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What Is Ketosis In Goats

Pregnancy Toxemia

Pregnancy Toxemia

Before kidding it is called Pregnancy Toxemia. After kidding it is called Ketosis. Pregnancy Toxemia/Ketosis is caused by a build up of excess ketones in the blood (urine & milk), due to the incomplete metabolic breakdown of body fat. It occurs in a doe (before or after kidding) because of an inability to consume enough feed to meet her needs. Ketosis can be caused by either too much, or too little grain, or the wrong type of grain and also poor quality hay/forage. Before kidding, internal body fat plus large fetuses prevent the goat from taking in enough calories to support both the doe and fetuses. Because there is an urgent need for calories, the doe's body starts breaking down her body's fat reserves. But this method of metabolism is incomplete, and thus leaves ketones behind. Pregnancy Toxemia usually occurs within the last six weeks of the doe's pregnancy and is usually attributable either to underfeeding (starvation toxemia) or overfeeding grain. We also believe that increased outside stress during the final weeks of pregnancy, in conjunction with large, multiple kids can contribute to the occurrence of Pregnancy Toxemia. After kidding Ketosis results from the doe producing higher milk yields than her body can keep up with. Usually she is not being fed enough to keep up with her milk production. Signs: The doe eats less or stops eating completely. Depression Seperation from the herd The doe may be slow to get up or may lie off in a corner. Her eyes are dull. Somestimes blindness Muscle tremors & seizures Staggering Head pressing She may have swollen ankles She may grind her teeth. The doe may breathe more rapidly. The doe's breath and urine may have a fruity sweet odor. This is due to the excess ketones, which have a sweet smell. Prevention: Prevent excess body f Continue reading >>

Ketosis And Pregnancy Toxemia In Goats

Ketosis And Pregnancy Toxemia In Goats

Wellness : Health Pregnancy toxemia and ketosis in goats are potentially deadly diseases that occur during late gestation and early lactation. These diseases are often (though not exclusively) seen in dairy goats, especially in good milkers. The situation occurs either very near the end of pregnancy (pregnancy toxemia) or after birth, when the goat begins milking (ketosis). The problem is that late-term pregnancy and especially the onset of lactation require considerable energy, more than can be derived from the feed. The condition is compounded in a doe carrying multiple fetuses, because the kids compress the rumen and the doe simply cannot physically eat very much. Consequently, the goat must call on body reserves of fat for energy. The breakdown of large amounts of fat results in compounds called ketones floating around in the blood. In large concentrations, these ketones actually have a toxic effect; the animal may develop acidosis of the blood (goat blood, like human blood, should be slightly alkaline), and if this becomes severe enough, the goat may go into a coma. Early symptoms include apathy, poor appetite, a decrease in milk production (if the goat is milking), a rough hair coat, and disorientation. You will need a veterinarian to administer glucose and electrolytes immediately, as the condition can easily result in the death of the goat. To address ketosis or pregnancy toxemia in goats, you must get more energy into the late-term pregnant and early-lactation doe. Gradually increase the concentrate (grain) portion of the diet and reduce the hay portion (remember, you don’t want to change the rumen pH too fast). The grain is much higher in energy and will take up much less room in the rumen. A small amount of fat (such as corn oil) on the feed will also help Continue reading >>

Health Problems Of Pregnant & Lactating Does

Health Problems Of Pregnant & Lactating Does

The most common health problems experienced by pregnant and lactating does are described in this article. Prolapses exist if either the vagina or the rectum is outside the doe's body. Prolapses in pregnant does usually happen during the final 30 days of pregnancy -- if they are going to occur at all. Rectal prolapses tend to occur in does that have been fed too much grain and are therefore too fat. Proper nutritional management makes rectal prolapses less likely to occur. Vaginal prolapses are mostly hereditary and usually can be bred out by mating the doe with an unrelated buck whose previous female offspring have not prolapsed. Does that prolapse more than once should be culled from the breeding herd and sold for slaughter. Returning a prolapse to the inside of the goat's body must be done very carefully. To prevent infection, clean the prolapse with a solution of Nolvasan, Clorhexadine, or similar product by gently pouring the slightly warmed mixture over it. This is very delicate and easily torn tissue. Take great care. Put on disposable gloves and apply a water-soluble lubricant like K-Y Jelly to the gloved hand being used to re-position the prolapse. Using the flat palm of the gloved hand, gently and with even pressure press the prolapse back inside the goat. This is a two-person job; one person has to hold the goat in a standing position while lifting its rear legs off the ground so that it can't push against the hand of the second person, who is attempting to return the prolapsed organ back inside the goat. Sometimes it is necessary to place the goat on its side in order to get the proper angle that allows reinsertion of the prolapse. If the prolapse has been outside the body for several hours or overnight, causing it to dry out and therefore become more difficu Continue reading >>

Ketosis: What It Is And How It Happens

Ketosis: What It Is And How It Happens

Ketosis is a word that gets bandied about a lot, indiscriminately in my view, and it is incorrectly cited to be the primary cause of a number of ailments. One that comes to mind, because I have seen the term mentioned a few times lately, is "Pregnancy Ketosis". There is no such animal! There is pregnancy, which is one condition, and there is ketosis, which is an entirely separate condition. While under some circumstances during pregnancy or lactation a ketosis can develop as a 'secondary condition', it is neither limited to pregnancy nor to lactation, and can show up at any stage in the life of a goat. (Ketosis happens to people, too.) It occurs to me that the actual meaning of Ketosis is perhaps not well understood, so I will try to explain it: A technical explanation of the process would be: Ketosis is a condition brought on by a metabolic imbalance. In scientific terms it is defined as an accumulation of excessive amounts of ketone bodies in body tissues and fluids. 'Ketone bodies' are the metabolic substances acetoacetic acid and beta-hydroxybutyric acid. Acetone, which puts off a particular odor associated with Ketosis, arises from acetoacetic acid, becoming a symptom when the animal is in a ketotic state. All of these substances are normal metabolic products of 'lipid' within the liver. When they become severely imbalanced as the result of ketosis, an end result is liver failure. Ketosis, just because of what it is, is a secondary condition. The process that leads to it begins when the animal, for whatever reason, stops eating. This action is the primary factor that must be addressed. Without this initial act, ketosis would not happen at all. And it must be dealt with quickly, because when the animal stops eating, the sudden lack of an external energy source cause Continue reading >>

Ketosis / Pregnancy Toxaemia In Milk Goats Go Back Author: Milk Goat Breeders' Society Date Published: 01 March 2016

Ketosis / Pregnancy Toxaemia In Milk Goats Go Back Author: Milk Goat Breeders' Society Date Published: 01 March 2016

Ketosis (Pregnancy Toxaemia) This is a metabolic disorder in late pregnancy (mainly in the last 6 weeks of pregnancy) When goats are either to thin or too fat. A doe in late pregnancy needs extra energy, as she has to maintain her own body as well as the developing kids in the uterus In late pregnancy the uterus and its contents take up a large amount of space in the stomach cavity, if on poorquality fodder she cannot consume enough fodder to provide in all her needs. (see figure 2). Any concurrent disease or poor nutritional management may also reduce dietary energy intake. When blood glucose levels are too low to supply in doe and kid’s needs, body fat is metabolised into blood glucose, with this chemical process, ketones are released into her blood stream. In addition to this the ketone excretion in the urine causes the loss of very important electrolytes resulting in dehydration and central nervous system signs. Symptoms Lethargy and loss of appetite lie down, grinding of teeth and moaning, usually dies within a week if not treated. Neurological signs (salivating, facial twitching etc),depression and dehydration (sunken eyes). Sometimes the doe can start to kid and there will be decomposing foetal membranes protruding from the vulva. The foetus can die inside the uterus and cause a metritis and toxaemia. Treatment Response on treatment if not detected very early, is not very good. But always well worth the attempt. It is important to pen affected individuals in pens with fresh water, good quality hay and fresh concentrates. Give doe a readily usable form of energy, such as glucose, propylene Glycol or molasses diluted in water. Generally, daily dosing of a concentrated dextrose and electrolyte rehydration solution is recommended. A supplement of Vitamin B has also Continue reading >>

Pregnancy Toxemia In Ewes And Does

Pregnancy Toxemia In Ewes And Does

Pregnancy toxemia affects ewes and does during late gestation and is characterized by partial anorexia and depression, often with neurologic signs, progressing to recumbency and death. It is seen more often in animals carrying multiple fetuses. Generally, clinically affected animals have other risk factors, at either the individual or flock/herd level. Epidemiology and Pathogenesis: The primary predisposing cause of pregnancy toxemia is inadequate nutrition during late gestation, usually because of insufficient energy density of the ration and decreased rumen capacity as a result of fetal growth. In the last 4 wk of gestation, metabolizable energy requirements rise dramatically. For example, the energy requirement of a 70-kg ewe carrying a single lamb is 2.8 Mcal/day in early gestation compared with 3.45 Mcal/day in late gestation, or an increase of 23%. This change is more dramatic in ewes bearing twins, with an energy requirement of 3.22 Mcal/day in early and 4.37 Mcal/day in late gestation (36% increase), and in ewes bearing triplets, with an energy requirement of 3.49 Mcal/day in early and 4.95 Mcal/day in late gestation (42% increase). Dairy goats have similar changes in needs. In late gestation, the liver increases gluconeogenesis to facilitate glucose availability to the fetuses. Each fetus requires 30–40 g of glucose/day in late gestation, which represents a significant percentage of the ewe’s glucose production and which is preferentially directed to supporting the fetuses rather than the ewe. Mobilization of fat stores is increased in late gestation as a way to assure adequate energy for the increased demands of the developing fetus(es) and impending lactation. However, in a negative energy balance, this increased mobilization may overwhelm the liver’s c Continue reading >>

Ketosis In Goats: What Is It And How To Prevent It?

Ketosis In Goats: What Is It And How To Prevent It?

Inside: Ketosis in goats: how to prevent this condition, the symptoms and the treatment. It is preventable and you can help your goat avoid it. This is one post in our Raising Goats series.  Although I worked in an Alzheimer home in Boise when I was going to school, I can’t say that I had or gained a passion for the medical side of life. Truly, it was a wonderful experience working with and helping the residents but it wouldn’t become a long-term profession. So, when I first heard the word “ketosis”, I said, “huh??” But it is an important term to know when you are dealing with goats who have recently kidded and their health. As a goat owner, it is your primary responsibility to provide your goats with adequate nutrition so that you never have to work on the treatment side of these problematic conditions. Let’s start off by answering the question: It is a metabolic condition after kidding Ketosis is a metabolic problem caused by an animal living on its own body reserves because it has stopped eating food. The higher nutritional needs of a doe continue as they did in the last weeks of her pregnancy because now she is producing large quantities of milk. So a doe in the early stages of lactation may experience a net loss of energy. Usually, four to six weeks after kidding, the doe’s hormonal stimuli for lactation overcomes the effects of inadequate food intake. Ketosis in goats can be a very detrimental condition for your herd. What else do you need to know about this condition? • Prevention is key: • Never should the doe be excessively fat. • Any changes in diet should be introduced slowly. The addition of protein grain concentrate not only is important for the health of the doe and kid during pregnancy but for the health of the goat as she begins l Continue reading >>

Clinical And Haematological Studies On Subclinical Lactational Ketosis In Dairy Goats

Clinical And Haematological Studies On Subclinical Lactational Ketosis In Dairy Goats

Abstract The most common metabolic diseases in small ruminants are peri-parturient hypocalcemia, pregnancy toxemia (ketosis), rumen acidosis and hypomagnesaemia. While pregnancy toxemia is well known medical condition, lactational ketosis is almost unknown in small ruminant practice. A total of 58 dairy goats, up to day 30 of lactation were included in the study. Clinical examination (rectal temperature, heart rate, respiratory rates, rumen contractions and inspection of conjunctival mucous membrane), BCS and determining the values of β-hydroxybutyrate was performed on all goats. Animals were divided into two groups, control one consists of 30 goats (BCS > 2.0 and concentration of β-hydroxybutyrate < 0.8 mmol/l), and second group consists of 28 goats with subclinical lactational ketosis (BCS ≤ 2.0 and concentration of β-hydroxybutyrate ≥ 0.8 mmol/l). Blood samples were obtained and analyzed for red blood cell (RBC, Т/l), haemoglobin (HGB, g/l), haematocrit (HCT, l/l), mean corpuscular volume (MCV, fl), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH, pg), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC, g/l), white blood cell counts (WBC, G/l), lymphocytes (LYM, %), monocytes (MON, %), granulocytes (GRA, %), red blood cell distribution width (RDW, %) and red blood cell distribution width absolute (RDWa, fl). From our study, no changes were found in the examined clinical signs. Haematologic analysis showed changes in the quantities of erythrocytes, while the other parameters (HGB, HCT, MCV, MCH, MCHC, WBC, LYM, MON, GRA, RDW and RDWa) fluctuated around control values via e-mail to [email protected] no reliable numeric data for morbidity rates referring both to assessment not only of nutritional status of animals in a given effect relationships between negative energy Continue reading >>

Dairy Goats: Dealing With Ketosis

Dairy Goats: Dealing With Ketosis

Our kidding season here at the farm has come and gone and left us with 5 beautiful baby goats – 3 males, 2 females. Now the fun begins and we spend countless hours watching and playing with the new kids. They are so comical, especially when they realize how much bounce their little legs have. They seem to skip around the barnyard, kicking out and jumping up every now and then, very pleased with their accomplishments. For the most part, the births were uneventful. We missed two of the does kidding, they did it on their own. Maggie was the first to kid and she had a rougher go of it this year. She’s still recovering… Maggie ended up with ketosis which is fairly common in goats who deliver twins. It was more likely with Maggie since this was the first time she’d delivered twins. All her previous births had been single births. She’s having a hard time keeping up with the milk demand of her two little ones. Maggie is doing better though she has not completely recovered. We’re still supplementing the babies with a bottle so they’re not solely dependent on their mom. Ahh, the joys and learning opportunities of homesteading… and I’m not kidding!! Ketosis (also called Acetonemia) is the result of the high carbohydrate (energy) demand of multiple fetuses in late pregnancy. The kids require an increasing amount of carbohydrates the last trimester. Does bearing twins have a 180% higher energy requirement than those with just a single fetus. Does carrying triplets have a 240% greater energy requirement. When this demand exceeds the supply, fat is metabolized into glucose. The metabolic needs of the kids are met at the expense of the dam; this is what causes the ketotic condition. To complicate matters, multiple fetuses produce more waste products, which leads to th Continue reading >>

Goat Ketosis

Goat Ketosis

Ketosis is a metabolic condition also called pregnancy toxemia at the end of gestation and lactational ketosis during early lactation. The central metabolic event is fat mobilization from body stores to maintain normal blood glucose levels during times of high energy demands. The disease in late gestation does is classified by multiple fetuses, obese or extremely thin does due to an inability to respond to the increased metabolic demand for energy in the dam. The doe is unable to obtain sufficient amounts of energy, and toxic ketones accumulate in the blood due to the fat metabolism process. Lactational ketosis is rare in goats. Signs: Signs of ketosis include depression, lack of appetite and decrease in milk production if lactating. The goat’s breath will have a sweet smell, which some humans can detect. Urine tests with ketone strips will be positive for ketone bodies. Fecal output is reduced to a few small, dry pellets. Other signs can include teeth grinding, dull eyes, recumbency, blindness, star gazing, tremors, coma and death. Treatment: Treatment consists of increasing the energy density of the diet. This can be accomplished by feeding good-quality roughage and increased concentrate in early stages. Administer propylene glycol or Ketoplus two to three times per day. Propylene glycol may be toxic at high and repeated doses. Limit to 60cc/dose in a dam that is eating, and discontinue if she goes off feed. Supplement with a mixture of sodium bicarbonate given twice daily. Alternative treatment may consist of Calf Pac/Probios mixed with 100cc Revive (one bottle 50% dextrose, 20cc B-complex, 5cc B-12, 2cc 500 mg/ml thiamine), and 100cc of water. Corn, molasses, sweet feed and/or corn syrup can also be administered to increase caloric intake. If there is no response Continue reading >>

Ketosis (pregnancy Toxemia)

Ketosis (pregnancy Toxemia)

Ketosis, or Pregnancy Toxemia, in goats generally occurs within the last few weeks of pregnancy. Common symptoms include loss of appetite, spastic motion, twitching ears, edema and inability to stand. Labored breathing, coma and death can result without a quick diagnosis and effective treatment. Provide a sufficient, balanced diet with no sudden or drastic changes, high quality hay and a correct amount of grain daily, tailored to breed and condition, and at regular hours. Ensure that the doe does not have an excessive worm load and allow access to fresh water and loose minerals at all times. Exercise is also essential to build strong bodies and good appetites. At the onset of any symptoms the Keto-Nia Drench or several pumps of Nutri Drench daily can reverse the condition. More information on Ketosis / Pregnancy Toxemia: Supplies for prevention and treatment can be found here and include: Continue reading >>

Ketosis (acetonemia) - Goats And Health - Goatworld.com

Ketosis (acetonemia) - Goats And Health - Goatworld.com

Ketosis About the Author Ketosis (also called Acetonemia) is the result of the high carbohydrate (energy) demand of multiple fetuses in late pregnancy. The kids require an increasing amount of carbohydrates the last trimester. Does bearing twins have a 180% higher energy requirement than those with just a single fetus. Does carrying triplets have a 240% greater energy requirement. When this demand exceeds the supply, fat is metabolized into glucose. The metabolic needs of the kids are met at the expense of the dam; this is what causes the ketotic condition. To complicate matters, multiple fetuses produce more waste products, which leads to the doe becoming toxic if she does not flush them from her system. Related Articles Ketosis Message Forum Archive by GoatWorld Message Forum GoatWorld Membership may be required to view this and other archives. Pregnancy Toxemia and Ketosis by Robin L. Walters Report A Broken Link - Suggest This Article To A Friend - Rate This Article Metabolic and Nutritional Diseases by Extension Goat Handbook, United States, 1992 Report A Broken Link - Suggest This Article To A Friend - Rate This Article All About Goats by Extension Goat Handbook, United States, 1992 Report A Broken Link - Rate This Article Goat (Caprine) Terminology by GoatWorld Visitors Report A Broken Link - Suggest This Article To A Friend - Rate This Article Poisonous Plant Reference Guide < NEW ARTICLES News Archives Goat Gossip 169 Clostridial Diseases Copper's Role Goat Gossip 150 Lentiviruses New Scrapie Info Egg Counting Goat Gossip 144 A Tough Kidding New To Goats? (1) New To Goats? (2) Scrapie Update Rabies Kidding Handbook Broken Leg Enteritis Urinary Calculi Skin Diseases Copper Deficiency Cripple Creek Medications CLA in Goats Crops Creep Feeder Mineral Feeder GoatWo Continue reading >>

Pregnancy Toxemia (ketosis)

Pregnancy Toxemia (ketosis)

EP 321 in Does and Ewes Symptoms Does and ewes suffering from pregnancy toxemia (ketosis) appear lethargic, sluggish and often fail to eat. The first symptom noticed in does and ewes is an unwillingness to eat. They become depressed, weak and have poor muscle control and balance later in pregnancy. Many times, when they lie down, they are unable to rise. Early in the disease, does or ewes will show a positive test for ketone bodies in the urine. The breath of does and ewes will have a sweet or foul smell. Ketone bodies are by-products of fat breakdown found in the blood and urine. Test kits are often available for ketone bodies and they are easy to use. Cause Pregnancy toxemia is caused by the sudden extra demand for energy by the fast-growing kids or lambs in the last few weeks of pregnancy. Seventy percent of fetal growth occurs during the last few weeks. The disease is not normally observed in ewes carrying singles. It is usually seen when the ewe is carrying two or more lambs. Does and ewes that are too fat often will experience pregnancy toxemia. At the time when the kids or lambs are growing very rapidly, increasing amounts of space and energy are needed, in addition to the protein and energy needed for maintenance of the doe or ewe. The increase in feedstuffs high in energy must be supplied on a daily basis. Does or ewes consuming large amounts of hay need a greater internal space in the rumen, which causes decreasing space for growth of the kids or lambs in the uterus. In meeting the nutritional needs of the kids or lambs, the doe or ewe will metabolize or break down fat resources from her body to maintain pregnancy. This rapid breakdown of body stores of energy produces ketones (a toxic by-product) and you soon observe the symptoms of the disease. Maintaining d Continue reading >>

Glycaemia As A Sign Of The Viability Of The Foetuses In The Last Days Of Gestation In Dairy Goats With Pregnancy Toxaemia

Glycaemia As A Sign Of The Viability Of The Foetuses In The Last Days Of Gestation In Dairy Goats With Pregnancy Toxaemia

Go to: Pregnancy toxaemia is one of the most common diseases affecting small ruminants in the last month of gestation. Nearly 80% of the foetal growth occurs in the last 6 weeks of gestation. Fat goats and goats carrying twins and triplets are at greater risk. Pregnancy toxaemia is characterized by metabolic acidosis, hypoglycaemia and ketonaemia and a very high mortality rate. In our study five does with pregnancy toxaemia showed a marked hyperglycaemia (12.4 ± 5.4 mmol/L). Although our findings are based on a small population sample (10 goats), we nonetheless postulate that hyperglycaemia could be explained by the death of the foetuses. Caesarian surgery was performed on four of the five does with hyperglycaemia (HG does). In the fifth, kidding was induced. In this group, two does had two dead foetuses, two had three dead foetuses and one does had four foetuses, only one of which was alive. Caesarian surgery was performed on all five does with hypoglycaemia (LG does). Four does of the LG group had three foetuses and one had two foetuses, all alive. The HG doe had lower rectal temperatures, lower sodium and higher urea nitrogen (BUN) in the blood when compared with the LG does. As the condition of affected does may deteriorate quickly, the results of the present study suggest that in the last days of pregnancy goats with pregnancy toxaemia and concurrent hypoglycaemia should be considered for caesarian surgery. Go to: The importance of glucose in the pregnant goat (and ewe) as the major source of energy to the foetus(es) is well known. So pregnant goats are at high risk of developing pregnancy toxaemia due to the rapid foetal growth [1]. The energy requirements of the pregnant goat increase by a factor of 1.5 when she carries one foetus and by a factor of 2 when she c Continue reading >>

Pregnancy Toxemia In Boer Goats

Pregnancy Toxemia In Boer Goats

During kidding season, I am often contacted with questions about pregnancy toxemia. This prompted me to create a blog to address this and many other questions I get regarding goat care and management. Pregnancy toxemia (ketosis) is the condition where the pregnant doe appears lethargic, sluggish, and often goes “off feed”. Unfortunately, the doe can die from this condition if left untreated. What causes pregnancy toxemia? Pregnancy toxemia typically develops in does carrying multiple kids. The kids are drawing on the does resources and depleting her of her energy. As her uterus expands to accommodate the growing fetuses, her rumen has less room to function resulting in pregnancy toxemia. Her condition is further compromised if at the start of breeding season the doe was excessively fat. How can I treat pregnancy toxemia? When most goat producers contact me, the doe is at a critical stage. She is off feed and in some cases unable to stand. The only cure for a doe with pregnancy toxemia is delivery of her kids. If she is close to her due date, you could induce her labor with the use of oxytocin under your veterinarian’s direction. If death is potentially eminent, your veterinarian may need to perform an emergency caesarian. If the doe is not at such a critical stage or not due to kid for a few weeks, it becomes an issue of care and maintenance. When a doe goes off feed, you need to provide her the nutrition and hydration to keep her alive until closer to kidding. You can use an adult nutrition product like Ensure to drench the doe 16-24 ounces daily (2 to 3 cans). Administering propylene glycerol, goat power punch, or goat nutri-drench also aids in providing her with energy. I have also drenched does with warm water and molasses to hydrate the doe. Using Pedialyte f Continue reading >>

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