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What Is Ketosis In Goats

Pregnancy Toxaemia And

Pregnancy Toxaemia And

Contents Industry Background Management Nutrition Animal Health Breeding Fibre Production Fibre Marketing Meat Production and Marketing Pasture and Weed Control Economic Analysis Tanning Skins ketosis in goats The diseases pregnancy toxaemia and ketosis can cause severe problems in goats. While the diseases are clinically different and occur during different stages of pregnancy and lactation, the basis of the disorder is essentially the same: a decrease in blood sugar levels and an increase in ketones. In ruminants, glucose is synthesised mainly from propionic acid (a volatile fatty acid produced in the rumen) and from amino acids. The amount of glucose that is absorbed directly depends on how much dietary carbohydrate escapes rumen fermentation and is digested in the small intestine. This form of glucose uptake varies with different feeds as well as their treatment. Ruminants can use products from rumen fermentation, such as volatile fatty acids, for most of their energy requirements. However, the nervous system, kidneys, mammary gland and foetus have a direct requirement for glucose. During periods of peak glucose requirement (late pregnancy and early lactation) problems may arise due to a glucose deficiency. The incidence of pregnancy toxaemia and ketosis varies with the two main types of goats. In dairy goats with a genetic potential for high milk production, ketosis may be a potential problem; in non-milch goats (Angora, Cashmere and meat) pregnancy toxaemia is more common. PREGNANCY TOXAEMIA Main causes The most important cause of pregnancy toxaemia is a decline in the plane of nutrition during the last six to eight weeks of pregnancy. This places the pregnant female in a difficult situation because the developing foetus imposes an unremitting drain on available m Continue reading >>

Pregnancy Toxaemia In Goats

Pregnancy Toxaemia In Goats

Goat Diseases The later stages of pregnancy and early lactation require a lot of energy from the mother and this must be met by feed intake or pregnancy toxaemia or ketosis may occur. Also known as Twin kid disease, Ketosis, Ketonaemia and Hypoglycaemia Pregnancy toxaemia is a metabolic disorder of pregnant ruminants (pre-parturition) caused by abnormal metabolism of carbohydrates and fats, which occurs in the final stages of pregnancy. Ketosis (or ketonaemia) is also a metabolic disorder associated with fat and carbohydrate metabolism but occurs after kidding during the early lactation stages. Both conditions are closely link and associated with negative energy balance. Although many animals are able to cope and recover from a negative energy balance by metabolising body fat albeit with a negative impact on productivity at the sub-clinical stage, some metabolise too much fat, become overwhelmed with the associated by-products (ketone bodies), and develop pregnancy toxaemia (before kidding) and ketosis (after kidding). What is Negative Energy Balance (NEB)? The final stages of pregnancy and the onset of milk production (lactation) requires a lot of energy, this high demand is usually met by feed intake and topped up by body reserves. If the (metabolisable) energy from feed intake and the body reserves is less than required for the foetus to grow or to produce milk – the body is in a Negative Energy Balance (NEB). NEB is considered the normal in high yielding animals during early lactation, however stress can cause further reduction in feed intake and lead to the onset of sub-clinical or clinical ketosis. NEB a detrimental consequence of human selection for high yielding animals, hence the emerging trends in diary cattle and reduction in milk yield and gain in animal w Continue reading >>

Glycaemia As A Sign Of The Viability Of The Foetuses In The Last Days Of Gestation In Dairy Goats With Pregnancy Toxaemia

Glycaemia As A Sign Of The Viability Of The Foetuses In The Last Days Of Gestation In Dairy Goats With Pregnancy Toxaemia

Go to: Pregnancy toxaemia is one of the most common diseases affecting small ruminants in the last month of gestation. Nearly 80% of the foetal growth occurs in the last 6 weeks of gestation. Fat goats and goats carrying twins and triplets are at greater risk. Pregnancy toxaemia is characterized by metabolic acidosis, hypoglycaemia and ketonaemia and a very high mortality rate. In our study five does with pregnancy toxaemia showed a marked hyperglycaemia (12.4 ± 5.4 mmol/L). Although our findings are based on a small population sample (10 goats), we nonetheless postulate that hyperglycaemia could be explained by the death of the foetuses. Caesarian surgery was performed on four of the five does with hyperglycaemia (HG does). In the fifth, kidding was induced. In this group, two does had two dead foetuses, two had three dead foetuses and one does had four foetuses, only one of which was alive. Caesarian surgery was performed on all five does with hypoglycaemia (LG does). Four does of the LG group had three foetuses and one had two foetuses, all alive. The HG doe had lower rectal temperatures, lower sodium and higher urea nitrogen (BUN) in the blood when compared with the LG does. As the condition of affected does may deteriorate quickly, the results of the present study suggest that in the last days of pregnancy goats with pregnancy toxaemia and concurrent hypoglycaemia should be considered for caesarian surgery. Go to: The importance of glucose in the pregnant goat (and ewe) as the major source of energy to the foetus(es) is well known. So pregnant goats are at high risk of developing pregnancy toxaemia due to the rapid foetal growth [1]. The energy requirements of the pregnant goat increase by a factor of 1.5 when she carries one foetus and by a factor of 2 when she c Continue reading >>

Pregnancy Toxemia (ketosis)

Pregnancy Toxemia (ketosis)

EP 321 in Does and Ewes Symptoms Does and ewes suffering from pregnancy toxemia (ketosis) appear lethargic, sluggish and often fail to eat. The first symptom noticed in does and ewes is an unwillingness to eat. They become depressed, weak and have poor muscle control and balance later in pregnancy. Many times, when they lie down, they are unable to rise. Early in the disease, does or ewes will show a positive test for ketone bodies in the urine. The breath of does and ewes will have a sweet or foul smell. Ketone bodies are by-products of fat breakdown found in the blood and urine. Test kits are often available for ketone bodies and they are easy to use. Cause Pregnancy toxemia is caused by the sudden extra demand for energy by the fast-growing kids or lambs in the last few weeks of pregnancy. Seventy percent of fetal growth occurs during the last few weeks. The disease is not normally observed in ewes carrying singles. It is usually seen when the ewe is carrying two or more lambs. Does and ewes that are too fat often will experience pregnancy toxemia. At the time when the kids or lambs are growing very rapidly, increasing amounts of space and energy are needed, in addition to the protein and energy needed for maintenance of the doe or ewe. The increase in feedstuffs high in energy must be supplied on a daily basis. Does or ewes consuming large amounts of hay need a greater internal space in the rumen, which causes decreasing space for growth of the kids or lambs in the uterus. In meeting the nutritional needs of the kids or lambs, the doe or ewe will metabolize or break down fat resources from her body to maintain pregnancy. This rapid breakdown of body stores of energy produces ketones (a toxic by-product) and you soon observe the symptoms of the disease. Maintaining d Continue reading >>

Ketosis: What Is It Actually, And How Does It Happen?

Ketosis: What Is It Actually, And How Does It Happen?

KETOSIS: What is it Actually, and How Does it Happen (Revised 4/04) By Sue Reith. (Please feel free to give a copy of this article to your veterinarian if you would like to do so.) Ketosis is a word that indiscriminately, in my view, gets bandied about a lot, and it’s incorrectly said to be the primary cause of a number of ailments. One that comes to mind, because I see it mentioned a lot, is "Pregnancy Ketosis". There’s no such thing! There’s pregnancy, which is one condition, and there’s ketosis, which is an entirely separate condition. Ketosis can develop as a secondary condition under some circumstances during pregnancy or lactation, but it isn’t limited to either pregnancy or lactation, and it can show up at any stage in the life of a goat. (BTW: ketosis happens to people, too.) The word itself is not well understood, so I’ll try to explain it: In technical terms, it’s a condition brought on by a metabolic imbalance in the body. In scientific terms it’s defined as an accumulation of excessive amounts of ketone bodies in body tissues and fluids. 'Ketone bodies' are metabolic substances known as acetoacetic acid and beta-hydroxybutyric acid. Acetone, which puts off the peculiar odor associated with Ketosis, comes from acetoacetic acid. These substances are all normal metabolic products of 'lipid' within the liver. When they become severely imbalanced as the result of ketosis, the liver will fail. Cause: By its very nature, Ketosis has to be a secondary condition, because it’s the direct result of a process that starts when the animal, for whatever reason, stops eating. Why the animal stopped eating is the primary question that needs to be answered quickly, because when that happens, the lack of an outside energy source (aka food) forces the animal t Continue reading >>

Pregnancy Toxemia In Boer Goats

Pregnancy Toxemia In Boer Goats

During kidding season, I am often contacted with questions about pregnancy toxemia. This prompted me to create a blog to address this and many other questions I get regarding goat care and management. Pregnancy toxemia (ketosis) is the condition where the pregnant doe appears lethargic, sluggish, and often goes “off feed”. Unfortunately, the doe can die from this condition if left untreated. What causes pregnancy toxemia? Pregnancy toxemia typically develops in does carrying multiple kids. The kids are drawing on the does resources and depleting her of her energy. As her uterus expands to accommodate the growing fetuses, her rumen has less room to function resulting in pregnancy toxemia. Her condition is further compromised if at the start of breeding season the doe was excessively fat. How can I treat pregnancy toxemia? When most goat producers contact me, the doe is at a critical stage. She is off feed and in some cases unable to stand. The only cure for a doe with pregnancy toxemia is delivery of her kids. If she is close to her due date, you could induce her labor with the use of oxytocin under your veterinarian’s direction. If death is potentially eminent, your veterinarian may need to perform an emergency caesarian. If the doe is not at such a critical stage or not due to kid for a few weeks, it becomes an issue of care and maintenance. When a doe goes off feed, you need to provide her the nutrition and hydration to keep her alive until closer to kidding. You can use an adult nutrition product like Ensure to drench the doe 16-24 ounces daily (2 to 3 cans). Administering propylene glycerol, goat power punch, or goat nutri-drench also aids in providing her with energy. I have also drenched does with warm water and molasses to hydrate the doe. Using Pedialyte f Continue reading >>

Magic And Revive Treatment For Goats

Magic And Revive Treatment For Goats

Without getting into a long explanation, to put it simply, pregnancy toxemia in goats is the result of high carbohydrate (energy) demands of multiple fetuses in late pregnancy. When this demand exceeds the supply, fat is metabolized into glucose. The metabolic needs of the kids are met at the expense of the mother causing the ketotic condition. Revive recipe for does with pregnancy toxemia *Give Revive during the day 500ML 50% Dextrose 500ML Amino Acid Solution (50ml if it is the concentrate) 200ML Calcium Gluconate **(see note below) 20ML B complex 2 grams Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C)I use the injectable 5ML B12 (3,000mcg/ml) 5ML 500mg/ml Thiamin Give 200cc 3x per day (oral drench) Use a large, clean canning jar to make and store this. Store it in a cool, dark place because B vitamins are destroyed by light. Scald the jar with boiling water after you clean it and turn it upside down on a clean towel. Scald the lid also. When you mix the ingredients, do not contaminate the mouth of the jar or the contents. Do not add water to the Revive until you are ready to give it. Mix 50:50 with water. Add 2-3 scoops Calf Pac with the morning dose of Revive. Use a pan of hot water to warm it if needed. Do NOT Microwave. **Calcium Gluconate is not necessary in Revive unless the doe is showing symptoms of calcium deficiency. The most common first symptom is tender feet, like she is walking on eggshells. Offer sweet feed, a little corn and free choice alfalfa hay to these does. Revive is also helpful for animals that are stressed at shows or that need supportive care for some reasons other than pregnancy toxemia. For regular use, omit the Amino Acid solution, Calcium Gluconate and Ascorbic acid. MAGIC RECIPE 1 part corn oil 1 part molasses 2 parts Karo syrup It is helpful to warm it just Continue reading >>

Ketosis / Pregnancy Toxaemia In Milk Goats Go Back Author: Milk Goat Breeders' Society Date Published: 01 March 2016

Ketosis / Pregnancy Toxaemia In Milk Goats Go Back Author: Milk Goat Breeders' Society Date Published: 01 March 2016

Ketosis (Pregnancy Toxaemia) This is a metabolic disorder in late pregnancy (mainly in the last 6 weeks of pregnancy) When goats are either to thin or too fat. A doe in late pregnancy needs extra energy, as she has to maintain her own body as well as the developing kids in the uterus In late pregnancy the uterus and its contents take up a large amount of space in the stomach cavity, if on poorquality fodder she cannot consume enough fodder to provide in all her needs. (see figure 2). Any concurrent disease or poor nutritional management may also reduce dietary energy intake. When blood glucose levels are too low to supply in doe and kid’s needs, body fat is metabolised into blood glucose, with this chemical process, ketones are released into her blood stream. In addition to this the ketone excretion in the urine causes the loss of very important electrolytes resulting in dehydration and central nervous system signs. Symptoms Lethargy and loss of appetite lie down, grinding of teeth and moaning, usually dies within a week if not treated. Neurological signs (salivating, facial twitching etc),depression and dehydration (sunken eyes). Sometimes the doe can start to kid and there will be decomposing foetal membranes protruding from the vulva. The foetus can die inside the uterus and cause a metritis and toxaemia. Treatment Response on treatment if not detected very early, is not very good. But always well worth the attempt. It is important to pen affected individuals in pens with fresh water, good quality hay and fresh concentrates. Give doe a readily usable form of energy, such as glucose, propylene Glycol or molasses diluted in water. Generally, daily dosing of a concentrated dextrose and electrolyte rehydration solution is recommended. A supplement of Vitamin B has also Continue reading >>

Goat Ketosis

Goat Ketosis

Ketosis is a metabolic condition also called pregnancy toxemia at the end of gestation and lactational ketosis during early lactation. The central metabolic event is fat mobilization from body stores to maintain normal blood glucose levels during times of high energy demands. The disease in late gestation does is classified by multiple fetuses, obese or extremely thin does due to an inability to respond to the increased metabolic demand for energy in the dam. The doe is unable to obtain sufficient amounts of energy, and toxic ketones accumulate in the blood due to the fat metabolism process. Lactational ketosis is rare in goats. Signs: Signs of ketosis include depression, lack of appetite and decrease in milk production if lactating. The goat’s breath will have a sweet smell, which some humans can detect. Urine tests with ketone strips will be positive for ketone bodies. Fecal output is reduced to a few small, dry pellets. Other signs can include teeth grinding, dull eyes, recumbency, blindness, star gazing, tremors, coma and death. Treatment: Treatment consists of increasing the energy density of the diet. This can be accomplished by feeding good-quality roughage and increased concentrate in early stages. Administer propylene glycol or Ketoplus two to three times per day. Propylene glycol may be toxic at high and repeated doses. Limit to 60cc/dose in a dam that is eating, and discontinue if she goes off feed. Supplement with a mixture of sodium bicarbonate given twice daily. Alternative treatment may consist of Calf Pac/Probios mixed with 100cc Revive (one bottle 50% dextrose, 20cc B-complex, 5cc B-12, 2cc 500 mg/ml thiamine), and 100cc of water. Corn, molasses, sweet feed and/or corn syrup can also be administered to increase caloric intake. If there is no response Continue reading >>

Ketosis In Goats Symptoms And Treatment

Ketosis In Goats Symptoms And Treatment

Ketosis in goats: Symptoms and treatments Ketosis (Acetonemia) is caused when a pregnant doe’s increasing need for carbohydrates has not been met, and the fat from the doe’s body is broken down and turned into glucose. This presents during the late stage of pregnancy. Ketosis can also occur after the kids are born and the calorie intake is not enough to keep up with the milk production. Some goats are more likely to have this condition: lack of exercise, parasites, being over-weight, along with heredity, poor diet and stress, increases the chances of developing ketosis. Prevention: Obviously it is better for the doe not to develop this disease; look at does before they are bred, does that are too fat or too skinny are more susceptible. Pregnant does should have high quality forage and concentrates in their diet. She should gain at least half a pound a day. The doe needs an increase in carbohydrates, but not an increase in protein to keep her and the kids healthy. Symptoms of Ketosis It is imperative that the first early signs of ketosis do not go unnoticed. Watch for a lack of appetite or a decrease in the amount of food or water that is taken. Be alert for any pregnant doe that becomes sedentary and does not want to stand. Legs may become stiff or swollen and the doe is limping or staggering. A doe might grind her teeth or she has a sweet smelling urine or breath. A doe will separate from the rest of the herd. The doe may have dull eyes and is taking quick breaths. These symptoms do not show up in any specific order. If the disease is allowed to progress; the neurological function of the doe becomes compromised. Blindness, staggering, tremors, wandering about and uncoordinated movement and coma develops. The doe and the fetuses dies, and does that survive are still Continue reading >>

Ketosis And Pregnancy Toxemia In Goats

Ketosis And Pregnancy Toxemia In Goats

Wellness : Health Pregnancy toxemia and ketosis in goats are potentially deadly diseases that occur during late gestation and early lactation. These diseases are often (though not exclusively) seen in dairy goats, especially in good milkers. The situation occurs either very near the end of pregnancy (pregnancy toxemia) or after birth, when the goat begins milking (ketosis). The problem is that late-term pregnancy and especially the onset of lactation require considerable energy, more than can be derived from the feed. The condition is compounded in a doe carrying multiple fetuses, because the kids compress the rumen and the doe simply cannot physically eat very much. Consequently, the goat must call on body reserves of fat for energy. The breakdown of large amounts of fat results in compounds called ketones floating around in the blood. In large concentrations, these ketones actually have a toxic effect; the animal may develop acidosis of the blood (goat blood, like human blood, should be slightly alkaline), and if this becomes severe enough, the goat may go into a coma. Early symptoms include apathy, poor appetite, a decrease in milk production (if the goat is milking), a rough hair coat, and disorientation. You will need a veterinarian to administer glucose and electrolytes immediately, as the condition can easily result in the death of the goat. To address ketosis or pregnancy toxemia in goats, you must get more energy into the late-term pregnant and early-lactation doe. Gradually increase the concentrate (grain) portion of the diet and reduce the hay portion (remember, you don’t want to change the rumen pH too fast). The grain is much higher in energy and will take up much less room in the rumen. A small amount of fat (such as corn oil) on the feed will also help Continue reading >>

Ketosis Or Pregnancy Toxemia

Ketosis Or Pregnancy Toxemia

Home New New Kids on the Farm For Sale Articles SA-Boer Goat Shows, Sales & Seminars Does Bucks Dogs Shows Glossary Our Place Support Map Links Tell a Friend [Note: In this article the term "Pregnancy Toxemia" (or simply "Toxemia") and the word "Ketosis" are used interchangeably.] In the spring of 2005 we were anxiously awaiting the birth of NK M141 Kattie's babies. We had purchased Kattie, and she almost immediately gave us Samantha and Thunderbolt. In March 2004 we used Kattie as the donor doe for our flush. These 2005 babies would be her first after the flush and hernia repair. All was going well; Kattie (already a large doe) was getting bigger and bigger by the day. About 15 days before her due date, we noticed she was laying around all the time. We figured as heavy as she was with the pregnancy, walking just wasn't comfortable. Knowing Ketosis (excessive ketone levels in the blood - a medical condition caused by abnormally high levels of ketone bodies in the blood resulting from the metabolism of fats instead of carbohydrates for energy) was a possibility, we started dosing her with Magic. 10 days before her due date, Kattie (and her 4 kids) died. The two boys and two girls weighed a total of 28 pounds. After her death we realized that when Kattie started laying around and not walking, she also quit going to the water. We also realized we had not started treating her soon enough – or aggressively enough. The day Kattie died another doe who was due in 10 days delivered a healthy 9 pound little girl. We should have induced labor – but we had always read where kids born more than 5 days early were considered premies and the survival chance was slim. We purchased Melissa at a production sale in July 2005. In September 2005 we bred her to a friend's buck (who was pu Continue reading >>

South African Boer Goats - Boer Goat Links To Goats For Sale And Boer Goat Forum

South African Boer Goats - Boer Goat Links To Goats For Sale And Boer Goat Forum

METABOLIC AND NUTRITIONAL DISEASES COLLECTION: GOAT HANDBOOK ORIGIN: United States Extension Goat Handbook This material was contributed from collections at the National Agricultural Library. However, users should direct all inquires about the contents to authors or originating agencies. DOCN 000000026 NO C-5 METABOLIC AND NUTRITIONAL DISEASES D. R. Nelson; U. of Illinois, Urbana S. B. Guss; Pennsylvania State U., University Park Nutrition 1 Pregnancy Toxemia Also known as pregnancy disease, ketosis or twin lamb disease. Pregnancy toxemia is a metabolic disease of goats and sheep in late pregnancy. Factors important in the development of the disease are: (1) Presence of two or more fetuses; (2) Undernourishment during late pregnancy when the fetuses have the most rapid growth; (3) Addition of stress such as severe weather, sudden changes in feed, other disease or transportation upon the previous factors. The disease usually appears in the last 30 days of pregnancy and is more common after the first pregnancy. The does show signs of ketonemia, ketonuria, acidosis and central nervous system involvement. The mortality rate is high in affected animals. Most information available is the result of studies in sheep. 2 Cause -- As pregnancy progresses, an increasing demand is on the available blood glucose supply of the doe or ewe because of fetal development. The principal source of energy to the fetus is glucose and utilization by the fetus occurs at the detriment of the mother. Glucose requirements during late pregnancy are increased 70-800ver the nonpregnant state since 800f fetal growth occurs during the last 40 days of pregnancy. Blood sugar levels decrease as pregnancy progresses (hypoglycemia) from a normal 35-45 mg per 100 ml blood to 20-25 mg per 100 ml blood in late Continue reading >>

Dairy Goats: Dealing With Ketosis

Dairy Goats: Dealing With Ketosis

Our kidding season here at the farm has come and gone and left us with 5 beautiful baby goats – 3 males, 2 females. Now the fun begins and we spend countless hours watching and playing with the new kids. They are so comical, especially when they realize how much bounce their little legs have. They seem to skip around the barnyard, kicking out and jumping up every now and then, very pleased with their accomplishments. For the most part, the births were uneventful. We missed two of the does kidding, they did it on their own. Maggie was the first to kid and she had a rougher go of it this year. She’s still recovering… Maggie ended up with ketosis which is fairly common in goats who deliver twins. It was more likely with Maggie since this was the first time she’d delivered twins. All her previous births had been single births. She’s having a hard time keeping up with the milk demand of her two little ones. Maggie is doing better though she has not completely recovered. We’re still supplementing the babies with a bottle so they’re not solely dependent on their mom. Ahh, the joys and learning opportunities of homesteading… and I’m not kidding!! Ketosis (also called Acetonemia) is the result of the high carbohydrate (energy) demand of multiple fetuses in late pregnancy. The kids require an increasing amount of carbohydrates the last trimester. Does bearing twins have a 180% higher energy requirement than those with just a single fetus. Does carrying triplets have a 240% greater energy requirement. When this demand exceeds the supply, fat is metabolized into glucose. The metabolic needs of the kids are met at the expense of the dam; this is what causes the ketotic condition. To complicate matters, multiple fetuses produce more waste products, which leads to th Continue reading >>

Health Problems Of Pregnant & Lactating Does

Health Problems Of Pregnant & Lactating Does

The most common health problems experienced by pregnant and lactating does are described in this article. Prolapses exist if either the vagina or the rectum is outside the doe's body. Prolapses in pregnant does usually happen during the final 30 days of pregnancy -- if they are going to occur at all. Rectal prolapses tend to occur in does that have been fed too much grain and are therefore too fat. Proper nutritional management makes rectal prolapses less likely to occur. Vaginal prolapses are mostly hereditary and usually can be bred out by mating the doe with an unrelated buck whose previous female offspring have not prolapsed. Does that prolapse more than once should be culled from the breeding herd and sold for slaughter. Returning a prolapse to the inside of the goat's body must be done very carefully. To prevent infection, clean the prolapse with a solution of Nolvasan, Clorhexadine, or similar product by gently pouring the slightly warmed mixture over it. This is very delicate and easily torn tissue. Take great care. Put on disposable gloves and apply a water-soluble lubricant like K-Y Jelly to the gloved hand being used to re-position the prolapse. Using the flat palm of the gloved hand, gently and with even pressure press the prolapse back inside the goat. This is a two-person job; one person has to hold the goat in a standing position while lifting its rear legs off the ground so that it can't push against the hand of the second person, who is attempting to return the prolapsed organ back inside the goat. Sometimes it is necessary to place the goat on its side in order to get the proper angle that allows reinsertion of the prolapse. If the prolapse has been outside the body for several hours or overnight, causing it to dry out and therefore become more difficu Continue reading >>

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