Ketosis Lect 24

Sort Why doe diabetes mellitus cause weight loss? Decreased fat storage and increased mobilization 1. insulin stimulates GLUT4 translocation in fat and muscle - RBC and most brain cells use GLUT1, which does not require insulin 2. Insulin activates lipoprotein lipase - decreased triglyceride uptake and storage with no inculin 3. Insulin regulates fatty acid synthesis - decreased fatty acid synthesis with no insulin 4. insulin deactivates Hormone sensitive lipase - increased TG hydrolysis and release of fatty acids into the circulation Continue reading >>

6,117 Possible Causes For Hyperkalemia + Ketosis + Tachycardia In Usa

6,117 Possible Causes For Hyperkalemia + Ketosis + Tachycardia In Usa

Acidosis Hyperkalemia Tachycardia Ketosis Cardiac telemetry monitoring showed a narrow complex sinus tachycardia.[calpoison.org] Lead Beta Blocker s Prostaglandin Inhibitor Methyldopa Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor Acetazolamide Mefenamic acid Post-hypocapnia Excessive Normal Saline infused (liters) Hyperkalemia[fpnotebook.com] It is due to the accumulation of ketoacids (via excessive ketosis) and reflects a severe shift from glycolysis to lipolysis for energy needs.[en.wikipedia.org] Hyperkalemia Tachycardia Abdominal Distension Abdominal Pain Anemia Arm Pain Arteriosclerosis Back Pain Bone Marrow Biopsy Abnormal Budd-Chiari Syndrome Central Retinal Vein Occlusion Cerebellar Hemangioma Cerebral Thrombosis Chronic Urticaria Complete Blood Count Abnormal Cyanosis Dizziness Ecchymosis Erythrocytes Increased Exertional Dyspnea Fibrin Degradation Products Increased Gammaglobulins Increased Globulins Increased Headache Heat Intolerance Hematocrit Increased Hemoglobin Increased Hepatomegaly Hyperglobulinemia Hypersplenism Hyperuricemia Immunoglobulin G Increased Immunoglobulin M Increased Impaired Exercise Tolerance Intracerebral Hematoma Leukemia Leukocyte Alkaline Phosphatase Increased Leukocytosis Limb Pain Liver Ultrasound Abnormal Lysozyme Increased Massive Splenomegaly Mean Corpuscular Volume Decreased Mesenteric Vein Thrombosis Monocyte Count Increased Myelosuppression Nephrolithiasis Neutrophil Count Increased Night Sweats Nodular Regenerative Hepatic Hyperplasia PO2 Decreased Pain Pallor Palpable Spleen Pancytopenia Paresthesia Patient Appears Chronically Ill Peptic Ulcer Peripheral Gangrene Phlegmasia Cerulea Dolens Priapism Pruritus Raynaud Phenomenon Renal Cell Carcinoma Renal Infarction Splenomegaly Sternal Tenderness Thrombophilia Thrombosis Tingling Fingers, Feet Continue reading >>

Ketosis

Ketosis

Sort what is the mechanism behind ketosis cows make energy with the acetate , butyrate and propionate excessive fat mobilisation so can get into krebs cycle to get energy ( in a normal animal ) normally fat depot is turned into free fatty acids - then into acetyl CoA then goes into glucose drived precusor OAA -and then enter the kreb cycle if there is insuffient substrate ( OAA )- propionate ( not eating enough) or ( OAA ) excess drianage into the glucose in milk ( high producing cows , not that often in jersey) then the acetly CoA will not be able to enter the kreb cycle , instead it will produce ketones primary ketosis when does it occur? primary underfeeding ketosis - when the cow is not being fed with adequate amount of feed therefore insufficient propionate precusors are available ( diet not containing not wt it needs to ) - not enough energy in the det - not enough gluconeogenic precursors ( propionate ) in diet occur:4- 6 weeks post calving ( during peak lactation ) - before they calve - low energy diet ( they cant fit in , causing metabolic problems ) - calved -- going to lactate so need a lot more energy , feed them more ( from the feeding ) dry cow : on maintenance diet secondary ketosis secondary underfeeding ketosis - then the cows vluntary intake is being inhibited by another disease - leading to insufficient intak of proprionate precursors disease include - left displaced abdomen ( top of the list ) - lamness - post-partum infection common in first calver : - check their mouth - teeth erupting --painful -> dont wanna eat NOte : if a ketosis is being suspected with no obvious reason or just one -off ketosis - then need to do throughout abdominal ping exam - to check for LDA although it is common for cows that are down with post-partum recumbency, maybe due Continue reading >>

Can Diet Improve Arthritis Symptoms?

Can Diet Improve Arthritis Symptoms?

By: Linda Antinoro, R.D., L.D.N., J.D., C.D.E., Brigham and Women's Hospital, a Harvard affiliated hospital Through the centuries, many claims have been made about the influence of dietary habits and nutritional supplements on arthritis. Some of these claims are supported by medical evidence and some are reasonable theories. However, for most of these claims, we are just not sure. Even without all the proof, there are many healthy nutritional ideas that you can consider. Weight Control This one has lots of evidence behind it. Being overweight is a major risk factor for osteoarthritis (the wear-and-tear type). Theoretically, losing just a few pounds might diminish the discomfort. Weight loss reduces the stress on joints. One study in particular found that a loss of just one pound of body weight reduces the load on knees by four pounds. In addition, maintaining a desirable weight can reduce the chances of ever developing the disease. Your best chance of reaching that healthy weight is to engage in regular physical activity with a combination of aerobic and strength training exercises. Omega-3 Fatty Acids Dietary fats can influence inflammation, a major factor in rheumatoid arthritis. This is the type of arthritis that occurs as a result of the body's immune system mistakenly launching an attack on the joints. Omega-3 rich fish oil may show some benefit in inflammatory arthritis, such as rheumatoid arthritis. They can cause unpleasant stomach and intestinal side effects, are high in calories and rather expensive. In addition, an excess of omega-3 fatty acids potentially can lower the amount of omega-6 fatty acids from sources such as corn, safflower and cottonseed oils. This imbalance actually may promote inflammation. It is too soon to know if foods rich in omega-3 fatty Continue reading >>

The Main Function Of Glucose Is To Quizlet

The Main Function Of Glucose Is To Quizlet

The main function of glucose is to quizlet glucose effect/ catabolite repression The two types of negative control are: repression and induction Which of the following is Start studying Nutrition Test 2. Physical activity This is the primary link between poor nutrition and mortality. What does insulin do to lower the level of glucose in the blood? It directs the liver to store the glucose as glycogen. What are the The main function of cellular respiration is _____. Carbohydrate digestion begins in the. B - lactase deficiency. Glucose is a commonly known carbohydrate that is metabolized within cells to Any random blood glucose the three main insulin function by the three main symptoms of type 1 diabetes mellitus are quizlet the three main symptoms Chapter 5 Endocrine Regulation of Glucose function begins to become seriously affected when glucose levels fall Kidney function is critical for glucose Any random blood glucose the three main insulin function by the three main symptoms of type 1 diabetes mellitus are quizlet the three main symptoms View Test Prep - Exam Micro Questions flashcards _ Quizlet from MB 351 at N. yeasts or modern methods of isolation and maintenance - One yeast cell can ferment its own weight of glucose/hr, producing 15-18% by volume ethanol. Explanation: Through The Human Endocrine System including the breakdown of proteins and lipids to produce glucose. Everything you need in Biology. Cell membranes | Cells, cytoplasm, Glucose taken up by cells from the blood is used to generate energy in a process called glycolysis. First, the environment around the glucose becomes much more nonpolar, which favors the . Increase glucose by uptake body's cell The amount of glucose insulin function is by the three main symptoms of type 1 diabetes mellitus are quizle Continue reading >>

La Final 13

La Final 13

T/F It is usually easier to define, drape, and maintain a sterile surgical field during standing surgery than during a surgery performed under general anesthesia. Flashcards Matching Hangman Crossword Type In Quiz Test StudyStack Study Table Bug Match Hungry Bug Unscramble Chopped Targets LA Ch8 Question Answer T/F It is usually easier to define, drape, and maintain a sterile surgical field during standing surgery than during a surgery performed under general anesthesia. False T/F Ventilation under general anesthesia may be improved by reducing the weight of the intestinal tract through preoperative fasting. True T/F Horses are premedicated with atropine prior to general anesthesia to decrease saliva production. False T/F Compartment syndrome occurs in recumbent horses under general anesthesia but not in recumbent horses with neurological disease. False T/F A horse is suspected of being affected with compartment syndrome but voids normal yellow-colored urine at each urination. Because the urine is of normal color, a diagnosis of compartment syndrome can be ruled out in this patient. False T/F As a rule of thumb, surgical procedures lasting longer than 1 hour should use inhalation anesthesia for the maintenance of general anesthesia rather than injectable drugs. True T/F In horses, intravenous fluid support during general anesthesia is recommended for any procedure lasting longer than 1 hour. True T/F Hypoventilation can occur in a patient with a normal respiratory rate. True T/F Equine patients should be encouraged to stand as soon as they regain consciousness because recumbency increases the risk of developing compartment syndrome. False T/F Nasal turbinate edema is potentially life-threatening and should be immediately treated. True T/F Castration of the horse may be Continue reading >>

Ketosis Ppt

Ketosis Ppt

Sort 1st week of carb restriction alterations (GGGWS) ↓ Glucose & insulin ↑ Glucagon ↓ Glycogen reserves ↑ Weight loss from glycogen + water loss ↑ Sodium (and possibly potassium) excretion weeks to months of carb restriction (CFGKCMC) ↑ Calcium excretion ~ Sodium and Potassium levels balance ↑ Fatty acid oxidation ↑ Gluconeogenesis in the liver ↑ Ketogenesis in the liver ↑ Circulating levels of ketone bodies ↑ MCT-1 transporters ↑ Capacity to utilize fatty acids and ketone bodies (tissue-dependent) ~ Glycogen reserves in skeletal muscle normalize Continue reading >>

Agsc 406 - Ketosis And Fatty Liver

Agsc 406 - Ketosis And Fatty Liver

Sort List some metabolic changes caused by the negative energy balance. Changes in blood hormones levels: insulin decreases (due to low gluccose) Glucagon increases (released during fasting) Epinephrine increases (released during stress) Increased mobilization of body reserves to be used as energy source. Body fat is present in the form of triglycerides. Continue reading >>

Biochemistry

Biochemistry

Sort what is the regulation of the citric acid cycle The citric acid cycle is regulated mostly by substrate availability, product inhibition and by some cycle intermediates. • pyruvate dehydrogenase: is inhibited by its products, acetyl-CoA and NADH • citrate synthase: is inhibited by its product, citrate. It is also inhibited by NADH and succinyl-CoA (which signal the abundance of citric acid cycle intermediates). • isocitrate dehydrogenase and a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase: like citrate synthase, these are inhibited by NADH and succinyl-CoA. Isocitrate dehydrogenase is also inhibited by ATP and stimulated by ADP. All aforementioned dehydrogenases are stimulated by Ca2+. This makes sense in the muscle, since Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum triggers muscle contraction, which requires a lot of energy. This way, the same "second messenger" activates an energy-demanding task and the means to produce that energy. What is the regulation of fatty acid metabolism Acyl-CoA movement into the mitochondrion is a crucial factor in regulation. Malonyl-CoA (which is present in the cytoplasm in high amounts when metabolic fuels are abundant) inhibits carnitine acyltransferase, thereby preventing acyl-CoA from entering the mitochondrion. Furthermore, 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase is inhibited by NADH and thiolase is inhibited by acetyl-CoA, so that fatty acids wil not be oxidized when there are plenty of energy-yielding substrates in the cell. Explain in overview the metabolic reactions in the body that lead to the formation of ketone bodies (Ketogenesis). Ketogenesis is the process by which ketone bodies are produced as a result of fatty acid breakdown. Ketone bodies are produced mainly in the mitochondria of liver cells, and synthesis can occur in response to una Continue reading >>

Ruminant Medicine - Ketosis

Ruminant Medicine - Ketosis

Sort Clinical signs of ketosis? DECREASED MILK PRODUCTION Normal vitals Firm, dry feces Depression Reluctant to move Decreased rumen motility Pica may occur Transient nervous signs Nervous form = acute onset Continue reading >>

Fatty Acide Oxidation, Ketosis And Ketoacidosis

Fatty Acide Oxidation, Ketosis And Ketoacidosis

Sort Uptake of FA into mitochondria 1. Fatty acyl-CoA synthase fatty acid + ATP + CoA --> fatty acyl-CoA + ADP -location = outer mitochondrial membrane -fatty acyl-CoA cannot cross innner membrane of mito 2. Carnitine Palmitoyl transferase I (CPT I) Fatty acyl-coA + Carnitine --> fatty acyl-carnitine + CoA -fatty acyl-carnitine enters mito matrix through carnitine-fatty-acyl carnitine translocase 3. Carnitine Palmitoyl transferase II (CPT II) fatty acy carniitine + CoA --> fatty acyl-CoA + carnitine -carnitine returns to inter membrane space through carninitine fatty acyl carnitine translocase B-oxidation of FA's -Takes place in mitochondria -each round fatty acyl-CoA's are shortened by 2 Carbons releasing CoA -Oxidizing agents = NAD+ and FAD+ -Energy production = NADH + FADH2 = 25% of energy production, acetyl-CoA = 75% of energy production Reaction = fatty acyl coA + NAD+ + FAD+ --> fatty acyl-CoA + CoA + NADH + FADH2 Reguatlion of fatty acid oxidation 1. Insulin = ihibition, epinephrine = activation 2. Muscle cells = regulate concentration of FA transporters 3. Malonyl CoA = inhibits CPT I, inhibiting FA uptake -Note: liver acetyl-CoA carboxylase I synthesizes malonyl-coA in fed state, in muscle acetyl-CoA carboxylase II synthesizes malonyl-coA in fasting state or where there's high AMP (ATP inhibits acetyl-CoA carboxylase II) 4. PPAR-a --> increases B-oxidation by influencing transcription of enzymes involved -Note: Fibrates = a drug class that lowers triglyceride levels in blood by activating PPAR-a Diseases of FA oxidation -w/o FA oxidation in fasting state, body uses more glucose for energy production. THis glucose can only come from glycogenolysis b/c gluconeogenesis can only occur w/ the input of energy from FA oxidation. -Result = severe hypoglycemia in period Continue reading >>

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